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1.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221129921, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451777

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to use the Altmetric Attention Score to determine the 50 most impactful medial ulnar collateral ligament articles in online media and compare their characteristics to the most-cited medial ulnar collateral ligament articles in the scientific literature. The Altmetric database was queried to identify all published articles about the medial ulnar collateral ligament, and this list was stratified by the Altmetric Attention Score to identify the 50 highest scoring articles. Several data elements were extracted, including article topic, article type, journal name, and the number of online mentions on Facebook, Twitter, news, and other platforms. Each article's geographic origin was determined based on the institutional affiliation of the first author. Our index search yielded 1283 articles published between 1987 and 2020, from which the 50 articles with the highest Altmetric Attention Scores were included for analysis. Altmetric Attention Scores of the top 50 medial ulnar collateral ligament articles ranged from 20 to 482 (median: 32, interquartile range: 20-62). The most common article type was original research (72%), and the most common topic was epidemiology/risk factors (26%). A majority of studies were Level 3 (36%) or Level 4 evidence (36%). Of the top 50 medial ulnar collateral ligament articles, 94% originated from the United States. A few articles had a high Altmetric Attention Score, suggesting that medial ulnar collateral ligament research does not generate consistently high online attention. The lack of Level 1 studies suggests the need for high-level studies on the medial ulnar collateral ligament. Most studies originated in the United States and were published in the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine-affiliated journals. The medial ulnar collateral ligament articles included in this study differed substantially from a previous report of the most-cited medial ulnar collateral ligament articles in the literature, suggesting that alternative metrics add a unique dimension to understanding the overall impact of published research on the medial ulnar collateral ligament.

2.
Nat Geosci ; 15(10): 805-811, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254302

RESUMO

Despite more than half a century of hominin fossil discoveries in eastern Africa, the regional environmental context of hominin evolution and dispersal is not well established due to the lack of continuous palaeoenvironmental records from one of the proven habitats of early human populations, particularly for the Pleistocene epoch. Here we present a 620,000-year environmental record from Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia, which is proximal to key fossil sites. Our record documents the potential influence of different episodes of climatic variability on hominin biological and cultural transformation. The appearance of high anatomical diversity in hominin groups coincides with long-lasting and relatively stable humid conditions from ~620,000 to 275,000 years bp (episodes 1-6), interrupted by several abrupt and extreme hydroclimate perturbations. A pattern of pronounced climatic cyclicity transformed habitats during episodes 7-9 (~275,000-60,000 years bp), a crucial phase encompassing the gradual transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technologies, the emergence of Homo sapiens in eastern Africa and key human social and cultural innovations. Those accumulative innovations plus the alignment of humid pulses between northeastern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean during high-frequency climate oscillations of episodes 10-12 (~60,000-10,000 years bp) could have facilitated the global dispersal of H. sapiens.

3.
J Exp Orthop ; 9(1): 92, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to use the Altmetric Attention Score (AAS) to evaluate the 100 most impactful articles in online media pertaining to the rotator cuff and compare their characteristics to the most-cited rotator cuff articles in the scientific literature. METHODS: We performed an article extraction using Altmetric Explorer to identify all published articles pertaining to the rotator cuff. The top 100 articles with the highest AAS were included for analysis. Several data elements were extracted for each included article: title, article type, article topic, year of publication, journal name, authors, institutional affiliations, and online mentions (i.e. the number of times the article was mentioned in news, blog, Twitter, Facebook, and Wikipedia sources). The geographic origin of each article was also determined by the institutional affiliation of the first author, which was categorized as American (originating in the United States), European (originating in Europe), or other. RESULTS: The 100 articles with the highest AAS were published between 2009 and 2020, with AAS ranging from 47 to 676 (median: 74.5, 25th percentile: 59.5, 75th percentile: 114.5). Of all online media sources, Twitter correlated most strongly with AAS (r = 0.9007, r2 = 0.8112). The selected articles were most frequently published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine (13), the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (11), and the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (7). The most common article type was Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis (29%), followed by Randomized Controlled Trial (15%). The top 3 AAS articles were all published by authors based in Europe. CONCLUSION: The most impactful rotator cuff articles in online media generated substantial online attention. These studies were often performed in Europe and tended to be high level of evidence, focusing on treatment of rotator cuff pathology. The rotator cuff articles that produced the most online attention differed from a previous report of the most-cited rotator cuff articles, suggesting that alternative metrics may be used in concert with conventional bibliometrics to obtain a more complete representation of scientific impact.

4.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221111694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924141

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify the top 100 most impactful anterior cruciate ligament articles in online media as measured by the Altmetric Attention Score and compare their characteristics to the most-cited anterior cruciate ligament articles in the scientific literature. Methods: The Altmetric database was queried to identify all published articles pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament. The search yielded 9445 articles, which were stratified by highest to lowest Altmetric Attention Score. The top 100 articles were included. Collected data included article type, article topic, journal name, and online mentions in news, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Wikipedia, and other sources. The geographic origin of each article was also determined based on the institutional affiliation of the first author. Results: Altmetric Attention Score of the top 100 anterior cruciate ligament articles ranged from 109 to 2193 (median 172.0, interquartile range 137.5-271.5). Of the 100 articles, 65 were published in three journals: American Journal of Sports Medicine, British Journal of Sports Medicine, and Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. The most prevalent article type was original research (60%), followed by systematic review/meta-analysis (18%). The most prevalent article topic was rehabilitation and return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (22%), followed by epidemiology/risk factors (16%), injury prevention (14%), and biomechanics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries (14%). Of the top 100 articles, 54% were American, 31% were European, and 15% were published in other countries outside of the United States and Europe. Conclusion: This study used Altmetric Attention Score to identify the 100 most engaged anterior cruciate ligament articles in online media. The characteristics of these articles differed substantially from the most-cited anterior cruciate ligament articles in the literature with regard to article type, article topic, geographic origin, and publication journal. These findings suggest that alternative metrics measure distinct components of anterior cruciate ligament article engagement and add an important dimension to understanding the overall impact of published research on the anterior cruciate ligament.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2107393119, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412903

RESUMO

Understanding the climatic drivers of environmental variability (EV) during the Plio-Pleistocene and EV's influence on mammalian macroevolution are two outstanding foci of research in African paleoclimatology and evolutionary biology. The potential effects of EV are especially relevant for testing the variability selection hypothesis, which predicts a positive relationship between EV and speciation and extinction rates in fossil mammals. Addressing these questions is stymied, however, by 1) a lack of multiple comparable EV records of sufficient temporal resolution and duration, and 2) the incompleteness of the mammalian fossil record. Here, we first compile a composite history of Pan-African EV spanning the Plio-Pleistocene, which allows us to explore which climatic variables influenced EV. We find that EV exhibits 1) a long-term trend of increasing variability since ∼3.7 Ma, coincident with rising variability in global ice volume and sea surface temperatures around Africa, and 2) a 400-ky frequency correlated with seasonal insolation variability. We then estimate speciation and extinction rates for fossil mammals from eastern Africa using a method that accounts for sampling variation. We find no statistically significant relationship between EV and estimated speciation or extinction rates across multiple spatial scales. These findings are inconsistent with the variability selection hypothesis as applied to macroevolutionary processes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Clima , Extinção Biológica , Especiação Genética , Hominidae , África , Animais , Fósseis , Hominidae/genética
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3170, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210479

