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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102525, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240856

RESUMO

Azathioprine (AZA), an oral immunosuppressant, is safe during pregnancy. Some reports suggested different impairments in the offspring of mothers with autoimmune diseases (AI) exposed in utero to AZA. These observations are available from retrospective studies or case reports. However, data with respect to the long-term safety in the antenatally exposed child are still lacking. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge in this field and to focus on the need for a prospective study on this population. We performed a PubMed search using several search terms. The actual data show that although the risk of congenital anomalies in offspring, as well as the infertility risk, are similar to those found in general population, there is a higher incidence of prematurity, of lower weight at birth and an intra-uterine delay of development. There is also an increased risk of materno- fetal infections, especially cytomegalovirus infection. Some authors raise the interrogations about neurocognitive impairment. Even though the adverse outcomes might well be a consequence of maternal illness and disease activity, interest has been raised about a contribution of this drug. However, the interferences between the external agent (in utero exposure to AZA), with the host (child genetic susceptibility, immune system anomalies, emotional status), environment (public health, social context, availability of health care), economic, social, and behavioral conditions, cultural patterns, are complex and represent confounding factors. In conclusion, it is necessary to perform studies on the medium and long-term outcome of children born by mothers with autoimmune diseases, treated with AZA, in order to show the safety of AZA exposure. Only large-scale population studies with long-term follow-up will allow to formally conclude in this field. TAKE HOME MESSAGES.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We wished to determine whether early and late death are associated with different baseline factors in intracerebral haemorrhage survivors. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the multicentre prospective observational CROMIS-2 ICH study. Death was defined as "early" if occurring within 6 months of study entry, and "late" if occurring after this time point. RESULTS: In our cohort (n=1094), there were 306 deaths (per 100 patient-years: absolute event rate 11.7, 95% CI 10.5 to 13.1); 156 were "early" and 150 "late". In multivariable analyses, early death was independently associated with age (per year increase, HR 1.05, p=0.003), history of hypertension (HR 1.89, p=0.038), pre-event mRS (per point increase, HR 1.41, p<0.0001), admission NIHSS (per point increase, HR 1.11, p<0.0001), and haemorrhage volume > 60ml (HR 4.08, p<0.0001). Late death showed independent associations with age (per year increase, HR 1.04, p=0.003), pre-event mRS (per point increase, HR 1.42, p=0.001), prior anticoagulant use (HR 2.13, p=0.028) and the presence of intraventricular extension (HR 1.73, p=0.033) in multivariable analyses. In further analyses where time was treated as continuous (rather than dichotomised), the hazard ratio of previous cerebral ischaemic events increased with time, whilst those for GCS, NIHSS and ICH volume decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: We provide new evidence that not all baseline factors associated with early mortality after intracerebral haemorrhage are associated with mortality after 6 months, and that the effects of baseline variables change over time. Our findings could help design better prognostic scores for later death after intracerebral haemorrhage.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e014537, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902325

RESUMO

Background It is likely that a proportion of poststroke cognitive impairment is sometimes attributable to unidentified prestroke decline; prestroke cognitive function is also clinically relevant because it is associated with poor functional outcomes, including death. We investigated the radiological and prognostic associations of preexisting cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack associated with atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results We included 1102 patients from the prospective multicenter observational CROMIS-2 (Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke 2) atrial fibrillation study. Preexisting cognitive impairment was identified using the 16-item Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Functional outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale. Preexisting cognitive impairment was common (n=271; 24.6%). The presence of lacunes (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05; P=0.034), increasing periventricular white matter hyperintensity grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17-1.63; P<0.0001), deep white matter hyperintensity grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51; P=0.011), and medial temporal atrophy grade (per grade increase, OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34-1.95; P<0.0001) were independently associated with preexisting cognitive impairment. Preexisting cognitive impairment was associated with poorer functional outcome at 24 months (mRS >2; adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.20; P=0.001). Conclusions Preexisting cognitive impairment in patients with atrial fibrillation-associated ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack is common, and associated with imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegeneration, as well as with longer-term functional outcome. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02513316.

