Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 172
Filtrar
1.
Nat Med ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654292

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 (B.1.351), a novel lineage of coronavirus causing COVID-19, contains substitutions in two immunodominant domains of the spike protein. Here, we show that pseudovirus expressing 501Y.V2 spike protein completely escapes three classes of therapeutically relevant antibodies. This pseudovirus also exhibits substantial to complete escape from neutralization, but not binding, by convalescent plasma. These data highlight the prospect of reinfection with antigenically distinct variants and foreshadows reduced efficacy of spike-based vaccines.

2.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003550, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza illness burden is substantial, particularly among young children, older adults, and those with underlying conditions. Initiatives are underway to develop better global estimates for influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the role of influenza viruses in severe respiratory disease and hospitalizations among adults, particularly in lower-income settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aggregated published data from a systematic review and unpublished data from surveillance platforms to generate global meta-analytic estimates for the proportion of acute respiratory hospitalizations associated with influenza viruses among adults. We searched 9 online databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Global Health, LILACS, WHOLIS, and CNKI; 1 January 1996-31 December 2016) to identify observational studies of influenza-associated hospitalizations in adults, and assessed eligible papers for bias using a simplified Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational data. We applied meta-analytic proportions to global estimates of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and hospitalizations from the Global Burden of Disease study in adults ≥20 years and by age groups (20-64 years and ≥65 years) to obtain the number of influenza-associated LRI episodes and hospitalizations for 2016. Data from 63 sources showed that influenza was associated with 14.1% (95% CI 12.1%-16.5%) of acute respiratory hospitalizations among all adults, with no significant differences by age group. The 63 data sources represent published observational studies (n = 28) and unpublished surveillance data (n = 35), from all World Health Organization regions (Africa, n = 8; Americas, n = 11; Eastern Mediterranean, n = 7; Europe, n = 8; Southeast Asia, n = 11; Western Pacific, n = 18). Data quality for published data sources was predominantly moderate or high (75%, n = 56/75). We estimate 32,126,000 (95% CI 20,484,000-46,129,000) influenza-associated LRI episodes and 5,678,000 (95% CI 3,205,000-9,432,000) LRI hospitalizations occur each year among adults. While adults <65 years contribute most influenza-associated LRI hospitalizations and episodes (3,464,000 [95% CI 1,885,000-5,978,000] LRI hospitalizations and 31,087,000 [95% CI 19,987,000-44,444,000] LRI episodes), hospitalization rates were highest in those ≥65 years (437/100,000 person-years [95% CI 265-612/100,000 person-years]). For this analysis, published articles were limited in their inclusion of stratified testing data by year and age group. Lack of information regarding influenza vaccination of the study population was also a limitation across both types of data sources. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we estimated that influenza viruses are associated with over 5 million hospitalizations worldwide per year. Inclusion of both published and unpublished findings allowed for increased power to generate stratified estimates, and improved representation from lower-income countries. Together, the available data demonstrate the importance of influenza viruses as a cause of severe disease and hospitalizations in younger and older adults worldwide.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policy recommendations on pertussis vaccination need to be guided by data, which are limited from low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of pertussis in South Africa, a country with high HIV prevalence and routine pertussis vaccination for six decades including the acellular vaccine since 2009. METHODS: Hospitalized patients of all ages were enrolled at five sentinel sites as part of a pneumonia surveillance program from January 2013 through December 2018. Nasopharyngeal specimens and induced sputum were tested by PCR for Bordetella pertussis. In addition, demographic and clinical information were collected. Incidence rates were calculated for 2013-2016, and multivariable logistic regression performed to identify factors associated with pertussis. RESULTS: Over the six-year period 19429 individuals were enrolled, of which 239 (1.2%) tested positive for B. pertussis. Detection rate was highest in infants aged <6 months (2.8%, 155/5524). Mean annual incidence was 17 cases per 100,000 population, with the highest incidence in children <1 year of age (228 per 100,000). Age-adjusted incidence was 65.9 per 100,000 in HIV-infected individuals compared to 8.5 per 100,000 in HIV-uninfected individuals (risk ratio 30.4, 95% confidence interval 23.0-40.2). Ten individuals (4.2%) with pertussis died; of which 7 were infants aged <6 months and 3 were immunocompromised adults. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis continues to be a significant cause of illness and hospitalization in South Africa, despite routine vaccination. The highest burden of disease and death occurred in infants; however, HIV-infected adults were also identified as an important group at risk of B. pertussis infection.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(2): e1003537, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the national-level impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction on mortality are lacking from Africa. PCV was introduced in South Africa in 2009. We estimated the impact of PCV introduction on all-cause pneumonia mortality in South Africa, while controlling for changes in mortality due to other interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used national death registration data in South Africa from 1999 to 2016 to assess the impact of PCV introduction on all-cause pneumonia mortality in all ages, with the exclusion of infants aged <1 month. We created a composite (synthetic) control using Bayesian variable selection of nondiarrheal, nonpneumonia, and nonpneumococcal deaths to estimate the number of expected all-cause pneumonia deaths in the absence of PCV introduction post 2009. We compared all-cause pneumonia deaths from the death registry to the expected deaths in 2012 to 2016. We also estimated the number of prevented deaths during 2009 to 2016. Of the 9,324,638 deaths reported in South Africa from 1999 to 2016, 12·6% were pneumonia-related. Compared to number of deaths expected, we estimated a 33% (95% credible interval (CrI) 26% to 43%), 23% (95%CrI 17% to 29%), 25% (95%CrI 19% to 32%), and 23% (95%CrI 11% to 32%) reduction in pneumonia mortality in children aged 1 to 11 months, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 7 years, and 8 to 18 years in 2012 to 2016, respectively. In total, an estimated 18,422 (95%CrI 12,388 to 26,978) pneumonia-related deaths were prevented from 2009 to 2016 in children aged <19 years. No declines were estimated observed among adults following PCV introduction. This study was mainly limited by coding errors in original data that could have led to a lower impact estimate, and unmeasured factors could also have confounded estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the introduction of PCV was associated with substantial reduction in all-cause pneumonia deaths in children aged 1 month to <19 years. The model predicted an effect of PCV in age groups who were eligible for vaccination (1 months to 4 years), and an indirect effect in those too old (8 to 18 years) to be vaccinated. These findings support sustaining pneumococcal vaccination to reduce pneumonia-related mortality in children.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data concerning the impact of antenatal influenza vaccination on birth outcomes including low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and stillbirth. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of infants born to women residing in Mitchells Plain, Cape Town. Infants were born at 4 health facilities during May 28 - December 31, 2015 and April 15 - December 31, 2016. We performed crude and multivariable logistic regression, propensity score (PS) matching logistic regression, and inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) regression to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against LBW, preterm birth, SGA, and stillbirth adjusting for measured confounders. RESULTS: Maternal vaccination status, antenatal history, and ≥1 birth outcome(s) were available for 4084/5333 (76.6%) pregnancies, 2109 (51.6%) vaccinated, and 1975 (48.4%) unvaccinated. The proportion LBW was lower in vaccinated (6.9%) vs. unvaccinated (12.5%) in multivariable [VE 0.27 (95% CI 0.07-0.42)], PS [VE 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.51)], and IPTW [VE 0.24 (95% CI 0.04-0.45)]. Preterm birth was less frequent in vaccinated (8.6%) than unvaccinated (16.4%) in multivariable [VE 0.26 (0.09-0.40)], PS [VE 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.41)], and IPTW [VE 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.51)]. The proportion SGA was lower in vaccinated (6.0%) than unvaccinated (8.8%) but not in adjusted models. There were few stillbirths in our study population, 30/4084 (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Using multiple analytic approaches, we found that influenza vaccination was associated with lower prevalence of LBW (24-30%) and preterm birth (25-34%) in Cape Town during 2015-2016.

6.
Vaccine ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza imposes a significant health and economic burden in South Africa, particularly in populations vulnerable to severe consequences of influenza. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of South Africa's seasonal influenza vaccination strategy, which involves vaccinating vulnerable populations with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) during routine facility visits. Vulnerable populations included in our analysis are persons aged ≥ 65 years; pregnant women; persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), persons of any age with underlying medical conditions (UMC) and children aged 6-59 months. METHOD: We employed the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Cost Effectiveness Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination (CETSIV), a decision tree model, to evaluate the 2018 seasonal influenza vaccination campaign from a public healthcare provider and societal perspective. CETSIV was populated with existing country-specific demographic, epidemiologic and coverage data to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) by comparing costs and benefits of the influenza vaccination programme to no vaccination. RESULTS: The highest number of clinical events (influenza cases, outpatient visits, hospitalisation and deaths) were averted in PLWHA and persons with other UMCs. Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$ 3400 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), our findings suggest that the vaccination programme is cost-effective for all vulnerable populations except for children aged 6-59 months. ICERs ranged from ~US$ 1 750 /QALY in PLWHA to ~US$ 7500/QALY in children. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the vaccination programme was cost-effective in pregnant women, PLWHA, persons with UMCs and persons aged ≥65 years in >80% of simulations. These findings were robust to changes in many model inputs but were most sensitive to uncertainty in estimates of influenza-associated illness burden. CONCLUSION: South Africa's seasonal influenza vaccination strategy of opportunistically targeting vulnerable populations during routine visits is cost-effective. A budget impact analysis will be useful for supporting future expansions of the programme.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance helps time prevention and control interventions especially where complex seasonal patterns exist. We assessed influenza surveillance sustainability in Africa where influenza activity varies and external funds for surveillance have decreased. METHODS: We surveyed African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology (ANISE) countries about 2011-2017 surveillance system characteristics. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed with univariate and multivariable analyses to quantify sustained or expanded influenza surveillance capacity in Africa. RESULTS: Eighteen (75%) of 24 ANISE members participated in the survey; their cumulative population of 710 751 471 represent 56% of Africa's total population. All 18 countries scored a mean 95% on WHO laboratory quality assurance panels. The number of samples collected from severe acute respiratory infection case-patients remained consistent between 2011 and 2017 (13 823 vs 13 674 respectively) but decreased by 12% for influenza-like illness case-patients (16 210 vs 14 477). Nine (50%) gained capacity to lineage-type influenza B. The number of countries reporting each week to WHO FluNet increased from 15 (83%) in 2011 to 17 (94%) in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Despite declines in external surveillance funding, ANISE countries gained additional laboratory testing capacity and continued influenza testing and reporting to WHO. These gains represent important achievements toward sustainable surveillance and epidemic/pandemic preparedness.

9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus is a common virus associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children. No global burden estimates are available for ALRIs associated with human metapneumovirus in children, and no licensed vaccines or drugs exist for human metapneumovirus infections. We aimed to estimate the age-stratified human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI global incidence, hospital admissions, and mortality burden in children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We estimated the global burden of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRIs in children younger than 5 years from a systematic review of 119 studies published between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2019, and a further 40 high quality unpublished studies. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We estimated incidence, hospital admission rates, and in-hospital case-fatality ratios (hCFRs) of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI using a generalised linear mixed model. We applied incidence and hospital admission rates of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI to population estimates to yield the morbidity burden estimates by age bands and World Bank income levels. We also estimated human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI in-hospital deaths and overall human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI deaths (both in-hospital and non-hospital deaths). Additionally, we estimated human metapneumovirus-attributable ALRI cases, hospital admissions, and deaths by combining human metapneumovirus-associated burden estimates and attributable fractions of human metapneumovirus in laboratory-confirmed human metapneumovirus cases and deaths. FINDINGS: In 2018, among children younger than 5 years globally, there were an estimated 14·2 million human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI cases (uncertainty range [UR] 10·2 million to 20·1 million), 643 000 human metapneumovirus-associated hospital admissions (UR 425 000 to 977 000), 7700 human metapneumovirus-associated in-hospital deaths (2600 to 48 800), and 16 100 overall (hospital and community) human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI deaths (5700 to 88 000). An estimated 11·1 million ALRI cases (UR 8·0 million to 15·7 million), 502 000 ALRI hospital admissions (UR 332 000 to 762 000), and 11 300 ALRI deaths (4000 to 61 600) could be causally attributed to human metapneumovirus in 2018. Around 58% of the hospital admissions were in infants under 12 months, and 64% of in-hospital deaths occurred in infants younger than 6 months, of which 79% occurred in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Infants younger than 1 year have disproportionately high risks of severe human metapneumovirus infections across all World Bank income regions and all child mortality settings, similar to respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. Infants younger than 6 months in low-income and lower-middle-income countries are at greater risk of death from human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI than older children and those in upper-middle-income and high-income countries. Our mortality estimates demonstrate the importance of intervention strategies for infants across all settings, and warrant continued efforts to improve the outcome of human metapneumovirus-associated ALRI among young infants in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

10.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7007-7014, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza economic burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource-limited settings. However, this information is limited in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We estimated the cost (from a health system and societal perspective) and years of life lost (YLL) for influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 among (i) children aged 6-59 months, (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and selected underlying medical conditions (UMC), separately, (iii) pregnant women and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years, using publicly available data and data collected through laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance and costing studies. All costs were expressed in 2015 prices using the South Africa all-items Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, the mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness among the selected risk groups accounted for 52.1% ($140.9/$270.5 million) of the total influenza-associated illness cost (for the entire population of South Africa), 45.2% ($52.2/$115.5 million) of non-medically attended illness costs, 43.3% ($46.7/$107.9 million) of medically-attended mild illness costs and 89.3% ($42.0/$47.1 million) of medically-attended severe illness costs. The YLL among the selected risk groups accounted for 86.0% (262,069 /304,867 years) of the total YLL due to influenza-associated death. CONCLUSION: In South Africa, individuals in risk groups for severe influenza accounted for approximately half of the total influenza-associated illness cost but most of the cost of influenza-associated medically attended severe illness and YLL. This study provides the foundation for future studies on the cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization among risk groups.

11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1305-1309, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941415

RESUMO

After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Austrália/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Vaccine ; 38(27): 4288-4297, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource limited settings. However, this information is limited overall and in particular in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to assess the mean annual national burden of medically and non-medically attended influenza-associated mild, severe-non-fatal and fatal illness among potential target groups for influenza immunization in South Africa during 2013-2015. METHODS: We used published mean national annual estimates of mild, severe-non-fatal, and fatal influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 and estimated the number of such illnesses occurring among the following risk groups: (i) children aged 6-59 months; (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, and/or pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and/or selected underlying medical conditions (UMC); (iii) pregnant women; and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years. We also estimated the number of individuals among the same risk groups in the population. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, individuals in the selected risk groups accounted for 45.3% (24,569,328/54,086,144) of the population and 43.5% (4,614,763/10,598,138), 86.8% (111,245/128,173) and 94.5% (10,903/11,536) of the mean annual estimated number of influenza-associated mild, severe-non-fatal and fatal illness episodes, respectively. The rates of influenza-associated illness were highest in children aged 6-59 months (23,983 per 100,000 population) for mild illness, in pregnant women (930 per 100,000 population) for severe-non-fatal illness and in individuals aged ≥65 years (138 per 100,000 population) for fatal illness. CONCLUSION: Influenza immunization of the selected risk groups has the potential to prevent a substantial number of influenza-associated severe illness. Nonetheless, because of the high number of individuals at risk, South Africa, due to financial resources constrains, may need to further prioritize interventions among risk populations. Cost-burden and cost-effectiveness estimates may assist with further prioritization.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease clusters occur amongst university students and may reflect higher carriage prevalence amongst this population. We aimed to measure meningococcal carriage prevalence, acquisition and risk factors amongst first-year university students in South Africa, a middle-income country. METHODS: In summer to autumn 2017, after consenting to participate, we collected oropharyngeal swabs and questionnaires on carriage risk factors and tested students for HIV infection at two universities, during registration week (survey one) and 6-8 weeks later (survey two). Meningococci were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We enrolled 2120 students at registration. Mean age was 18.5 years, 59% (1252/2120) were female and 0.8% (16/1984) were HIV-infected. Seventy-eight percent of students returned for survey two (1655/2120).Amongst the cohort, carriage prevalence was 4.7% (77/1655) at registration; increasing to 7.9% (130/1655) at survey two: 5.0% (83) acquired new carriage, 2.8% (47) had persistent carriage, 1.8% (30) cleared the initial carriage and 90.3% (1495) remained carriage-free. At both surveys, non-genogroupable meningococci predominated, followed by genogroups Y, B, W and C. On multinomial analysis risk factors for carriage acquisition included attending nightclubs (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 2.1 (95%CI=1.1-4.0)), having intimate kissing partners (aRRR 1.8 (95%CI=1.1-2.9)) and being HIV-infected (aRRR 5.0 (95%CI=1.1-24.4)). CONCLUSION: Meningococcal carriage amongst first-year university students increased after two months. Social-behavioural risk factors were associated with increased carriage for all analyses. HIV-infection was associated with carriage acquisition. Until vaccination programmes become mandatory in South African universities, data suggest that HIV-infected students could benefit most from meningococcal vaccination.

15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e497-e510, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza virus is a common cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. In 2008, we estimated that 20 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI and 1 million influenza-virus-associated severe ALRI occurred in children under 5 years globally. Despite this substantial burden, only a few low-income and middle-income countries have adopted routine influenza vaccination policies for children and, where present, these have achieved only low or unknown levels of vaccine uptake. Moreover, the influenza burden might have changed due to the emergence and circulation of influenza A/H1N1pdm09. We aimed to incorporate new data to update estimates of the global number of cases, hospital admissions, and mortality from influenza-virus-associated respiratory infections in children under 5 years in 2018. METHODS: We estimated the regional and global burden of influenza-associated respiratory infections in children under 5 years from a systematic review of 100 studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2018, and a further 57 high-quality unpublished studies. We adapted the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the risk of bias. We estimated incidence and hospitalisation rates of influenza-virus-associated respiratory infections by severity, case ascertainment, region, and age. We estimated in-hospital deaths from influenza virus ALRI by combining hospital admissions and in-hospital case-fatality ratios of influenza virus ALRI. We estimated the upper bound of influenza virus-associated ALRI deaths based on the number of in-hospital deaths, US paediatric influenza-associated death data, and population-based childhood all-cause pneumonia mortality data in six sites in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. FINDINGS: In 2018, among children under 5 years globally, there were an estimated 109·5 million influenza virus episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 63·1-190·6), 10·1 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI cases (6·8-15·1); 870 000 influenza-virus-associated ALRI hospital admissions (543 000-1 415 000), 15 300 in-hospital deaths (5800-43 800), and up to 34 800 (13 200-97 200) overall influenza-virus-associated ALRI deaths. Influenza virus accounted for 7% of ALRI cases, 5% of ALRI hospital admissions, and 4% of ALRI deaths in children under 5 years. About 23% of the hospital admissions and 36% of the in-hospital deaths were in infants under 6 months. About 82% of the in-hospital deaths occurred in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: A large proportion of the influenza-associated burden occurs among young infants and in low-income and lower middle-income countries. Our findings provide new and important evidence for maternal and paediatric influenza immunisation, and should inform future immunisation policy particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: WHO; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(3): 266-273, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2017, an outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) was detected in commercial poultry farms in South Africa, which rapidly spread to all nine South African provinces. OBJECTIVES: We conducted active surveillance for the transmission of influenza A(H5N8) to humans working with infected birds during the South African outbreak. METHODS: Influenza A(H5N8)-positive veterinary specimens were used to evaluate the ability of real-time PCR-based assays to detect contemporary avian influenza A(H5N8) strains. Whole genome sequences were generated from these specimens by next-generation sequencing for phylogenetic characterization and screening for mammalian-adaptive mutations. RESULTS: Human respiratory samples from 74 individuals meeting our case definition, all tested negative for avian influenza A(H5) by real-time PCR, but 2 (3%) were positive for human influenza A(H3N2). 54% (40/74) reported wearing personal protective equipment including overalls, boots, gloves, masks, and goggles. 94% (59/63) of veterinary specimens positive for H5N8 were detected on an influenza A(H5) assay for human diagnostics. A commercial H5N8 assay detected H5 in only 6% (3/48) and N8 in 92% (44/48). Thirteen (13/25; 52%) A(H5N8) genomes generated from veterinary specimens clustered in a single monophyletic clade. These sequences contained the NS (P42S) and PB2 (L89V) mutations noted as markers of mammalian adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic assays were able to detect and characterize influenza A(H5N8) viruses, but poor performance is reported for a commercial assay. Absence of influenza A(H5N8) in humans with occupational exposure and no clear impression of molecular adaptation for mammalian infection suggest that this avian pathogen continues to be low-risk human pathogen.

17.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(1): 77-91, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568678

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on risk of severe disease or outcomes in patients with influenza and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) co-infection compared to those with single infection. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published literature on the interaction of influenza viruses and PTB. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they presented data on prevalence, disease association, presentation or severity of laboratory-confirmed influenza among clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed PTB cases. We searched eight databases from inception until December 2018. Summary characteristics of each study were extracted, and a narrative summary was presented. Cohort or case-control studies were assessed for potential bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: We assessed 5154 abstracts, reviewed 146 manuscripts and included 19 studies fulfilling selection criteria (13 human and six animal). Of seven studies reporting on the possible effect of the underlying PTB disease in patients with influenza, three of four analytical studies reported no association with disease severity of influenza infection in those with PTB, whilst one study reported PTB as a risk factor for influenza-associated hospitalization. An association between influenza infection and PTB disease was found in three of five analytical studies; whereas the two other studies reported a high frequency of PTB disease progression and complications among patients with seasonal influenza co-infection. CONCLUSION: Human analytical studies of an association between co-infection and severe influenza- or PTB-associated disease or increased prevalence of influenza co-infection in individuals' hospitalized for PTB were not conclusive. Data are limited from large, high-quality, analytical epidemiological studies with laboratory-confirmed endpoints.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Tuberculose/complicações , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/complicações , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 24(45)2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718744

RESUMO

We compared 2019 influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness (VE) in four southern hemisphere countries: Australia, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. Influenza seasons differed in timing, duration, intensity and predominant circulating viruses. VE estimates were also heterogeneous, with all-ages point estimates ranging from 7-70% (I2: 33%) for A(H1N1)pdm09, 4-57% (I2: 49%) for A(H3N2) and 29-66% (I2: 0%) for B. Caution should be applied when attempting to use southern hemisphere data to predict the northern hemisphere influenza season.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Potência de Vacina , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , África do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Vaccine ; 37(46): 6874-6884, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk of severe disease from influenza. Antenatal influenza vaccination is safe and can reduce the risk of illness for women and their infants. We evaluated for South Africa the health effects of antenatal influenza vaccination among pregnant women and their infants aged <6 months old and assessed its cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We constructed a decision tree model to simulate the population of pregnant women and infants aged <6 months in South Africa using TreeAge Pro Suite 2015. The model evaluated the change in societal costs and outcomes associated with a vaccination campaign that prioritized HIV-infected over HIV-uninfected pregnant women compared with no vaccination. We also examined the impacts of a campaign without prioritization. Upper and lower 90% uncertainty intervals (90% UI) were generated using probabilistic sensitivity analysis on 10000 Monte Carlo simulations. The cost-effectiveness threshold was set to the 2015 per capita gross domestic product of South Africa, US$5724. RESULTS: Antenatal vaccination with prioritization averted 9070 (90% UI: 7407-11217) total cases of influenza among pregnant women and infants, including 411 (90% UI: 305-546) hospitalizations and 30 (90% UI: 22-40) deaths. This corresponds to an averted fraction of 13.5% (90% UI: 9.0-20.5%). Vaccinating without prioritization averted 7801 (90% UI: 6465-9527) cases of influenza, including 335 (90% UI: 254-440) hospitalizations and 24 (90% UI: 18-31) deaths. This corresponds to an averted fraction of 11.6% (90% UI: 7.8-17.4%). Vaccinating the cohort of pregnant women with prioritization had societal cost of $4689 (90% UI: $3128-$7294) per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained while vaccinating without prioritization had a cost of $5924 (90% UI: $3992-$9056) per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal influenza vaccination campaigns in South Africa would reduce the impact of influenza and could be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...