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1.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(6): 45, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932165

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APS ACTION is an international research network created to design and conduct large-scale, multicenter research in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Given the expanding research activities of the network in the last decade since its creation, the purpose of this article is to review the scientific contributions of APS ACTION as well as future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: APS ACTION has achieved increased international collaboration with internal and external investigators for outcome, interventional, and mechanistic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) studies. This has been linked to substantial progress in Core laboratory work, which has demonstrated that laboratories can achieve good agreement in performance of aPL assays by use of the same reagents, analyzer type, and protocols. APS ACTION will continue to identify gaps in the existing aPL/APS literature, design mechanistic studies to elucidate underlying mechanisms, and conduct prospective, large-scale clinical studies, all for the ultimate goal of early diagnosis and improved management of aPL-positive patients.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106425, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Assessment of cognition and everyday function is essential in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two novel measures of cognition (No Practice Effects (NPE) cognitive battery and Miami Computerized Functional Assessment Scale (CFAS)) were designed to have robust psychometric properties and reduced practice and ceiling effects. This study aims to evaluate if the NPE and CFAS demonstrate stronger psychometric properties and reduced practice effects compared with established measures, including the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). METHODS: This parallel group, four-site study will randomize 320 cognitively intact adults aged 60 to 85 years to novel or well-established measures of cognition and function. All participants will receive assessments at baseline (week 0), week 12, and week 52, as well as a brain MRI scan and Apolipoprotein E genetic test at study entry. Analyses will determine psychometric properties of the NPE and CFAS, compare the sensitivity of measures to AD risk markers, and identify cognitive domains within the NPE. DISCUSSION: Practice effects have been a major limitation of Alzheimer's disease clinical trials that typically assess cognitive changes over serial assessments. Detection of functional impairment in cognitively normal individuals with biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease requires instruments sensitive to very subtle functional changes. This study is intended to support the validation of two new composite measures, the NPE battery and the CFAS, which may advance clinical testing of interventions for individuals across the spectrum of early stage Alzheimer's disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03900273.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of small vessel disease (SVD) to anticoagulant-associated intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke-2 comprised two independent multicentre observation studies: first, a cross-sectional study of patients with ICH; and second, a prospective study of patients taking anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation (AF) after cerebral ischaemia. In patients with ICH, we compared SVD markers on CT and MRI according to prior anticoagulant therapy. In patients with AF and cerebral ischaemia treated with anticoagulants, we compared the rates of ICH and ischaemic stroke according to SVD burden score during 2 years follow-up. RESULTS: We included 1030 patients with ICH (421 on anticoagulants), and 1447 patients with AF and cerebral ischaemia. Medium-to-high severity SVD was more prevalent in patients with anticoagulant-associated ICH (CT 56.1%, MRI 78.7%) than in those without prior anticoagulant therapy (CT 43.5%, p<0.001; MRI 64.5%, p=0.072). Leukoaraiosis and atrophy were more frequent and severe in ICH associated with prior anticoagulation. In the cerebral ischaemia cohort (779 with SVD), during 3366 patient-years of follow-up the rate of ICH was 0.56%/year (IQR 0.27-1.03) in patients with SVD, and 0.06%/year (IQR 0.00-0.35) in those without (p=0.001); ICH was independently associated with severity of SVD (HR 5.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 12.2,p=0.001), and was predicted by models including SVD (c-index 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Medium-to-high severity SVD is associated with ICH occurring on anticoagulants, and independently predicts ICH in patients with AF taking anticoagulants; its absence identifies patients at low risk of ICH. Findings from these two complementary studies suggest that SVD is a contributory factor in ICH in patients taking anticoagulants and suggest that anticoagulation alone should no longer be regarded as a sufficient 'cause' of ICH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02513316.

4.
Neurology ; 96(15): e1954-e1965, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CT-based cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) biomarkers are associated with 6-month functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and whether these biomarkers improve the performance of the preexisting ICH prediction score. METHODS: We included 864 patients with acute ICH from a multicenter, hospital-based prospective cohort study. We evaluated CT-based SVD biomarkers (white matter hypodensities [WMH], lacunes, brain atrophy, and a composite SVD burden score) and their associations with poor 6-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score >2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow test were used to assess discrimination and calibration of the ICH score with and without SVD biomarkers. RESULTS: In multivariable models (adjusted for ICH score components), WMH presence (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.06), cortical atrophy presence (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73), deep atrophy presence (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.34), and severe atrophy (either deep or cortical) (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.36-2.74) were independently associated with poor functional outcome. For the revised ICH score, the AUROC was 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.74). Adding SVD markers did not significantly improve ICH score discrimination; for the best model (adding severe atrophy), the AUROC was 0.73 (95% CI 0.69-0.76). These results were confirmed when lobar and nonlobar ICH were considered separately. CONCLUSIONS: The ICH score has acceptable discrimination for predicting 6-month functional outcome after ICH. CT biomarkers of SVD are associated with functional outcome, but adding them does not significantly improve ICH score discrimination. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02513316.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Thromb Res ; 198: 213-221, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485122

RESUMO

Thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterised by venous, arterial and/or small vessel thrombosis in the context of persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The diagnosis and management of thrombotic APS continues to prove challenging for clinicians. We provide a practical guide to the diagnosis of APS including who to test for aPL and which tests to do. We also consider clinical practice points on the management of venous, arterial and small vessel thrombosis, in the context of first and recurrent thrombotic events. Non-criteria manifestations of APS are reviewed. An approach to recurrent thrombosis and anticoagulant-refractory APS is discussed, with options including increasing the anticoagulation intensity of vitamin K antagonists, switching to low-molecular-weight-heparin, the use of fondaparinux and/or the addition of antiplatelet treatment. Adjunctive options such as vitamin D, hydroxychloroquine and statins are also addressed.

6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(4): 892-908, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325604

RESUMO

Anticoagulation is central to the management of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The standard anticoagulant treatment for thrombotic APS is life-long warfarin or an alternative vitamin K antagonist. The role of direct oral anticoagulants for thrombotic APS is not established due to the lack of definitive evidence and has recently been addressed in international guidance. Other anticoagulant options include low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and fondaparinux. In APS patients, lupus anticoagulant can affect phospholipid-dependent coagulation monitoring tests, so that they may not reflect true anticoagulation intensity. Accurate assessment of anticoagulation intensity is essential, to optimize anticoagulant dosing and facilitate thrombus resolution; minimize the risk of recurrent thrombosis or bleeding; inform assessment of whether recurrent thrombosis is related to breakthrough thrombosis while on therapeutic anticoagulation, subtherapeutic anticoagulation, non-adherence, or spurious results; and guide the management of bleeding. Knowledge of anticoagulant intensity also informs assessment and comparison of anticoagulation regimens in clinical studies. Considerations regarding anticoagulation dosing and/or monitoring of thrombotic APS patients underpin appropriate management in special situations, notably APS-related severe renal impairment, which can occur in APS or APS/systemic lupus erythematosus-related nephropathy or catastrophic APS; and APS-related thrombocytopenia. Anticoagulant dosing and monitoring in thrombotic APS patients also require consideration in anticoagulant-refractory APS and during pregnancy. In this review, we summarize the tests generally used in monitoring anticoagulant therapy, use of the main anticoagulants considered for thrombotic APS, lupus anticoagulant effects on anticoagulation monitoring tests, and strategies for appropriate anticoagulant monitoring in thrombotic APS.

7.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: APS ACTION Registry studies long-term outcomes in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Our primary objective was to determine whether clinically meaningful aPL profiles at baseline remain stable over time. Our secondary objectives were to determine a) whether baseline characteristics differ between patients with stable and unstable aPL profiles, and b) predictors of unstable aPL profiles over time. METHODS: Clinically meaningful aPL profile was defined as positive lupus anticoagulant (LA) test and/or anticardiolipin (aCL)/anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I (aß2GPI) IgG/M ≥40 U. Stable aPL profile was defined as a clinically meaningful aPL profile in at least two-thirds of follow-up measurements. Generalized linear mixed models with logit link were used for primary objective analysis. RESULTS: Of 472 patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline (median follow up: 5.1 years), 366/472 (78%) patients had stable aPL profiles over time, 54 (11%) unstable; and 52 (11%) inconclusive. Time did not significantly affect odds of maintaining a clinically meaningful aPL profile at follow-up in univariate (p=0.906) and multivariable analysis (p=0.790). Baseline triple aPL positivity decreased (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.10-0.64, p=0.004) and isolated LA test positivity increased (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.53-7.13, p=0.002) the odds of an unstable aPL profile over time. CONCLUSION: Approximately 80% of our international cohort patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline maintain such at a median follow-up of five years; triple aPL-positivity increase the odds of a stable aPL profile. These results will guide future validation studies of stored blood samples through APS ACTION Core Laboratories.

8.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120029474, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The causes of recurrent ischemic stroke despite anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation are uncertain but might include small vessel occlusion. We investigated whether magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are associated with ischemic stroke risk during follow-up in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective multicenter inception cohort study of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation (CROMIS-2 [Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke Study]). We rated markers of SVD on baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging: basal ganglia perivascular spaces (number ≥11); cerebral microbleeds (number ≥1); lacunes (number ≥1); and white matter hyperintensities (periventricular Fazekas grade 3 or deep white matter Fazekas grade ≥2). We investigated the associations of SVD presence (defined as presence of ≥1 SVD marker) and severity (composite SVD score) with the risk of ischemic stroke during follow-up using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age 65-74, female score. RESULTS: We included 1419 patients (mean age: 75.8 years [SD, 10.4]; 42.1% female). The ischemic stroke rate during follow-up in patients with any SVD was 2.20 per 100-patient years (95% CI, 1.60-3.02), compared with 0.98 per 100 patient-years (95% CI, 0.59-1.62) in those without SVD (P=0.008). After adjusting for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age 65-74, female score, SVD presence remained significantly associated with ischemic stroke during follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.01-3.53]; P=0.046); the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke increased with SVD score (hazard ratio per point increase, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]; P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, magnetic resonance imaging markers of SVD are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke during follow-up; improved stroke prevention treatments are required in this population. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02513316.

10.
Lupus ; 29(12): 1571-1593, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100166

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an acquired autoimmune thrombophilia, is characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. The 16th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force on APS Treatment Trends reviewed the current status with regard to existing and novel treatment trends for APS, which is the focus of this Task Force report. The report addresses current treatments and developments since the last report, on the use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with APS, antiplatelet agents, adjunctive therapies (hydroxychloroquine, statins and vitamin D), targeted treatment including rituximab, belimumab, and anti-TNF agents, complement inhibition and drugs based on peptides of beta-2-glycoprotein I. In addition, the report summarises potential new players, including coenzyme Q10, adenosine receptor agonists and adenosine potentiation. In each case, the report provides recommendations for clinicians, based on the current state of the art, and suggests a clinical research agenda. The initiation and development of appropriate clinical studies requires a focus on devising suitable outcome measures, including a disease activity index, an optimal damage index, and a specific quality of life index.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline characteristics of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients, overall and by clinical and laboratory subtypes, enrolled in an international registry. METHODS: AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking Registry includes persistently aPL-positive adults. We evaluated baseline sociodemographic and aPL-related (APS classification criteria and "non-criteria") characteristics of patients overall and in subgroups (aPL-positive without APS, APS overall, thrombotic APS [TAPS] only, obstetric APS [OAPS] only, and both TAPS/OAPS). We assessed baseline characteristics of patients tested for three aPL (lupus anticoagulant test [LA], anticardiolipin antibody [aCL], and anti-ß2 -Glycoprotein-I [aß2 GPI]) by aPL profiles (LA only, single, double, and triple aPL positivity). RESULTS: Of 804 aPL-positive patients (mean age: 45 ± 13y; female: 74%; white 68%; other systemic autoimmune diseases: 36%), 80% were classified as APS (55% TAPS, 9% OAPS, and 15% TAPS/OAPS). In the overall cohort, 71% had vascular thrombosis, 50% with pregnancy history had obstetric morbidity, and 56% had at least one non-criteria manifestation. Among those with three aPL tested (n: 660), 42% were triple aPL positive. While single, double and triple aPL positive subgroups had similar frequencies of vascular, obstetric, and non-criteria events, these events were lowest in the single aPL subgroup consisting of aCL or aß2 GPI only. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the heterogeneity of aPL-related clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in a multicenter, international cohort. Within single aPL-positivity, LA may be a major contributor to clinical events. Future prospective analyses, using standardized core laboratory aPL tests, will help clarify aPL risk profiles and improve risk stratification.

12.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898856

RESUMO

The standard treatment of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is lifelong oral anticoagulation with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), generally warfarin. A minority of APS patients re-thrombose despite seemingly adequate anticoagulation. These patients are deemed anticoagulant-refractory. The management of anticoagulant-refractory APS is largely empirical and extrapolated from other clinically similar situations. Further options include increased VKA anticoagulation intensity or alternative antithrombotic strategies, including low-molecular-weight heparin, fondaparinux, the addition of antiplatelet therapy and consideration of vascular options. Anticoagulant-refractory thrombotic APS patients may have APS-associated thrombocytopenia, which necessitates balancing the risk of recurrent thrombosis versus bleeding, to achieve adequate anticoagulation. The multiple mechanisms involved in the generation of the thrombotic phenotype in APS suggest that anticoagulation alone may not control thrombosis. Thus, other modalities, including adjunctive treatment (hydroxychloroquine, statins and vitamin D) for APS-related thrombosis merit consideration, as well as immunomodulatory therapy and complement inhibition. APS patients may have coexistent systemic lupus erythematosus, which adds to the complexity of managing their thromboembolic disease. However, with attention to detail and judicious application of the limited data, it is possible to minimise the morbidity resulting from anticoagulant-refractory thrombotic APS. Multicentre studies are required to guide the sequence of interventions and their comparative efficacy in patients with anticoagulant-refractory thrombotic APS.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15529, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968133

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening emergency, the incidence of which has increased in part due to an increase in the use of oral anticoagulants. A blood-fluid level within the haematoma, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), has been suggested as a marker for oral anticoagulant-associated ICH (OAC-ICH), but the diagnostic specificity and prognostic value of this finding remains unclear. In 855 patients with CT-confirmed acute ICH scanned within 48 h of symptom onset, we investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the presence of a CT-defined blood-fluid level (rated blinded to anticoagulant status) for identifying concomitant anticoagulant use. We also investigated the association of the presence of a blood-fluid level with six-month case fatality. Eighteen patients (2.1%) had a blood-fluid level identified on CT; of those with a blood-fluid level, 15 (83.3%) were taking anticoagulants. The specificity of blood-fluid level for OAC-ICH was 99.4%; the sensitivity was 4.2%. We could not detect an association between the presence of a blood-fluid level and an increased risk of death at six months (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.28-3.88, p = 0.769). The presence of a blood-fluid level should alert clinicians to the possibility of OAC-ICH, but absence of a blood-fluid level is not useful in excluding OAC-ICH.

14.
J Neurol Sci ; 418: 117141, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the clinical benefit of admission to critical care after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). PURPOSE: We investigated factors associated with critical care admission after spontaneous ICH and evaluated associations between critical care and 6-month functional outcome. METHODS: We included 825 patients with acute spontaneous non-traumatic ICH, recruited to a prospective multicenter observational study. We evaluated the characteristics associated with critical care admission and poor 6-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS > 3) using univariable (chi-square test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as appropriate) and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: 286 patients (38.2%) had poor 6-month functional outcome. Seventy-seven (9.3%) patients were admitted to critical care. Patients admitted to critical care were younger (p < 0.001), had lower GCS score (p < 0.001), larger ICH volume (p < 0.001), more often had intraventricular extension (p = 0.008) and underwent neurosurgery (p < 0.001). Critical care admission was associated with poor functional outcome at 6 months (39/77 [50.7%] vs 286/748 [38.2%]; p = 0.034); adjusted OR 2.43 [95%CI 1.36-4.35], p = 0.003), but not with death (OR 1.29 [95%CI 0.71-2.35; p = 0.4). In ordinal logistic regression, patients admitted to critical care showed an OR 1.47 (95% CI 0.98-2.20; p = 0.07) for a shift in the 6-month modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Admission to critical care is associated with poor 6-month functional outcome after spontaneous ICH but not with death. Patients admitted to critical care were a priori more severely affected. Although adjusted for main known predictors of poor outcome, our findings could still be confounded by unmeasured factors. Establishing the true effectiveness of critical care after ICH requires a randomised trial with clinical outcomes and quality of life assessments.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for thromboembolism in SLE are poorly understood. We hypothesized a possible role for protein C, based on its dual activity in inflammation and haemostasis and on the evidence of an association between acquired activated protein C (APC) resistance (APCR) and high-avidity anti-protein C antibodies (anti-PC) with a severe thrombotic phenotype in venous thrombosis APS patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 156 SLE patients, the presence and avidity of IgG anti-PC was established by in house-ELISA, and APCR to exogenous recombinant human APC (rhAPC) and Protac (which activates endogenous protein C) was assessed by thrombin generation-based assays. Associations with aPL profile, thrombotic history and disease activity (BILAG and SLEDAI-2K) were also established. RESULTS: Anti-PC were detected in 54.5% of patients and APCR in 59%. Anti-PC positivity was associated with APCR to both rhAPC (P <0.0001) and Protac (P =0.0001). High-avidity anti-PC, detected in 26.3% of SLE patients, were associated with APCR in patients with thrombosis only (P <0.05), and with the development of thrombosis over time (range: 0-52 years; P =0.014). High-avidity anti-PC levels correlated with SLEDAI-2K (P =0.033) and total BILAG (P =0.019); SLEDAI-2K correlated inversely with APCR to Protac (P =0.004). CONCLUSION: Anti-PC occur in patients with SLE, independently of aPL profile, and are associated with APCR. High-avidity anti-PC are associated with thrombosis and with active disease and might prove a novel marker to monitor the risk of thrombosis and disease progression in SLE.

16.
Pract Neurol ; 20(5): 356-367, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958591

RESUMO

All neurologists need to be able to recognise and treat cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). It is difficult to diagnose, partly due to its relative rarity, its multiple and various clinical manifestations (different from 'conventional' stroke, and often mimicking other acute neurological conditions), and because it is often challenging to obtain and interpret optimal and timely brain imaging. Although CVT can result in death or permanent disability, it generally has a favourable prognosis if diagnosed and treated early. Neurologists involved in stroke care therefore also need to be aware of the treatments for CVT (with varying degrees of supporting evidence): the mainstay is prompt anticoagulation but patients who deteriorate despite treatment can be considered for endovascular procedures (endovascular thrombolysis or thrombectomy) or neurosurgery (decompressive craniotomy). This review summarises current knowledge on the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of CVT in adults, and highlights some areas for future research.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2126-2137, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881337

RESUMO

Clarity and guidance is required with regard to the use of direct oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients, within the confines of the recent European Medicines Agency recommendations, discrepant recommendations in other international guidelines and the limited evidence base. To address this, the Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibodies Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) chair and co-chairs together with SSC Control of Anticoagulation members propose guidance for healthcare professionals to help them manage APS patients. Uncertainty in this field will be addressed. This guidance will also serve as a call and focus for research.

18.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2192-e2199, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) within the basal ganglia or deep cerebral white matter are risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in patients taking oral anticoagulants (OACs), independent of established clinical and radiologic risk factors, we conducted a post hoc analysis of Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke (CROMIS-2) (atrial fibrillation [AF]), a prospective inception cohort study. METHODS: Patients with atrial fibrillation and recent TIA or ischemic stroke underwent standardized MRI prior to starting OAC. We rated basal ganglia PVS (BGPVS) and centrum semiovale PVS (CSOPVS), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), white matter hyperintensities, and lacunes. We dichotomized the PVS rating using a threshold of >10 PVS in the relevant region of either cerebral hemisphere. The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). We identified risk factors for sICH using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 1,386 participants with available clinical and imaging variables were followed up for a mean of 2.34 years; 14 sICH occurred (11 intracerebral). In univariable analysis, diabetes, CMB presence, lacune presence, and >10 BGPVS, but not CSOPVS, were associated with sICH. In a multivariable model incorporating all variables with significant associations in univariable analysis, >10 BGPVS (hazard ratio [HR] 8.96, 95% [CI] 2.41-33.4, p = 0.001) and diabetes (HR 3.91, 95% CI 1.34-11.4) remained significant risk factors for sICH. CONCLUSION: Enlarged BGPVS might be a novel risk factor for OAC-related ICH. The strength of this association and potential use in predicting ICH in clinical practice should be investigated in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Sistema Glinfático/patologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(8): e613-e623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735839

RESUMO

Lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin or alternative vitamin K antagonist is the standard anticoagulant treatment for thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome. Anticoagulant-refractory thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome can be broadly defined as breakthrough thrombosis while on standard oral anticoagulation treatment and its management is a major challenge given the serious nature of the thrombotic disease observed, which has become refractory to oral anticoagulation. The factors (genetic and cellular) that cause anticoagulant-refractory thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome are now better understood. However, efforts to use this greater understanding have not yet transformed the capacity to treat it successfully in many patients. In this Viewpoint, we review the factors that are likely to be contributing to the cause of this syndrome and consider how they might be modified or inhibited. We also discuss management, including general strategies to minimise thrombotic risk, intensification of anticoagulation, addition of an antiplatelet agent, adjunctive treatment for thrombosis, immunomodulatory therapy, complement inhibition, vascular options, and future potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/terapia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/patologia , Humanos , Trombose/patologia
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2557-2565, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uterine venous plexus (UVP) is an unusual site for venous thrombosis (VT). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of UVP thrombosis (UVPT) and identify associated risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on consecutive nonpregnant women attending our general gynecology clinic with a wide variety of presenting symptoms over a 16-month period. All women underwent a transvaginal ultrasound scan which involved detailed examination of the uterine venous plexus. Women diagnosed with incidental UVPT had thrombophilia screening, lower limb venous duplex imaging, and specialist hematological review. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between various risk factors and UVPT. RESULTS: We screened 1383 women, 39 of whom had an incidental UVPT, giving a prevalence of 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1%-4.1%). Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between multiparity (odds ratio [OR] 5.75 [95% CI 2.10, 15.7]), recent surgery (OR 3.10 [95% CI 1.19, 8.07]), presence of leg varicose veins (OR 3.15 [95% CI 1.32, 7.49]), and a family history of venous thromboembolism (OR 8.74 [1.65, 46.4]) and negative associations between postmenopausal status (OR 0.36 [95% CI 0.13, 0.95]) and the development of UVPT. Thrombophilia was detected in 12.8% women diagnosed with UVPT. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of incidental UVPT in a general gynecology population was 3.0%. Several demographic and clinical factors were found to be associated with UVPT. This could help to identify women at risk of this condition, and facilitate its early detection and development of evidence-based management strategies.

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