RESUMO

Understanding eastern African paleoclimate is critical for contextualizing early human evolution, adaptation, and dispersal, yet Pleistocene climate of this region and its governing mechanisms remain poorly understood due to the lack of long, orbitally-resolved, terrestrial paleoclimate records. Here we present leaf wax hydrogen isotope records of rainfall from paleolake sediment cores from key time windows that resolve long-term trends, variations, and high-latitude effects on tropical African precipitation. Eastern African rainfall was dominantly controlled by variations in low-latitude summer insolation during most of the early and middle Pleistocene, with little evidence that glacial-interglacial cycles impacted rainfall until the late Pleistocene. We observe the influence of high-latitude-driven climate processes emerging from the last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5) to the present, an interval when glacial-interglacial cycles were strong and insolation forcing was weak. Our results demonstrate a variable response of eastern African rainfall to low-latitude insolation forcing and high-latitude-driven climate change, likely related to the relative strengths of these forcings through time and a threshold in monsoon sensitivity. We observe little difference in mean rainfall between the early, middle, and late Pleistocene, which suggests that orbitally-driven climate variations likely played a more significant role than gradual change in the relationship between early humans and their environment.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074756

RESUMO

In this study, we synthesize terrestrial and marine proxy records, spanning the past 620 ky, to decipher pan-African climate variability and its drivers and potential linkages to hominin evolution. We find a tight correlation between moisture availability across Africa to El Niño Southern Ocean oscillation (ENSO) variability, a manifestation of the Walker Circulation, that was most likely driven by changes in Earth's eccentricity. Our results demonstrate that low-latitude insolation was a prominent driver of pan-African climate change during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. We argue that these low-latitude climate processes governed the dispersion and evolution of vegetation as well as mammals in eastern and western Africa by increasing resource-rich and stable ecotonal settings thought to have been important to early modern humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática/história , El Niño Oscilação Sul/história , África , História Antiga , Humanos
8.
Sci Adv ; 7(19)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952528

RESUMO

Modern Homo sapiens engage in substantial ecosystem modification, but it is difficult to detect the origins or early consequences of these behaviors. Archaeological, geochronological, geomorphological, and paleoenvironmental data from northern Malawi document a changing relationship between forager presence, ecosystem organization, and alluvial fan formation in the Late Pleistocene. Dense concentrations of Middle Stone Age artifacts and alluvial fan systems formed after ca. 92 thousand years ago, within a paleoecological context with no analog in the preceding half-million-year record. Archaeological data and principal coordinates analysis indicate that early anthropogenic fire relaxed seasonal constraints on ignitions, influencing vegetation composition and erosion. This operated in tandem with climate-driven changes in precipitation to culminate in an ecological transition to an early, pre-agricultural anthropogenic landscape.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(43)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087353

RESUMO

Although climate change is considered to have been a large-scale driver of African human evolution, landscape-scale shifts in ecological resources that may have shaped novel hominin adaptations are rarely investigated. We use well-dated, high-resolution, drill-core datasets to understand ecological dynamics associated with a major adaptive transition in the archeological record ~24 km from the coring site. Outcrops preserve evidence of the replacement of Acheulean by Middle Stone Age (MSA) technological, cognitive, and social innovations between 500 and 300 thousand years (ka) ago, contemporaneous with large-scale taxonomic and adaptive turnover in mammal herbivores. Beginning ~400 ka ago, tectonic, hydrological, and ecological changes combined to disrupt a relatively stable resource base, prompting fluctuations of increasing magnitude in freshwater availability, grassland communities, and woody plant cover. Interaction of these factors offers a resource-oriented hypothesis for the evolutionary success of MSA adaptations, which likely contributed to the ecological flexibility typical of Homo sapiens foragers.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2255-2264, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964850

RESUMO

A climate/vegetation model simulates episodic wetter and drier periods at the 21,000-y precession period in eastern North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Levant over the past 140,000 y. Large orbitally forced wet/dry extremes occur during interglacial time, ∼130 to 80 ka, and conditions between these two extremes prevail during glacial time, ∼70 to 15 ka. Orbital precession causes high seasonality in Northern Hemisphere (NH) insolation at ∼125, 105, and 83 ka, with stronger and northward extended summer monsoon rains in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and increased winter rains in the Mediterranean Basin. The combined effects of these two seasonally distinct rainfall regimes increase vegetation and narrow the width of the Saharan-Arabian desert and semidesert zones. During the opposite phase of the precession cycle (∼115, 95, and 73 ka), NH seasonality is low, and decreased summer insolation and increased winter insolation cause monsoon and storm track rains to decrease and the width of the desert zone to increase. During glacial time (∼70 to 15 ka), forcing from large ice sheets and lowered greenhouse gas concentrations combine to increase winter Mediterranean storm track precipitation; the southward retreat of the northern limit of summer monsoon rains is relatively small, thereby limiting the expansion of deserts. The lowered greenhouse gas concentrations cause the near-equatorial zone to cool and reduce convection, causing drier climate with reduced forest cover. At most locations and times, the simulations agree with environmental observations. These changing regional patterns of climate/vegetation could have influenced the dispersal of early humans through expansions and contractions of well-watered corridors.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Camada de Gelo , África , Animais , Clima , Simulação por Computador , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Hominidae , Humanos , Paleontologia , Plantas , Chuva , Estações do Ano
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(7): 2939-2951, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700905

RESUMO

African ecosystems are at great risk. Despite their ecological and economic importance, long-standing ideas about African forest ecology and biogeography, such as the timing of changes in forest extent and the importance of disturbance, have been unable to be tested due to a lack of sufficiently long records. Here, we present the longest continuous terrestrial record of late Quaternary vegetation from southern Africa collected to date from a drill core from Lake Malawi covering the last ~600,000 years. Pollen analysis permits us to investigate changes in vegetation structure and composition over multiple climatic transitions. We observe nine phases of forest expansion and collapse related to regional hydroclimate change. The development of desert, steppe and grassland vegetation during arid periods is likely dynamically linked to thresholds in regional hydrology associated with lake level and moisture recycling. Species composition of these dryland ecosystems varied greatly and is unlike the vegetation found at Malawi today, with assemblages suggesting strong Somali-Masai affinities. Furthermore, nearly all semiarid assemblages contain low forest taxa abundances, suggesting that moist lowland gallery forests formed refugia along waterways during arid times. When the region was wet, forests were species-rich and very high afromontane tree abundances suggest frequent widespread lowland colonization by modern high elevation trees. Furthermore, species composition varied little amongst forest phases until ~80 ka when disturbance tolerant tree taxa characteristic of the modern vegetation increased in abundance. The waxing and waning of forests has important implications for understanding the processes that control modern tropical vegetation biogeography as well as the environments of early humans across Africa. Finally, this work highlights the resilience of montane forests during previous warm intervals, which is relevant for future climate change; however, we point to a fundamental shift in disturbance regimes which are crucial for the structure and composition of modern East African landscapes.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , África , Evolução Biológica , Humanos
12.
J Hum Evol ; 116: 75-94, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477183

RESUMO

The temporal proximity of the ∼74 ka Toba supereruption to a putative 100-50 ka human population bottleneck is the basis for the volcanic winter/weak Garden of Eden hypothesis, which states that the eruption caused a 6-year-long global volcanic winter and reduced the effective population of anatomically modern humans (AMH) to fewer than 10,000 individuals. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two cores collected from Lake Malawi with cryptotephra previously fingerprinted to the Toba supereruption. Phytolith and charcoal samples were continuously collected at ∼3-4 mm (∼8-9 yr) intervals above and below the Toba cryptotephra position, with no stratigraphic breaks. For samples synchronous or proximal to the Toba interval, we found no change in low elevation tree cover, or in cool climate C3 and warm season C4 xerophytic and mesophytic grass abundance that is outside of normal variability. A spike in locally derived charcoal and xerophytic C4 grasses immediately after the Toba eruption indicates reduced precipitation and die-off of at least some afromontane vegetation, but does not signal volcanic winter conditions. A review of Toba tuff petrological and melt inclusion studies suggest a Tambora-like 50 to 100 Mt SO2 atmospheric injection. However, most Toba climate models use SO2 values that are one to two orders of magnitude higher, thereby significantly overestimating the amount of cooling. A review of recent genetic studies finds no support for a genetic bottleneck at or near ∼74 ka. Based on these previous studies and our new paleoenvironmental data, we find no support for the Toba catastrophe hypothesis and conclude that the Toba supereruption did not 1) produce a 6-year-long volcanic winter in eastern Africa, 2) cause a genetic bottleneck among African AMH populations, or 3) bring humanity to the brink of extinction.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Erupções Vulcânicas/análise , Arqueologia , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Lagos , Malaui
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(42): 11895-11900, 2016 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698127

RESUMO

Long paleoecological records are critical for understanding evolutionary responses to environmental forcing and unparalleled tools for elucidating the mechanisms that lead to the development of regions of high biodiversity. We use a 1.2-My record from Lake Malawi, a textbook example of biological diversification, to document how climate and tectonics have driven ecosystem and evolutionary dynamics. Before ∼800 ka, Lake Malawi was much shallower than today, with higher frequency but much lower amplitude water-level and oxygenation changes. Since ∼800 ka, the lake has experienced much larger environmental fluctuations, best explained by a punctuated, tectonically driven rise in its outlet location and level. Following the reorganization of the basin, a change in the pacing of hydroclimate variability associated with the Mid-Pleistocene Transition resulted in hydrologic change dominated by precession rather than the high-latitude teleconnections recorded elsewhere. During this time, extended, deep lake phases have abruptly alternated with times of extreme aridity and ecosystem variability. Repeated crossings of hydroclimatic thresholds within the lake system were critical for establishing the rhythm of diversification, hybridization, and extinction that dominate the modern system. The chronology of these changes closely matches both the timing and pattern of phylogenetic history inferred independently for the lake's extraordinary array of cichlid fish species, suggesting a direct link between environmental and evolutionary dynamics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Ciclídeos , Meio Ambiente , Lagos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Geografia , Malaui , Paleontologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(34): 9563-8, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503877

RESUMO

Warming climates are rapidly transforming lake ecosystems worldwide, but the breadth of changes in tropical lakes is poorly documented. Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries and biodiversity requires accounting for historical and ongoing stressors such as climate change and harvest intensity. This is problematic in tropical Africa, where records of ecosystem change are limited and local populations rely heavily on lakes for nutrition. Here, using a ∼1,500-y paleoecological record, we show that declines in fishery species and endemic molluscs began well before commercial fishing in Lake Tanganyika, Africa's deepest and oldest lake. Paleoclimate and instrumental records demonstrate sustained warming in this lake during the last ∼150 y, which affects biota by strengthening and shallowing stratification of the water column. Reductions in lake mixing have depressed algal production and shrunk the oxygenated benthic habitat by 38% in our study areas, yielding fish and mollusc declines. Late-20th century fish fossil abundances at two of three sites were lower than at any other time in the last millennium and fell in concert with reduced diatom abundance and warming water. A negative correlation between lake temperature and fish and mollusc fossils over the last ∼500 y indicates that climate warming and intensifying stratification have almost certainly reduced potential fishery production, helping to explain ongoing declines in fish catches. Long-term declines of both benthic and pelagic species underscore the urgency of strategic efforts to sustain Lake Tanganyika's extraordinary biodiversity and ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Moluscos/fisiologia , Animais , Biota/fisiologia , Fósseis , Lagos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Tanzânia , Temperatura
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(51): 15568-73, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26644580

RESUMO

The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Clima , África Oriental , Animais , Ciclídeos , Mudança Climática/história , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Lagos , Paleontologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e112855, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406090

RESUMO

Tropical climate is rapidly changing, but the effects of these changes on the geosphere are unknown, despite a likelihood of climatically-induced changes on weathering and erosion. The lack of long, continuous paleo-records prevents an examination of terrestrial responses to climate change with sufficient detail to answer questions about how systems behaved in the past and may alter in the future. We use high-resolution records of pollen, clay mineralogy, and particle size from a drill core from Lake Malawi, southeast Africa, to examine atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere interactions during the last deglaciation (∼ 18-9 ka), a period of dramatic temperature and hydrologic changes. The results demonstrate that climatic controls on Lake Malawi vegetation are critically important to weathering processes and erosion patterns during the deglaciation. At 18 ka, afromontane forests dominated but were progressively replaced by tropical seasonal forest, as summer rainfall increased. Despite indication of decreased rainfall, drought-intolerant forest persisted through the Younger Dryas (YD) resulting from a shorter dry season. Following the YD, an intensified summer monsoon and increased rainfall seasonality were coeval with forest decline and expansion of drought-tolerant miombo woodland. Clay minerals closely track the vegetation record, with high ratios of kaolinite to smectite (K/S) indicating heavy leaching when forest predominates, despite variable rainfall. In the early Holocene, when rainfall and temperature increased (effective moisture remained low), open woodlands expansion resulted in decreased K/S, suggesting a reduction in chemical weathering intensity. Terrigenous sediment mass accumulation rates also increased, suggesting critical linkages among open vegetation and erosion during intervals of enhanced summer rainfall. This study shows a strong, direct influence of vegetation composition on weathering intensity in the tropics. As climate change will likely impact this interplay between the biosphere and geosphere, tropical landscape change could lead to deleterious effects on soil and water quality in regions with little infrastructure for mitigation.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Mudança Climática/história , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Pólen/citologia , Argila , Geografia , História Antiga , Caulim/análise , Malaui , Tamanho da Partícula , Chuva , Silicatos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical , Difração de Raios X
18.
Healthc Financ Manage ; 68(1): 64-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24511779

RESUMO

Developing a health insurance exchange strategy begins with: Understanding how both the public and private exchanges work. Conducting a thorough analysis to quantify how exchanges will affect the organization's current and future patient populations and revenue base. Determining when to participate in the exchanges, keeping in mind current market position as well as competitors' actions.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira de Hospitais/organização & administração , Trocas de Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
19.
Healthc Financ Manage ; 68(11): 52-61, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25647913

RESUMO

Health systems should be willing and able to engage in retail health care, given increasing incentives and opportunities for consumers to shop around for care. Understanding seven dimensions of retail care, and assessing the competitive landscape and the associated risk, can help health systems prepare to succeed in a retail healthcare environment. Health systems then can undertake a focused retail strategy, starting with reconfiguring their delivery network as needed.


Assuntos
Comércio , Atenção à Saúde , Competição Econômica/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
20.
EuroIntervention ; 8(8): 939-44, 2012 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23253547

RESUMO

AIMS: Current quality measures of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures are based on the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). This crude marker ignores the many clinical nuances that make for sound decision making in PCI. We have established a prospective peer review audit tool to determine the quality of PCI within our cardiac network, which consists of five PCI hospitals serving a population of 1.4 million people in Sussex, UK. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of 10% of all PCI cases selected at random each month by a non-clinical audit manager is made by a rotating panel of two PCI operators and one cardiac surgeon. Each PCI case is assessed for anatomical suitability, lesion severity, strategic appropriateness and final outcome. Panel findings were reported back to the operator and the audit manager. A total of 326 cases were assessed by the review committee. Results were disseminated to individual operators. Coronary anatomy and lesion severity were considered appropriate for PCI in 94.2% and 96.0% of cases, respectively. Appropriateness of strategy was confirmed in 86.2% and the outcome considered satisfactory in 90.8%. A total of 242 subsequent cases were analysed to assess practice trends. This analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in clinical decision making with respect to appropriateness of strategy (from 86.2% to 92.6%; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Prospective peer review of percutaneous coronary intervention cases by a rotating regional committee is valuable in ensuring procedural quality.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Revisão dos Cuidados de Saúde por Pares/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Controle de Qualidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Reino Unido
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