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J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(3): 400-408, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850043


BACKGROUND: Although use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) during chemotherapy is an established strategy to protect ovarian function in premenopausal breast cancer patients, no long-term safety data are available, raising some concerns in women with hormone receptor-positive disease. There are controversial data on its fertility preservation potential. METHODS: The Prevention of Menopause Induced by Chemotherapy: a Study in Early Breast Cancer Patients-Gruppo Italiano Mammella 6 (PROMISE-GIM6) trial is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III superiority trial conducted at 16 Italian centers from October 2003 to January 2008. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy alone (control arm) or combined with the GnRHa triptorelin (GnRHa arm). The primary planned endpoint was incidence of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian insufficiency. Post hoc endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and post-treatment pregnancies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of 281 randomly assigned patients, 80.4% had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Median follow-up was 12.4 years (interquartile range = 11.3-13.2 years). No differences in 12-year DFS (65.7% [95% CI = 57.0% to 73.1%] in the GnRHa arm vs 69.2% [95% CI = 60.3% to 76.5%] in the control arm; HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.77) or in 12-year OS (81.2% [95% CI = 73.6% to 86.8%] in the GnRHa arm vs 81.3% [95% CI = 73.1% to 87.2%] in the control arm; HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.67 to 2.03) were observed. In patients with hormone receptor-positive disease, the hazard ratio was 1.02 (95% CI = 0.63 to 1.63) for DFS and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.59 to 2.11) for OS. In the GnRHa and control arms, 9 and 4 patients had a posttreatment pregnancy, respectively (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.66 to 6.92). CONCLUSIONS: Final analysis of the PROMISE-GIM6 trial provides reassuring results on the safety of GnRHa use during chemotherapy as a strategy to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer, including those with hormone receptor-positive disease.

Neoplasias da Mama , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049128, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670762


OBJECTIVES: To measure and explain financial toxicity (FT) of cancer in Italy, where a public healthcare system exists and patients with cancer are not expected (or only marginally) to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare. SETTING: Ten clinical oncological centres, distributed across Italian macroregions (North, Centre, South and Islands), including hospitals, university hospitals and national research institutes. PARTICIPANTS: From 8 October 2019 to 11 December 2019, 184 patients, aged 18 or more, who were receiving or had received within the previous 3 months active anticancer treatment were enrolled, 108 (59%) females and 76 (41%) males. INTERVENTION: A 30-item prefinal questionnaire, previously developed within the qualitative tasks of the project, was administered, either electronically (n=115) or by paper sheet (n=69). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: According to the protocol and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology, the final questionnaire was developed by mean of explanatory factor analysis and tested for reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α test and item-total correlation) and stability of measurements over time (test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: After exploratory factor analysis, a score measuring FT (FT score) was identified, made by seven items dealing with outcomes of FT. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FT score was 0.87 and the item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.74. Further, nine single items representing possible determinants of FT were also retained in the final instrument. Test-retest analysis revealed a good internal validity of the FT score and of the 16 items retained in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Patient-Reported Outcome for Fighting FInancial Toxicity (PROFFIT) instrument consists of 16 items and is the first reported instrument to assess FT of cancer developed in a country with a fully public healthcare system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.

Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
Oncologist ; 26(10): e1854-e1861, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101934


BACKGROUND: To reduce the overall exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy, we evaluated the noninferiority of DEX on day 1, with or without low-dose DEX on days 2 and 3, combined with an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA), compared with the guideline-consistent use of 4-day DEX. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter study, chemotherapy-naïve patients undergoing high-dose cisplatin (≥70 mg/m2 ), were given NEPA and DEX (12 mg) on day 1 and randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive either (a) no further DEX (DEX1), (b) oral DEX (4 mg daily) on days 2-3 (DEX3), or (c) DEX (4 mg twice daily) on days 2-4 (DEX4). The primary efficacy endpoint was complete response (CR: no emesis and no rescue medication) during the 5-day overall phase. The noninferiority margin was set at -15% difference (DEX1 or DEX3 minus DEX4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included complete protection (CP: CR and none or mild nausea). RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-eight patients, 76 in each arm, were assessable. Noninferiority was met for both DEX-sparing regimens and the reference arm, with overall phase CR rates of 76.3% in each of the DEX1 and DEX3 arms and 75.0% in the DEX4 arm (95% confidence interval, -12.3% to 15% for each comparison). During the overall phase, CP rates were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: A simplified regimen of NEPA plus single-dose DEX offers comparable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prevention throughout 5 days post-chemotherapy with the advantage of sparing patients additional doses of DEX in the high-emetic-risk setting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Dexamethasone (DEX) has traditionally played an integral role in the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Although generally considered safe, even short-term DEX use is associated with various side effects, and some evidence suggests that concurrent steroids may reduce the efficacy of immunotherapies. This study demonstrates comparable antiemetic control during the 5 days post-chemotherapy with a simplified regimen of netupitant/palonosetron plus single-dose DEX versus the standard 4-day DEX reference treatment in high-dose cisplatin. This represents a clinically relevant achievement as it not only simplifies antiemetic prophylaxis but also offers an opportunity to appropriately use in patients where caution with corticosteroid use is advised.

Antieméticos , Cisplatino , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona , Humanos , Palonossetrom/uso terapêutico , Piridinas , Quinuclidinas , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/prevenção & controle
Lancet Oncol ; 19(4): 474-485, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482983


BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the optimal schedule of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors and, to our knowledge, no trial has directly compared the three aromatase inhibitors anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. We investigated the schedule and type of aromatase inhibitors to be used as adjuvant treatment for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. METHODS: FATA-GIM3 is a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial of six different treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer that had been completely removed by surgery, any pathological tumour size, and axillary nodal status. Key exclusion criteria were hormone replacement therapy, recurrent or metastatic disease, previous treatment with tamoxifen, and another malignancy in the previous 10 years. Patients were randomly assigned in an equal ratio to one of six treatment groups: oral anastrozole (1 mg per day), exemestane (25 mg per day), or letrozole (2·5 mg per day) tablets upfront for 5 years (upfront strategy) or oral tamoxifen (20 mg per day) for 2 years followed by oral administration of one of the three aromatase inhibitors for 3 years (switch strategy). Randomisation was done by a computerised minimisation procedure stratified for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status; previous chemotherapy; and pathological nodal status. Neither the patients nor the physicians were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. The minimum cutoff to declare superiority of the upfront strategy over the switch strategy was assumed to be a 2% difference in disease-free survival at 5 years. Primary efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat; safety analyses included all patients for whom at least one safety case report form had been completed. Follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2006-004018-42, and, number NCT00541086. FINDINGS: Between March 9, 2007, and July 31, 2012, 3697 patients were enrolled into the study. After a median follow-up of 60 months (IQR 46-72), 401 disease-free survival events were reported, including 211 (11%) of 1850 patients allocated to the switch strategy and 190 (10%) of 1847 patients allocated to upfront treatment. 5-year disease-free survival was 88·5% (95% CI 86·7-90·0) with the switch strategy and 89·8% (88·2-91·2) with upfront treatment (hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·73-1·08; p=0·23). 5-year disease-free survival was 90·0% (95% CI 87·9-91·7) with anastrozole (124 events), 88·0% (85·8-89·9) with exemestane (148 events), and 89·4% (87·3 to 91·1) with letrozole (129 events; p=0·24). No unexpected serious adverse reactions or treatment-related deaths occurred. Musculoskeletal side-effects were the most frequent grade 3-4 events, reported in 130 (7%) of 1761 patients who received the switch strategy and 128 (7%) of 1766 patients who received upfront treatment. Grade 1 musculoskeletal events were more frequent with the upfront schedule than with the switch schedule (924 [52%] of 1766 patients vs 745 [42%] of 1761 patients). All other grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in less than 2% of patients in either group. INTERPRETATION: 5 years of treatment with aromatase inhibitors was not superior to 2 years of tamoxifen followed by 3 years of aromatase inhibitors. None of the three aromatase inhibitors was superior to the others in terms of efficacy. Therefore, patient preference, tolerability, and financial constraints should be considered when deciding the optimal treatment approach in this setting. FUNDING: Italian Drug Agency.

Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Idoso , Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem