Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 519
Filtrar
1.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134607, 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693928

RESUMO

Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used cognitive task in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications because it produces reliable activity in motor-planning regions. However, a number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies have reported the unexpected finding of inverse oxygenation: increased deoxyhemoglobin and decreased oxyhemoglobin during task periods. This finding questions the reliability of fNIRS for BCI applications given that MI activation should result in a focal increase in blood oxygenation. In an attempt to elucidate this phenomenon, fMRI and fNIRS data were acquired on 15 healthy participants performing a MI task. The fMRI data provided global coverage of brain activity, thus allowing visualization of all potential brain regions activated and deactivated during task periods. Indeed, fMRI results from seven subjects included activation in the primary motor cortex and/or the pre-supplementary motor area during the rest periods in addition to the expected activation in the supplementary motor and premotor areas. Of these seven subjects, two showed inverse oxygenation with fNIRS. The proximity of the regions showing inverse oxygenation to the motor planning regions suggests that inverse activation detected by fNIRS may likely be a consequence of partial volume errors due to the sensitivity of the optodes to both primary motor and motor planning regions.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721978

RESUMO

Importance: The Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study (ARTEMIS) cluster-randomized trial found that copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors improved 1-year patient persistence in taking that medication. Objective: To assess whether providing copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors increases patient persistence in taking other secondary prevention cardiovascular medications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the ARTEMIS trial includes data from 287 hospitals that enrolled patients between June 2015 and September 2016. Patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction were included. Data analysis occurred from May 2018 through August 2019. Interventions: Hospitals randomized to the intervention provided patients vouchers that waived copayments for P2Y12 inhibitors fills for 1 year. Hospitals randomized to usual care did not provide study vouchers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Persistence in taking ß-blocker, statin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker medications at 1 year, defined as the absence of a gap in medication supply of 30 or more days by pharmacy fill data in the intervention-arm (intent-to-treat) population. Results: A total of 131 hospitals (with 5109 patients) were randomized to the intervention, and 156 hospitals (with 3264 patients) randomized to the control group. Patients discharged from intervention hospitals had higher persistence in taking statins (2247 [46.1%] vs 1300 [41.9%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00-1.24]), and ß-blockers (2235 [47.6%] vs 1277 [42.5%]; odds ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.10-1.38]), although the association was smaller than that seen for P2Y12 inhibitors (odds ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.29-1.66]). Persistence in taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II-receptor blockers were also numerically higher among patients in the intervention arm than in the usual-care arm, but this was not significant after risk adjustment (1520 [43.9%] vs 847 [40.5%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.97-1.24]). Patients in the intervention arm reported greater financial burden associated with medication cost than the patients in the usual-care arm at baseline, but these differences were no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Reducing patient copayments for 1 medication class increased persistence not only to that therapy class but may also have modestly increased persistence to other post-myocardial infarction secondary prevention medications. These findings have important implications for the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of medication cost-assistance programs. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02406677.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2074-2084, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), the FREEDOM (Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) trial demonstrated that, on average, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for major acute cardiovascular events (MACE) and angina reduction. Nonetheless, multivessel PCI remains a common revascularization strategy in the real world. OBJECTIVES: To translate the results of FREEDOM to individual patients in clinical practice, risk models of the heterogeneity of treatment benefit were built. METHODS: Using patient-level data from 1,900 FREEDOM patients, the authors developed models to predict 5-year MACE (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke) and 1-year angina after CABG and PCI using baseline covariates and treatment interactions. Parsimonious models were created to support clinical use. The models were internally validated using bootstrap resampling, and the MACE model was externally validated in a large real-world registry. RESULTS: The 5-year MACE occurred in 346 (18.2%) patients, and 310 (16.3%) had angina at 1 year. The MACE model included 8 variables and treatment interactions with smoking status (c = 0.67). External validation in stable CAD (c = 0.65) and ACS (c = 0.68) demonstrated comparable performance. The 6-variable angina model included a treatment interaction with SYNTAX score (c = 0.67). PCI was never superior to CABG, and CABG was superior to PCI for MACE in 54.5% of patients and in 100% of patients with history of smoking. CONCLUSIONS: To help disseminate the results of FREEDOM, the authors created a personalized risk prediction tool for patients with diabetes and multivessel CAD that could be used in shared decision-making for CABG versus PCI by estimating each patient's personal outcomes with both treatments.

4.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564137

RESUMO

Background: The COAPT trial demonstrated that edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) using the MitraClip resulted in reduced mortality and heart-failure hospitalizations and improved quality of life when compared with maximally-tolerated guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in heart-failure patients with 3-4+ secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). Whether TMVr is cost-effective compared with GDMT in this population is unknown. Methods: We used data from the COAPT trial to perform a formal, patient-level economic analysis of TMVr + GDMT vs. GDMT alone for patients with heart failure and 3-4+ SMR from the perspective of the US health care system. Costs for the index TMVr hospitalization were assessed using a combination of resource-based accounting and hospital billing data (when available). Follow-up medical care costs were estimated based on medical resource use collected during the COAPT trial. Health utilities were estimated for all patients at baseline, 1, 6, 12 and 24 months using the SF-6D. Results: Initial costs for the TMVr procedure and index hospitalization were $35,755 and $48,198, respectively. Although follow-up costs were significantly lower with TMVr compared with GDMT ($26,654 vs. $38,345; p=0.018), cumulative 2-year costs remained higher with TMVr due to the up-front cost of the index procedure ($73,416 vs. $38,345; p<0.001). When intrial survival, health utilities, and costs were modeled over a lifetime horizon, TMVr was projected to increase life-expectancy by 1.13 years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) by 0.82 years at a cost of $45,648, yielding a lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $40,361/life-year gained and $55,600/QALY gained. Conclusions: For symptomatic heart-failure patients with 3-4+ SMR, TMVr increases lifeexpectancy and quality-adjusted life-expectancy compared with GDMT at an incremental cost per QALY gained that represents acceptable economic value based on current U.S. thresholds. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01626079.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to perceived technical challenges, patients with previous surgical mitral valve repair or replacement (SMVR) have been excluded from most transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) trials. Our objective was to compare the 30-day and 1-year outcomes of TAVR in patients with and without prior SMVR. METHODS: In a retrospective review of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) Transcatheter Valve Therapy (TVT) Registry, we compared 1,097 patients with prior SMVR to 46,327 without prior SMVR who underwent TAVR between November 2011 and September 2015 at 394 U.S. centers. Preoperative characteristics, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with previous SMVR were younger, more often female, and had higher STS Predicted Risk of Mortality (8.6% vs. 6.8%, p<0.001). However, there was no difference in 30-day mortality (4.6% vs. 5.5%, p=0.29), myocardial infarction, stroke, re-intervention, new dialysis, or readmission. Moderate/severe paravalvular leak (PVL) at discharge was also similar (5.8% vs. 4.9%, p=0.34). At 1 year, morbidity was similar but there was a trend toward higher mortality in those with prior SMVR (20.0% vs. 17.5%, p=0.09) that was significant after adjustment (HR 1.18, p=0.04). The type of prior SMVR (repair, bioprosthetic replacement, or mechanical replacement) had no impact on 30-day or 1-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prior SMVR undergoing TAVR had similar 30-day outcomes, slightly higher 1-year mortality, and no increase in early PVL compared to those without previous SMVR. Prior SMVR should not preclude TAVR in appropriately selected patients.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(10): e005659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) in conjunction with anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used with the goal of preventing postthrombotic syndrome. Long-term costs and cost-effectiveness of these 2 treatment strategies from the perspective of the US healthcare system have not been compared. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, the ATTRACT trial (Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis) randomized 692 patients with acute proximal DVT to PCDT plus anticoagulation (n=337) or standard treatment with anticoagulation alone (n=355). Costs (2017 US dollars) were assessed over a 24-month follow-up period using a combination of resource-based costing, hospital bills, Medicare reimbursement rates, and the Drug Topics Red Book. Health state utilities were obtained from the Short Form-36. In-trial results and US life tables were used to develop a Markov cohort model to evaluate lifetime cost-effectiveness. For the PCDT group, mean costs of the initial procedure were $13 600; per-patient costs associated with the index hospitalization were $21 509 for PCDT and $3877 for standard care (difference=$17 632; 95% CI, $16 117-$19 243). The 24-month difference in costs was $20 045 (95% CI, $16 093-$24 120). Utility scores increased significantly between baseline and 6 months for both groups, with no significant differences between groups at any follow-up time point. Projected differences in lifetime costs of $16 740 and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.08, yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for PCDT of $222 041/QALY gained. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability that PCDT would achieve a lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50 000/QALY or <$150 000/QALY was 1% and 25%, respectively. For iliofemoral DVT, QALY gains with PCDT were greater, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $137 526/QALY; for femoral-popliteal DVT, standard therapy was an economically dominant strategy. CONCLUSIONS: With an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio >$200 000/QALY gained, PCDT is not an economically attractive treatment for proximal DVT. PCDT may be of intermediate value in patients with iliofemoral DVT. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00790335.

7.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Use of poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) has been associated with increased risk of device thrombosis during the first 3 years after implantation as compared to metallic everolimus-eluting stents (EES). The long-term performance of BRS relative to EES remains unknown. METHODS: We used a Markov decision analysis model to evaluate the effectiveness of BRS vs. EES over a lifetime horizon. In addition to one-way sensitivity analyses of key variables, we evaluated the impact of optimal implantation technique and limiting procedures to larger vessels (>2.6 mm in diameter) on model results. RESULTS: Assuming no risk of target lesion revascularization for BRS after 3 years, we found a small increment in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of 0.02 with the use of BRS relative to EES, with benefit being observed after 21.8 years. Optimal implantation technique and limiting to larger vessels resulted in larger gains in QALE (0.08 and 0.06, respectively) with BRS and shorter times to equipoise (6.7 and 8.3 years, respectively). Model results were highly sensitive to variations in the relative risk of stent thrombosis (BRS vs. EES). CONCLUSIONS: Based on currently available data, it would take approximately 21.8 years for the presumed late benefits of current BRS relative to EES to overcome the early hazard associated with their use under favorable assumptions. Optimal implantation technique and limiting procedures to larger vessels improved BRS performance and reduced time to equipoise. Eliminating the higher BRS thrombosis risk is necessary in developing future generations of BRS as an acceptable alternative to EES.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013513, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663436

RESUMO

Background Medicare has a voluntary episodic payment model for Medicare beneficiaries that bundles payment for the index acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalization and all post-discharge services for a 90-day follow-up period. The purpose of this study is to report on the types and frequency of readmissions and identify demographic and clinical factors associated with readmission of Medicare beneficiaries that survived their AMI hospitalization. Methods and Results This retrospective study used the Inpatient Standard Analytical File for 2014. There were 143 286 Medicare beneficiaries with AMI who were discharged alive from 3619 hospitals. All readmissions occurring in any hospital within 90 days of the index AMI discharge date were identified. Of 143 286 Medicare beneficiaries discharged alive from their index AMI hospitalization, 28% (40 145) experienced at least 1 readmission within 90 days and 8% (11 477) had >1 readmission. Readmission rates were higher among Medicare beneficiaries who did not undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention in their index AMI admission (34%) compared with those that underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention (20.2%). Using all Medicare beneficiary's index AMI, 27 comorbid conditions were significantly associated with the likelihood of a Medicare beneficiary having a readmission during the follow-up period. The strongest clinical characteristics associated with readmissions were dialysis dependence, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and heart failure. Conclusions This study provides benchmark information on the types of hospital readmissions Medicare beneficiaries experience during a 90-day AMI bundle. This paper also suggests that interventions are needed to alleviate the need for readmissions in high-risk populations, such as, those managed medically and those at risk of heart failure.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at low surgical risk, treatment with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) results in lower rates of death, stroke, and re-hospitalization at 1 year compared with surgical aortic valve replacement; however, the effect of treatment strategy on health status is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare health status outcomes of TAVR vs. surgery in low-risk patients with severe AS. METHODS: Between 3/2016 and 10/2017, 1000 low-risk AS patients were randomized to transfemoral TAVR using a balloon-expandable valve or surgery in the PARTNER 3 Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), SF-36 and EQ-5D. The primary endpoint was change in KCCQ-Overall Summary (KCCQ-OS) score over time. Longitudinal growth curve modeling was used to compare changes in health status between treatment groups over time. RESULTS: At 1 month, TAVR was associated with better health status than surgery (mean difference in KCCQ-OS 16.0 points; p<0.001). At 6 and 12 months, health status remained better with TAVR, although the effect was reduced (mean difference in KCCQ-OS 2.6 and 1.8 points respectively; p<0.04 for both). The proportion of patients with an excellent outcome (alive with KCCQ-OS ≥ 75 and no significant decline from baseline) was greater with TAVR than surgery at 6 months (90.3% vs. 85.3%; p=0.03) and 12 months (87.3% vs. 82.8%; p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Among low-risk patients with severe AS, TAVR was associated with meaningful early and late health status benefits compared with surgery.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(19): 1954-1962, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the association between biomarker elevation, with creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) or cardiac troponin (cTn), following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mortality in patients undergoing PCI for stable angina with normal baseline values. BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a strong association between post-PCI CK-MB elevation and subsequent mortality. However, the prognostic significance of troponin elevation following coronary intervention is still debated. METHODS: Patient-level data from 5 contemporary coronary stent trials and 1 large registry were pooled. Mortality of patients with stable angina, with normal baseline biomarkers, was compared between patients with and those without different cutoff values of cTn and CK-MB. RESULTS: A total of 13,452 patients were included in this pooled analysis. The overall percentage of patients with elevated biomarkers following PCI was 23.9% for CK-MB and 68.4% for cTn. In the patient cohort for whom both assays were available (n = 8,859), 2.4% had both CK-MB ≥5 × the upper limit of normal (ULN) and cTn ≥35 × ULN, while 92% had both CK-MB <5 × ULN and cTn <35 × ULN. Among patients with CK-MB ≥5 × ULN (n = 315), 212 (67.3%) also had cTn ≥35 × ULN. Conversely, 390 of patients (64.8%) who had cTn ≥35 × ULN did not have CK-MB ≥5 × ULN. A total of 259 patients (1.9%) died at 1 year; 20 (7.7%) had CK-MB ≥5 × ULN, and 23 (8.8%) had cTn ≥35 × ULN. In the Cox multivariate analysis, in which the CK-MB and cTn ratios post-procedure were forced into the model, age, prior myocardial infarction, lesion complexity, hyperlipidemia, and CK-MB ratio (≥10) post-procedure were associated with increased 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Following elective PCI in patients in stable condition treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent, CK-MB and cTn elevations remain common. After multivariate adjustment, there was an increased mortality rate with elevation of CK-MB after PCI, whereas cTn elevation was not independently associated with mortality at 1 year.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(18): 1768-1777, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the outcomes and factors associated with aborted procedures among patients undergoing elective transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Elective TAVR procedures can be aborted because of device limitations or aborted for other reasons, including patient and procedural factors. Little is known about 30-day outcomes and factors associated with aborted procedures and procedures aborted because of device limitations (ADs). METHODS: Patients undergoing elective TAVR procedures from 2011 to 2017 in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology TVT (Transcatheter Valve Therapy) Registry were examined. The incidence of aborted procedures, both ADs and procedures aborted for other reasons (AOs), was examined. Rates of 30-day all-cause death or stroke and a composite of vascular complications and bleeding events were compared between patients with and those without aborted procedures and between patients with ADs and those with AOs. Multivariate modeling identified factors associated with aborted procedures and ADs. RESULTS: Among 106,169 patients who underwent TAVR between 2011 and 2017, procedures were aborted in 1,150 (1.1%) (581 ADs and 569 AOs). Patients with aborted procedures were more likely female with peripheral artery disease and more often treated at lower volume centers compared with those with nonaborted procedures (p < 0.01 for all). The incidence of aborted procedures and ADs decreased over the study period (p < 0.01). The adjusted rates of 30-day death and stroke were greater for aborted versus nonaborted procedures (odds ratio: 5.02; 95% confidence interval: 4.13 to 6.11). Peripheral artery disease, alternative access, and low institutional TAVR volume were factors associated with aborted procedures and ADs (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of aborted procedures is declining, but peripheral artery disease and low institutional TAVR volume remain associated with aborted procedures. A thorough pre-procedural assessment and referral of challenging cases to high-volume centers may be strategies to minimize aborted procedures.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monotherapy with a P2Y12 inhibitor after a minimum period of dual antiplatelet therapy is an emerging approach to reduce the risk of bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we examined the effect of ticagrelor alone as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin with regard to clinically relevant bleeding among patients who were at high risk for bleeding or an ischemic event and had undergone PCI. After 3 months of treatment with ticagrelor plus aspirin, patients who had not had a major bleeding event or ischemic event continued to take ticagrelor and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. We also evaluated the composite end point of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, using a noninferiority hypothesis with an absolute margin of 1.6 percentage points. RESULTS: We enrolled 9006 patients, and 7119 underwent randomization after 3 months. Between randomization and 1 year, the incidence of the primary end point was 4.0% among patients randomly assigned to receive ticagrelor plus placebo and 7.1% among patients assigned to receive ticagrelor plus aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001). The difference in risk between the groups was similar for BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding (incidence, 1.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus placebo and 2.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus aspirin; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.74). The incidence of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke was 3.9% in both groups (difference, -0.06 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.97 to 0.84; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.25; P<0.001 for noninferiority). CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk patients who underwent PCI and completed 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower incidence of clinically relevant bleeding than ticagrelor plus aspirin, with no higher risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by AstraZeneca; TWILIGHT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02270242.).

13.
Prog Transplant ; 29(4): 354-360, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Kidney Allocation System in the United States prioritizes candidates with Estimated Post-Transplant Survival (EPTS) ≤20% to receive deceased donor kidneys with Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) ≤20%. RESEARCH QUESTION: We compared access to KDPI ≤ 20% kidneys for EPTS ≤ 20% candidates across the United States to determine whether geographic disparities in access to these low KDPI kidneys exist. DESIGN: We identified all incident adult deceased donor kidney candidates wait-listed January 1, 2015, to March 31, 2018, using United Network for Organ Sharing data. We calculated the proportion of candidates transplanted, final EPTS, and KDPI of transplanted kidneys for candidates listed with EPTS ≤ 20% versus >20%. We compared the odds of receiving a KDPI ≤ 20% deceased donor kidney for EPTS ≤ 20% candidates across regions using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 121 069 deceased donor kidney candidates, 28.5% had listing EPTS ≤ 20%. Of these, 16.1% received deceased donor kidney transplants (candidates listed EPTS > 20%: 17.1% transplanted) and 12.3% lost EPTS ≤ 20% status. Only 49.4% of transplanted EPTS ≤ 20% candidates received a KDPI ≤ 20% kidney, and 48.3% of KDPI ≤ 20% kidneys went to recipients with EPTS > 20% at the time of transplantation. Odds of receiving a KDPI ≤ 20% kidney were highest in region 6 and lowest in region 9 (odds ratio 0.19 [0.13 to 0.28]). The ratio of KDPI ≤ 20% donors per EPTS ≤ 20% candidate and likelihood of KDPI ≤ 20% transplantation were strongly correlated (r 2 = 0.84). DISCUSSION: Marked geographic variation in the likelihood of receiving a KDPI ≤ 20% deceased donor kidney among transplanted EPTS ≤ 20% candidates exists and is related to differences in organ availability within allocation borders. Policy changes to improve organ sharing are needed to improve equity in access to low KDPI kidneys.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e011766, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423877

RESUMO

Background Smoking is a significant risk factor for aortic stenosis but its impact on clinical and health status outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has not been described. Methods and Results Patients (n=72 165) undergoing TAVR at 457 US sites in the STS/ACC TVT (Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy) Registry between November 2011 and June 2016 were categorized at the time of TAVR as current/recent smokers versus prior/nonsmokers. A series of multivariable models examined the association between smoking status and outcomes, including 1-year mortality, rehospitalization, mean gradient, and health status (measured by the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Overall Summary Score [KCCQ-OS]) and in-hospital outcomes. A total of 4063 patients (5.6%) were smokers. Smokers presented for TAVR at a younger age (75 [68-81] years versus 83 [77-88] years) but with a greater burden of cardiovascular and lung disease. In adjusted models, smoking was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62-0.89 [P=0.001]) but not with in-hospital stroke/transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction. Smoking status had no association with postdischarge mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure (HF) but was associated with slightly lower 1-year KCCQ-OS scores (2.4-point lower KCCQ-OS; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.2 [P=0.031]) and higher mean aortic valve gradients (11.1 versus 10.2 mm Hg, P<0.001) in adjusted models. Conclusions The current/recent smoking rate in US patients with TAVR is 5.6% and smokers present at a younger age for TAVR. Smoking was associated with lower in-hospital but similar long-term survival after TAVR, slightly worse long-term health status, and marginally higher mean aortic valve gradients. Further research is needed to understand the effect of smoking cessation on outcomes.

15.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1704-1711, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on geographical variations in dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) cessation and the impact on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are limited. We sought to evaluate geographical patterns of DAPT cessation and associated outcomes in patients undergoing PCI in the United States versus Europe. METHODS: Analyzing data from the PARIS registry, we studied 3,660 U.S. patients (72.9%) and 1,358 European patients (27.1%) that underwent PCI with stent implantation. DAPT cessation was classified as physician-recommended discontinuation, interruption (< 14 days), or disruption due to bleeding or noncompliance. The primary endpoint was 2-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as a composite of cardiac death, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization. RESULTS: Cardiovascular risk factors were more common in the United States, whereas procedural complexity was greater in Europe. The incidence of 2-year DAPT discontinuation was significantly lower in U.S. versus European patients (30.7% vs. 65.6%; p < 0.001); however, rates of interruption (13.7% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.001) and disruption (17.7% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) were higher. DAPT discontinuation was associated with lower adjusted risk, whereas DAPT disruption was associated with greater risk for 2-year MACE, without interaction by region. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and DAPT cessation, 2-year MACE risk was not statistically different between regions (10.3% for Europe vs. 11.9% for U.S., adjusted hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.01, p = 0.065). CONCLUSION: DAPT cessation patterns, along with clinical and angiographic risk, vary substantially between PCI patients in the U.S. versus Europe. Despite such differences, cardiovascular risk associated with DAPT cessation remains uniform.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e1910312, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469394

RESUMO

Importance: In the United States, substantial disparities in access to kidney transplant exist for wait-listed candidates with end-stage renal disease. The implications of transplant centers' willingness to accept kidney offers for access to transplant and mortality outcomes are unknown. Objective: To determine the outcomes for wait-listed kidney transplant candidates after the transplant center's refusal of a deceased donor kidney offer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from the United Network for Organ Sharing Potential Transplant Recipient data set on all deceased donor kidney offers in the United States made between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015. The final study cohort included adult patients who were wait-listed for kidney transplant and received at least 1 allograft offer during the study period (N = 280 041). Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2018, to March 30, 2019. Exposure: Candidate state of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Waiting list outcome event groups included received deceased donor allograft, received living donor allograft, died while on the waiting list, removed from the waiting list without a transplant, or still on the waiting list at the end of follow-up. Results: Among the 280 041 kidney transplant candidates included in the study, the mean (SD) age at wait-listing was 51.1 (13.1) years, and male patients were predominant (171 517 [61.2%]). In this cohort, 81 750 candidates (29.2%) received a deceased donor kidney allograft, 30 870 (11.0%) received a living donor allograft, 25 967 (9.3%) died while on the waiting list, and 59 359 (21.2%) were removed from the waiting list. Overall, 10 candidates with at least 1 previous allograft offer died each day during the study period. Time to first offer was similar for candidates who received deceased donor kidney allograft compared with those who died while waiting (median [interquartile range {IQR}] time, 79 [16-426] days vs 78 [17-401] days, respectively). Deceased donor allograft recipients had a median of 17 offers (IQR, 6-44) over 422 days (IQR, 106-909 days), whereas candidates who died while waiting received a median of 16 offers (IQR, 6-41) over 651 days (IQR, 304-1117 days). Most kidneys (84%) were declined on behalf of at least 1 candidate before being accepted for transplant. As reported by centers, organ or donor quality concerns accounted for 8 416 474 (92.6%) of all declined offers, whereas offers were infrequently refused because of patient-related factors (232 193 [2.6%]), logistical limitations (49 492 [0.5%]), or other concerns. The odds of death after an offer and the median number of offers received prior to death varied considerably by state. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that transplant candidates appeared to receive a large number of viable deceased donor kidney offers that were refused on their behalf by transplant centers, potentially exacerbating the detrimental consequences of the organ shortage; increased transparency in organ allocation process and decisions may improve patient-centered care and access to kidney transplant.

17.
Am Heart J ; 216: 82-90, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415994

RESUMO

Coronary stenting without angioplasty pretreatment (direct stenting) may simplify procedures in appropriate lesions. Direct stenting is facilitated by smaller profile coronary stent platforms. The present study was designed for regulatory approval of a novel drug-eluting coronary stent and incorporates both randomized comparison for non-inferiority to an approved predicate device as well as a nested evaluation of subjects eligible for direct stenting. STUDY DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES: Prospective, single-blind, randomized, active-control, multi-center study designed to assess the safety and efficacy of the novel Svelte sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) systems. A total of 1630 subjects with up to 3 target lesions will be randomized 1:1 to the Svelte SES versus either the Xience or Promus everolimus-eluting stents (control). Randomization will be stratified by whether or not a direct stenting strategy is planned by the investigator. The primary endpoint is target lesion failure (TLF) at 12 months post index procedure, defined as cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization, and the primary analysis is a non-inferiority test with a non-inferiority margin of 3.58%. Secondary clinical endpoints include individual components of TLF, stent thrombosis and measures of procedural resource utilization including contrast administration, fluoroscopy exposure and procedural resource utilization as well as costs. CONCLUSION: The OPTMIZE Trial will evaluate the safety, efficacy and clinical value of the novel Svelte SES in subjects with up to 3 lesions, and will provide a comparison of direct stenting between randomized devices.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 68-72, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255451

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate changes in volume, risk profile, and outcomes among elderly individuals undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) after TAVR approval in the United States. Retrospective cohort study of patients ≥65 years old with at least one procedural code for isolated SAVR or TAVR among the Medicare beneficiaries between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. A total of 137,563 hospitalizations for isolated AVR between 2009 and 2014 were included (SAVR: 102,968 [74.9%]; TAVR: 34,595 [25.1%]). Overall AVR volumes increased by 21.8% per year after TAVR introduction, compared with 2.3% prior (p ≪ 0.001). Changes in SAVR volumes were similar both before and after TAVR introduction, (2.3% per year growth before vs. 2.1% after, p = 0.24). Although patient risk profiles increased among the AVR population (predicted 30-day mortality 4.0% in 2009 vs. 5.4% in 2014; p for trend =0.048), observed 30-day mortality (4.0% in 2009 vs. 3.9% in 2014; p for trend =0.96) and 1-year mortality (10.8% in 2009 to 12.2% in 2014; p for trend =0.069) rates remained stable. Among elderly U.S. patients enrolled in the Medicare, the introduction and the dissemination in the early phase of TAVR was associated with an expansion of AVR to high risk patients, without an observed reduction in the use of SAVR. This expansion was associated with similar mortality among all AVR patients, despite an increase in patient risk.

19.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(7): e007258, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open surgical closure and small-bore suture-based preclosure devices have limitations when used for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, or percutaneous thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The MANTA vascular closure device is a novel collagen-based technology designed to close large bore arteriotomies created by devices with an outer diameter ranging from 12F to 25F. In this study, we determined the safety and effectiveness of the MANTA vascular closure device. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective, single arm, multicenter investigation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement, percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, or thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair at 20 sites in North America. The primary outcome was time to hemostasis. The primary safety outcomes were accessed site-related vascular injury or bleeding complications. A total of 341 patients, 78 roll-in, and 263 in the primary analysis cohort, were entered in the study between November 2016 and September 2017. For the primary analysis cohort, transcatheter aortic valve replacement was performed in 210 (79.8%), and percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair was performed in 53 (20.2%). The 14F MANTA was used in 42 cases (16%), and the 18F was used in 221 cases(84%). The mean effective sheath outer diameter was 22F (7.3 mm). The mean time to hemostasis was 65±157 seconds with a median time to hemostasis of 24 seconds. Technical success was achieved in 257 (97.7%) patients, and a single device was deployed in 262 (99.6%) of cases. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 major vascular complications occurred in 11 (4.2%) cases: 4 received a covered stent (1.5%), 3 had access site bleeding (1.1%), 2 underwent surgical repair (0.8%), and 2 underwent balloon inflation (0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In a selected population, this study demonstrated that the MANTA percutaneous vascular closure device can safely and effectively close large bore arteriotomies created by current generation transcatheter aortic valve replacement, percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair devices. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02908880.

20.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 39, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171787

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most acute manifestation of coronary artery disease and is associated with great morbidity and mortality. A complete thrombotic occlusion developing from an atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary vessel is the cause of STEMI in the majority of cases. Early diagnosis and immediate reperfusion are the most effective ways to limit myocardial ischaemia and infarct size and thereby reduce the risk of post-STEMI complications and heart failure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI; if PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of STEMI diagnosis, fibrinolysis therapy should be administered to dissolve the occluding thrombus. The initiation of networks to provide around-the-clock cardiac catheterization availability and the generation of standard operating procedures within hospital systems have helped to reduce the time to reperfusion therapy. Together with new advances in antithrombotic therapy and preventive measures, these developments have resulted in a decrease in mortality from STEMI. However, a substantial amount of patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular events after STEMI. New insights have been gained regarding the pathophysiology of STEMI and feed into the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA