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2.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 170, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic breast cancer is a deadly disease with a low 5-year survival rate. Tracking metastatic spread in living patients is difficult and thus poorly understood. METHODS: Via rapid autopsy, we have collected 30 tumor samples over 3 timepoints and across 8 organs from a triple-negative metastatic breast cancer patient. The large number of sites sampled, together with deep whole-genome sequencing and advanced computational analysis, allowed us to comprehensively reconstruct the tumor's evolution at subclonal resolution. RESULTS: The most unique, previously unreported aspect of the tumor's evolution that we observed in this patient was the presence of "subclone incubators," defined as metastatic sites where substantial tumor evolution occurs before colonization of additional sites and organs by subclones that initially evolved at the incubator site. Overall, we identified four discrete waves of metastatic expansions, each of which resulted in a number of new, genetically similar metastasis sites that also enriched for particular organs (e.g., abdominal vs bone and brain). The lung played a critical role in facilitating metastatic spread in this patient: the lung was the first site of metastatic escape from the primary breast lesion, subclones at this site were likely the source of all four subsequent metastatic waves, and multiple sites in the lung acted as subclone incubators. Finally, functional annotation revealed that many known drivers or metastasis-promoting tumor mutations in this patient were shared by some, but not all metastatic sites, highlighting the need for more comprehensive surveys of a patient's metastases for effective clinical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed the presence of substantial tumor evolution at metastatic incubator sites in a patient, with potentially important clinical implications. Our study demonstrated that sampling of a large number of metastatic sites affords unprecedented detail for studying metastatic evolution.

3.
Nat Cancer ; 2(6): 658-671, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712959

RESUMO

Combining cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors with endocrine therapy improves outcomes for metastatic estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer patients but its value in earlier stage patients is unclear. We examined evolutionary trajectories of early-stage breast cancer tumors, using single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of serial biopsies from the FELINE clinical trial (#NCT02712723) of endocrine therapy (letrozole) alone or combined with the CDK inhibitor ribociclib. Despite differences in subclonal diversity evolution across patients and treatments, common resistance phenotypes emerged. Resistant tumors treated with combination therapy showed accelerated loss of estrogen signaling with convergent up-regulation of JNK signaling through growth factor receptors. In contrast, cancer cells maintaining estrogen signaling during mono- or combination therapy showed potentiation of CDK4/6 activation and ERK upregulation through ERBB4 signaling. These results indicate that combination therapy in early-stage ER+ breast cancer leads to emergence of resistance through a shift from estrogen to alternative growth signal-mediated proliferation.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S161-S173, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network to support vaccine introduction decisions and use. The network was established to strengthen surveillance and laboratory confirmation of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. METHODS: Sentinel hospitals report cases of children <5 years of age hospitalized for suspected meningitis. Laboratories report confirmatory testing results and strain characterization tested by polymerase chain reaction. In 2019, the network included 123 laboratories that follow validated, standardized testing and reporting strategies. RESULTS: From 2014 through 2019, >137 000 suspected meningitis cases were reported by 58 participating countries, with 44.6% (n = 61 386) reported from countries in the WHO African Region. More than half (56.6%, n = 77 873) were among children <1 year of age, and 4.0% (n = 4010) died among those with reported disease outcome. Among suspected meningitis cases, 8.6% (n = 11 798) were classified as probable bacterial meningitis. One of 3 bacterial pathogens was identified in 30.3% (n = 3576) of these cases, namely S. pneumoniae (n = 2177 [60.9%]), H. influenzae (n = 633 [17.7%]), and N. meningitidis (n = 766 [21.4%]). Among confirmed bacterial meningitis cases with outcome reported, 11.0% died; case fatality ratio varied by pathogen (S. pneumoniae, 12.2%; H. influenzae, 6.1%; N. meningitidis, 11.0%). Among the 277 children who died with confirmed bacterial meningitis, 189 (68.2%) had confirmed S. pneumoniae. The proportion of pneumococcal cases with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes decreased as the number of countries implementing PCV increased, from 77.8% (n = 273) to 47.5% (n = 248). Of 397 H. influenzae specimens serotyped, 49.1% (n = 195) were type b. Predominant N. meningitidis serogroups varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: This multitier, global surveillance network has supported countries in detecting and serotyping the 3 principal invasive bacterial pathogens that cause pediatric meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen detected globally despite the growing number of countries that have nationally introduced PCV. The large proportions of deaths due to S. pneumoniae reflect the high proportion of meningitis cases caused by this pathogen. This global network demonstrated a strong correlation between PCV introduction status and reduction in the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis infections caused by vaccine serotypes. Maintaining case-based, active surveillance with laboratory confirmation for prioritized vaccine-preventable diseases remains a critical component of the global agenda in public health.The World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network reported data from 2014 to 2019, contributing to the estimates of the disease burden and serotypes of pediatric meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S194-S203, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of the global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance Network, 12 African countries referred cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to South Africa's regional reference laboratory. We evaluated the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting and serotyping/grouping Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (HNS). METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, CSF samples collected from children <5 years old with suspected meningitis underwent routine microbiology testing in-country, and 11 680 samples were submitted for HNS PCR at the regional reference laboratory. Unconditional logistic regression, with adjustment for geographic location, was performed to identify factors associated with PCR positivity. RESULTS: The overall HNS PCR positivity rate for all countries was 10% (1195 of 11 626 samples). In samples with both PCR and culture results, HNS PCR positivity was 11% (744 of 6747 samples), and HNS culture positivity was 3% (207 of 6747). Molecular serotype/serogroup was assigned in 75% of PCR-positive specimens (762 of 1016). Compared with PCR-negative CSF samples, PCR-positive samples were more often turbid (adjusted odds ratio, 6.80; 95% confidence interval, 5.67-8.17) and xanthochromic (1.72; 1.29-2.28), had elevated white blood cell counts (6.13; 4.71-7.99) and high protein concentrations (5.80; 4.34-7.75), and were more often HNS culture positive (32.70; 23.18-46.12). CONCLUSION: PCR increased detection of vaccine-preventable bacterial meningitis in countries where confirmation of suspected meningitis cases is impeded by limited culture capacity.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S299-S306, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469559

RESUMO

Large populations across sub-Saharan Africa remain at risk of devastating acute bacterial meningitis epidemics and endemic disease. Meningitis surveillance is a cornerstone of disease control, essential for describing temporal changes in disease epidemiology, the rapid detection of outbreaks, guiding vaccine introduction and monitoring vaccine impact. However, meningitis surveillance in most African countries is weak, undermined by parallel surveillance systems with little to no synergy and limited laboratory capacity. African countries need to implement comprehensive meningitis surveillance systems to adapt to the rapidly changing disease trends and vaccine landscapes. The World Health Organization and partners have developed a new investment case to restructure vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. With this new structure, countries will establish comprehensive and sustainable meningitis surveillance systems integrated with greater harmonization between population-based and sentinel surveillance systems. There will also be stronger linkage with existing surveillance systems for vaccine-preventable diseases, such as polio, measles, yellow fever, and rotavirus, as well as with other epidemic-prone diseases to leverage their infrastructure, transport systems, equipment, human resources and funding. The implementation of these concepts is currently being piloted in a few countries in sub-Saharan Africa with support from the World Health Organization and other partners. African countries need to take urgent action to improve synergies and coordination between different surveillance systems to set joint priorities that will inform action to control devastating acute bacterial meningitis effectively.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S174-S183, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally experienced large outbreaks of meningitis mainly caused by Neisseria meningitidis. More recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been recognized as a cause of meningitis outbreaks in the region. Little is known about the natural history and epidemiology of these outbreaks, and, in contrast to meningococcal meningitis, there is no agreed definition for a pneumococcal meningitis epidemic. The aim of this analysis was to systematically review and understand pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks in Africa between 2000 and 2018. METHODS: Meningitis outbreaks were identified using a systematic literature review and analyses of meningitis surveillance databases. Potential outbreaks were included in the final analysis if they reported at least 10 laboratory-confirmed meningitis cases above baseline per week with ≥50% of cases confirmed as pneumococcus. RESULTS: A total of 10 potential pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks were identified in Africa between 2000 and 2018. Of these, 2 were classified as confirmed, 7 were classified as possible, and 1 was classified as unlikely. Three outbreaks spanned more than 1 year. In general, the outbreaks demonstrated lower peak attack rates than meningococcal meningitis outbreaks and had a predominance of serotype 1. Patients with pneumococcal meningitis tended to be older and had higher case fatality rates than meningococcal meningitis cases. An outbreak definition, which includes a weekly district-level incidence of at least 10 suspected cases per 100 000 population per week, with >10 cumulative confirmed cases of pneumococcus per year, would have identified all 10 potential outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Given the frequency of and high case fatality from pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks, public health recommendations on vaccination strategies and the management of outbreaks are needed. Improved laboratory testing for S. pneumoniae is critical for early outbreak identification.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S184-S193, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To inform the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Network (GISN) and the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (GRSN) in 2008. We investigated whether participation in these networks or other surveillance was associated with vaccine introduction. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, among all WHO member states, we used multivariable models adjusting for economic status to assess (1) the association between surveillance for pneumococcal disease or rotavirus disease, including participation in GISN or GRSN and the introduction of the PCV or the rotavirus vaccine, respectively, and (2) the association between the rotavirus disease burden and the rotavirus vaccine introduction among 56 countries participating in GRSN from 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: Countries that participated in or conducted surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease or rotavirus disease were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1) and 4.2 (95% CI, 2.1-8.6) times more likely to introduce PCV or rotavirus respectively, compared to those without surveillance. Among countries participating in GRSN, there was insufficient evidence to demonstrate an association between countries with higher rotavirus positivity and vaccine introduction. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance should be incorporated into advocacy strategies to encourage the introduction of vaccines, with countries benefiting from data from, support for, and coordination of international disease surveillance networks.

9.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is an incurable disease with a poor prognosis. For caregivers of people with glioblastoma, the burden of care can be high. Patients often present with different clinical characteristics, which may impact caregiver burden in different ways. This study aimed to evaluate associations between patient clinical characteristics and caregiver burden/quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Caregiver-patient dyads were enrolled at 7 academic cancer centers in the United States. Eligible caregiver participants were self-reported as the primary caregiver of an adult living with glioblastoma and completed a caregiver burden survey. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years at glioblastoma diagnosis and alive when their respective caregiver entered the study, with the presence of cognitive dysfunction confirmed by the caregiver. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The final cohort included 167 dyads. Poor patient performance status resulted in patient difficulty with mental tasks, more caregiving tasks, and increased caregiving time. Language problems were reported in patients with left-sided lesions. Patient confusion was negatively associated with all caregiver domains: emotional health, social health, general health, ability to work, confidence in finances, and overall QoL. Better caregiver QoL was observed in patients with frontal lobe lesions versus non-frontal lobe lesions. CONCLUSION: This study reinforced that patient performance status is a critical clinical factor that significantly affects caregiver burden, caregiving tasks, and caregiver time. Additionally, patient confusion affects multiple facets of caregiver burden/QoL. These results could be used to support guided intervention for caregiver support, customized to the patient experience.

10.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5982-5990, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419305

RESUMO

Assessing the cost of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) surveillance is becoming more important in the context of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) funding transition, since GPEI support to polio surveillance helped the incremental building of VPD surveillance systems in many countries, including low income countries such as Nepal. However, there is limited knowledge on the cost of conducting VPD surveillance, especially the national cost for surveillance of multiple vaccine-preventable diseases. The current study sought to calculate the economic and financial costs of Nepal's comprehensive VPD surveillance systems from July 2016 to July 2017. At thecentral level, all surveillance units were included in the sample. At sub-national level, a purposive sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample from locations involved in conducting surveillance. The sub-national sample costs were extrapolated to the nationwide VPD surveillance system. Nepal's total annual economic cost of VPD surveillance was USD 4.81 million or USD 0.18 per capita, while the total financial cost was USD 4.38 million or USD 0.16 per capita. Government expenditures accounted for 56% of the total economic cost, and World Health Organization accounting for 44%. The biggest cost driver was personnel accounting for 51% of the total economic cost. WHO supported trained surveillance personnel through donor funding, mainly from Global Polio Eradication Initiative. As a polio transition priority country, Nepal will need to make strategic choices to fully self-finance or seek full donor support or a mixed-financing model as polio program funding diminishes.


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is an important cause of mortality in young children, especially in children living with HIV infection. Disparities in SARI death in children aged <5 years exist in urban and rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To compare the factors associated with in-hospital death among children aged <5 years hospitalized with SARI in an urban vs. a rural setting in South Africa from 2009-2013. METHODS: Data were collected from hospitalized children with SARI in one urban and two rural sentinel surveillance hospitals. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA using polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: From 2009 through 2013, 5,297 children aged <5 years with SARI-associated hospital admission were enrolled; 3,811 (72%) in the urban and 1,486 (28%) in the rural hospitals. In-hospital case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in the rural hospitals (6.9%) than the urban hospital (1.3%, p<0.001), and among HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected children (9.6% vs. 1.6%, p<0.001). In the urban hospital, HIV infection (odds ratio (OR):11.4, 95% confidence interval (CI):5.4-24.1) and presence of any other underlying illness (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.0-9.2) were the only factors independently associated with death. In the rural hospitals, HIV infection (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3-7.1) and age <1 year (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.9-7.2) were independently associated with death, whereas duration of hospitalization ≥5 days (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) and any respiratory virus detection (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) were negatively associated with death. CONCLUSION: We found that the case-fatality proportion was substantially higher among children admitted to rural hospitals and HIV infected children with SARI in South Africa. While efforts to prevent and treat HIV infections in children may reduce SARI deaths, further efforts to address health care inequality in rural populations are needed.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3039, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031395

RESUMO

The evolution of resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells following chemotherapy is only partially understood. To understand the selection of factors driving heterogeneity before and through adaptation to treatment, we profile single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) transcriptomes of HGSOC tumors collected longitudinally during therapy. We analyze scRNA-seq data from two independent patient cohorts to reveal that HGSOC is driven by three archetypal phenotypes, defined as oncogenic states that describe the majority of the transcriptome variation. Using a multi-task learning approach to identify the biological tasks of each archetype, we identify metabolism and proliferation, cellular defense response, and DNA repair signaling as consistent cell states found across patients. Our analysis demonstrates a shift in favor of the metabolism and proliferation archetype versus cellular defense response archetype in cancer cells that received multiple lines of treatment. While archetypes are not consistently associated with specific whole-genome driver mutations, they are closely associated with subclonal populations at the single-cell level, indicating that subclones within a tumor often specialize in unique biological tasks. Our study reveals the core archetypes found in progressive HGSOC and shows consistent enrichment of subclones with the metabolism and proliferation archetype as resistance is acquired to multiple lines of therapy.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
13.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916227

RESUMO

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction has reduced pneumococcal meningitis incidence. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project described the serotype distribution of remaining pneumococcal meningitis in countries using PCV10/13 for least 5-7 years with primary series uptake above 70%. The distribution was estimated using a multinomial Dirichlet regression model, stratified by PCV product and age. In PCV10-using sites (N = 8; cases = 1141), PCV10 types caused 5% of cases <5 years of age and 15% among ≥5 years; the top serotypes were 19A, 6C, and 3, together causing 42% of cases <5 years and 37% ≥5 years. In PCV13-using sites (N = 32; cases = 4503), PCV13 types caused 14% in <5 and 26% in ≥5 years; 4% and 13%, respectively, were serotype 3. Among the top serotypes are five (15BC, 8, 12F, 10A, and 22F) included in higher-valency PCVs under evaluation. Other top serotypes (24F, 23B, and 23A) are not in any known investigational product. In countries with mature vaccination programs, the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis caused by vaccine-in-use serotypes is lower (≤26% across all ages) than pre-PCV (≥70% in children). Higher-valency PCVs under evaluation target over half of remaining pneumococcal meningitis cases, but questions remain regarding generalizability to the African meningitis belt where additional data are needed.

14.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918127

RESUMO

Serotype-specific surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is essential for assessing the impact of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13). The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project aimed to evaluate the global evidence to estimate the impact of PCV10/13 by age, product, schedule, and syndrome. Here we systematically characterize and summarize the global landscape of routine serotype-specific IPD surveillance in PCV10/13-using countries and describe the subset that are included in PSERENADE. Of 138 countries using PCV10/13 as of 2018, we identified 109 with IPD surveillance systems, 76 of which met PSERENADE data collection eligibility criteria. PSERENADE received data from most (n = 63, 82.9%), yielding 240,639 post-PCV10/13 introduction IPD cases. Pediatric and adult surveillance was represented from all geographic regions but was limited from lower income and high-burden countries. In PSERENADE, 18 sites evaluated PCV10, 42 PCV13, and 17 both; 17 sites used a 3 + 0 schedule, 38 used 2 + 1, 13 used 3 + 1, and 9 used mixed schedules. With such a sizeable and generally representative dataset, PSERENADE will be able to conduct robust analyses to estimate PCV impact and inform policy at national and global levels regarding adult immunization, schedule, and product choice, including for higher valency PCVs on the horizon.

15.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801760

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.

16.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(7): 797-804, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for disproportionately poor outcomes in breast cancer, driven by a subset of rapid-relapse TNBC (rrTNBC) with marked chemoresistance, rapid metastatic spread, and poor survival. Our objective was to evaluate clinicopathologic and sociodemographic features associated with rrTNBC. METHODS: We included patients diagnosed with stage I-III TNBC in 1996 through 2012 who received chemotherapy at 1 of 10 academic cancer centers. rrTNBC was defined as a distant metastatic recurrence event or death ≤24 months after diagnosis. Features associated with rrTNBC were included in a multivariable logistic model upon which backward elimination was performed with a P<.10 criterion, with a final multivariable model applied to training (70%) and independent validation (30%) cohorts. RESULTS: Among all patients with breast cancer treated at these centers, 3,016 fit the inclusion criteria. Training cohort (n=2,112) bivariable analyses identified disease stage, insurance type, age, body mass index, race, and income as being associated with rrTNBC (P<.10). In the final multivariable model, rrTNBC was significantly associated with higher disease stage (adjusted odds ratio for stage III vs I, 16.0; 95% CI, 9.8-26.2; P<.0001), Medicaid/indigent insurance, lower income (by 2000 US Census tract), and younger age at diagnosis. Model performance was consistent between the training and validation cohorts. In sensitivity analyses, insurance type, low income, and young age were associated with rrTNBC among patients with stage I/II but not stage III disease. When comparing rrTNBC versus late relapse (>24 months), we found that insurance type and young age remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Timing of relapse in TNBC is associated with stage of disease and distinct sociodemographic features, including insurance type, income, and age at diagnosis.

18.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7007-7014, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza economic burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource-limited settings. However, this information is limited in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We estimated the cost (from a health system and societal perspective) and years of life lost (YLL) for influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 among (i) children aged 6-59 months, (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and selected underlying medical conditions (UMC), separately, (iii) pregnant women and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years, using publicly available data and data collected through laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance and costing studies. All costs were expressed in 2015 prices using the South Africa all-items Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, the mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness among the selected risk groups accounted for 52.1% ($140.9/$270.5 million) of the total influenza-associated illness cost (for the entire population of South Africa), 45.2% ($52.2/$115.5 million) of non-medically attended illness costs, 43.3% ($46.7/$107.9 million) of medically-attended mild illness costs and 89.3% ($42.0/$47.1 million) of medically-attended severe illness costs. The YLL among the selected risk groups accounted for 86.0% (262,069 /304,867 years) of the total YLL due to influenza-associated death. CONCLUSION: In South Africa, individuals in risk groups for severe influenza accounted for approximately half of the total influenza-associated illness cost but most of the cost of influenza-associated medically attended severe illness and YLL. This study provides the foundation for future studies on the cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization among risk groups.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Influenza Humana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 198, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay is widely used to predict distant recurrence risk and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy among women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, the relationship between the RS and isolated locoregional recurrence (iLRR) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the association between the RS and risk of iLRR for women with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer. METHODS: We identified 1758 women captured in the national prospective Breast Cancer-Collaborative Outcomes Research Database who were diagnosed with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer from 2006 to 2012, treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, and received RS testing. Women who received neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. The association between the RS and risk of iLRR was examined using competing risks regression. RESULTS: Overall, 19% of the cohort (n = 329) had a RS ≥25. At median follow-up of 29 months, only 22 iLRR events were observed. Having a RS ≥25 was not associated with a significantly higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.39-3.36, P = 0.81). When limited to women who received adjuvant endocrine therapy without chemotherapy (n = 1199; 68% of the cohort), having a RS ≥25 (n = 74) was significantly associated with a higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 3.66, 95% confidence interval 1.07-12.5, P = 0.04). In this group, increasing RS was associated with greater risk of iLRR (compared to RS < 18, hazard ratio of 1.66, 3.59, and 7.06, respectively, for RS 18-24, 25-30, and ≥ 31; Ptrend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The RS was significantly associated with risk of iLRR in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The utility of the RS in identifying patients who have a low risk of iLRR should be further studied.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Neurooncol ; 148(3): 577-585, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are no effective treatments for gliomas after progression on radiation, temozolomide, and bevacizumab. Microglia activation may be involved in radiation resistance and can be inhibited by the brain penetrating antibiotic minocycline. In this phase 1 trial, we examined the safety and effect on survival, symptom burden, and neurocognitive function of reirradiation, minocycline, and bevacizumab. METHODS: The trial used a 3 + 3 design for dose escalation followed by a ten person dose expansion. Patients received reirradiation with dosing based on radiation oncologist judgment, bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks, and oral minocycline twice a day. Symptom burden was measured using MDASI-BT. Neurocognitive function was measured using the COGSTATE battery. RESULTS: The maximum tolerated dose of minocycline was 400 mg twice a day with no unexpected toxicities. The PFS3 was 64.6%, and median overall survival was 6.4 months. Symptom burden and neurocognitive function did not decline in the interval between treatment completion and tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: Minocycline 400 mg orally twice a day with bevacizumab and reirradiation is well tolerated by physician and patient reported outcomes in people with gliomas that progress on bevacizumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Glioma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Retratamento , Taxa de Sobrevida
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