5.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 298-304, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Haptoglobin is a haemoglobin-scavenging protein that binds and neutralises free haemoglobin and modulates inflammation and endothelial progenitor cell function. A HP gene copy number variation (CNV) generates HP1 and HP2 alleles, while the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2000999 influences their levels. The HP1 allele is hypothesised to improve outcome after spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the associations of the HP CNV genotype and rs2000999 with haematoma volume, perihaematomal oedema (PHO) volume, functional outcome and mortality after ICH. METHODS: We included patients with neuroimaging-proven ICH, available DNA and 6-month follow-up in an observational cohort study (CROMIS-2). We classified patients into three groups according to the HP CNV: 1-1, 2-1 or 2-2 and also dichotomised HP into HP1-containing genotypes (HP1-1 and HP2-1) and HP2-2 to evaluate the HP1 allele. We measured ICH and PHO volume on CT; PHO was measured by oedema extension distance. Functional outcome was assessed by modified Rankin score (unfavourable outcome defined as mRS 3-6). RESULTS: We included 731 patients (mean age 73.4, 43.5% female). Distribution of HP CNV genotype was: HP1-1 n=132 (18.1%); HP2-1 n=342 (46.8%); and HP2-2 n=257 (35.2%). In the multivariable model mortality comparisons between HP groups, HP2-2 as reference, were as follows: OR HP1-1 0.73, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.56 (p value=0.41) and OR HP2-1 0.5, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.89 (p value=0.02) (overall p value=0.06). We found no evidence of association of HP CNV or rs200999 with functional outcome, ICH volume or PHO volume. CONCLUSION: The HP2-1 genotype might be associated with lower 6-month mortality after ICH; this finding merits further study.

6.
Blood Rev ; 39: 100610, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471128

RESUMO

Beta-2-Glycoprotein I (ß2GPI) plays a number of essential roles throughout the body. ß2GPI, C-reactive protein and thrombomodulin are the only three proteins that possess the dual capability to up and down regulate the complement and coagulation systems depending upon external stimulus. Clinically, ß2GPI is the primary antigen in the autoimmune condition antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is typically characterised by pregnancy morbidity and vascular thrombosis. This protein is also capable of adopting at least two distinct structural forms, but it has been argued that several other intermediate forms may exist. Thus, ß2GPI is a unique protein with a key role in haemostasis, homeostasis and immunity. In this review, we examine the genetics, structure and function of ß2GPI in the body and how these factors may influence its contribution to disease pathogenesis. We also consider the clinical implications of ß2GPI in the diagnosis of APS and as a potentially novel therapeutic target.

7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 84: 237.e1-237.e3, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582231

RESUMO

The chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) GGGGCC repeat expansion has been associated with several diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. It has also been associated with increased white matter changes in frontotemporal dementia and risk of cognitive impairment in ALS. Dementia is common both before and after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Because the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in patients with ICH are uncertain, we investigated whether C9orf72 could influence dementia risk in this patient group. Therefore, we genotyped 1010 clinically characterized ICH cases and 2147 population controls in comparison with prior data of dementia and ALS cases. We did not find any association between C9orf72 repeat expansion and repeat size with ICH compared with controls or with dementia when assessing ICH patients only. The frequency of C9orf72 expansions in our series of individuals born in 1946 (2/2147) and other U.K. controls was age dependent, decreasing with increasing age, highlighting the high age-dependent penetrance of this expansion.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14146, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578348

RESUMO

Obsessive and Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the context of schizophrenia or related disorders are of clinical importance as these are associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Natural Language Processing (NLP) applied to Electronic Health Records (EHRs) presents an opportunity to create large datasets to facilitate research in this area. This is a challenging endeavour however, because of the wide range of ways in which these symptoms are recorded, and the overlap of terms used to describe OCS with those used to describe other conditions. We developed an NLP algorithm to extract OCS information from a large mental healthcare EHR data resource at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust using its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) facility. We extracted documents from individuals who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. These text documents, annotated by human coders, were used for developing and refining the NLP algorithm (600 documents) with an additional set reserved for final validation (300 documents). The developed NLP algorithm utilized a rules-based approach to identify each of symptoms associated with OCS, and then combined them to determine the overall number of instances of OCS. After its implementation, the algorithm was shown to identify OCS with a precision and recall (with 95% confidence intervals) of 0.77 (0.65-0.86) and 0.67 (0.55-0.77) respectively. The development of this application demonstrated the potential to extract complex symptomatic data from mental healthcare EHRs using NLP to facilitate further analyses of these clinical symptoms and their relevance for prognosis and intervention response.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2069-2080, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variability remains a challenge in lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing. OBJECTIVE: To validate LA test performance between Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking (APS ACTION) Core laboratories and examine agreement in LA status between Core and local/hospital laboratories contributing patients to this prospective registry. METHODS: Five Core laboratories used the same reagents, analyzer type, protocols, and characterized samples for LA validation. Non-anticoagulated registry samples were retested at the corresponding regional Core laboratories and anticoagulated samples at a single Core laboratory. Categorical agreement and discrepancies in LA status between Core and local/hospital laboratories were analyzed. RESULTS: Clotting times for the reference/characterized plasmas used for normalized ratios were similar between Core laboratories (CV <4%); precision and agreement for LA positive/negative plasma were similar (all CV ≤5%) in the four laboratories that completed both parts of the validation exercise; 418 registry samples underwent LA testing. Agreement for LA positive/negative status between Core and local/hospital laboratories was observed in 87% (115/132) non-anticoagulated and 77% (183/237) anticoagulated samples. However, 28.7% (120/418) of samples showed discordance between the Core and local/hospital laboratories or equivocal LA results. Some of the results of the local/hospital laboratories might have been unreliable in 24.7% (41/166) and 23% (58/252) of the total non-anticoagulated and anticoagulated samples, respectively. Equivocal results by the Core laboratory might have also contributed to discordance. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratories can achieve good agreement in LA performance by use of the same reagents, analyzer type, and protocols. The standardized Core laboratory results underpin accurate interpretation of APS ACTION clinical data.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028387, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report on: (1) the proportion of patients with known atrial fibrillation (AF); and (2) demographic, clinical or radiological differences between patients with known AF (and not treated) and patients with newly diagnosed AF, in a cohort of patients who presented with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) not previously treated with anticoagulation. DESIGN: We reviewed cross-sectional baseline demographic and clinical data from a prospective observational cohort study, (CROMIS-2). SETTING: Patients were recruited from 79 hospital stroke centres throughout the UK and one centre in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were eligible if they were adults who presented with ischaemic stroke or TIA and AF and had not been previously treated with oral anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of patients with known AF before index ischaemic stroke or TIA from a cohort of patients who have not been previously treated with oral anticoagulation. Secondary analysis includes the comparison of CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores and other demographics and risk factors between those with newly diagnosed AF and those with previously known AF. RESULTS: Of 1470 patients included in the analysis (mean age 76 years (SD 10)), 622 (42%) were female; 999 (68%) patients had newly diagnosed AF and 471 (32%) patients had known AF. Of the 471 patients with known AF, 68% had a strong indication for anticoagulation and 89% should have been considered for anticoagulation based upon CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with known AF were more likely to have a prior history of dementia (4% vs 2%, p=0.02) and had higher HAS-BLED scores (median 3 vs 2). CHA2DS2-VASc, other risk factors and demographics were similar. CONCLUSIONS: About 1/3 of patients who present with stroke and have AF who have not been treated with oral anticoagulation have previously known AF. Of these patients, at least 68% were not adequately treated with oral anticoagulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02513316.

11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(10): 1715-1732, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines have contributed to more uniformity in the performance and interpretation of lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing. However, points to reconsider include testing for LA in patients on anticoagulation, cut-off values, and interpretation of results. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Scientific and Standardization committee (ISTH SSC) questionnaire was to capture the spectrum of clinical and laboratory practice in LA detection, focusing on variability in practice, so that the responses could inform further ISTH SSC recommendations. METHODS: Members of the ISTH SSC on Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibodies and participants of the Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibodies Programme of the External quality Control of diagnostic Assays and Tests Foundation were invited to complete a questionnaire on LA testing that was placed on the ISTH website using RedCap, with data tallied using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS: There was good agreement on several key recommendations in the ISTH and other guidelines on LA testing, such as sample processing, principles of testing, choice of tests, repeat testing to confirm persistent positivity and the use of interpretative reporting. However, the results highlight that there is less agreement on some other aspects, including the timing of testing in relation to thrombosis or pregnancy, testing in patients on anticoagulation, cut-off values, and calculation and interpretation of results. CONCLUSIONS: Although some of the variability in practice in LA testing reflects the lack of substantive data to underpin evidence-based recommendations, a more uniform approach, based on further guidance, should reduce the inter-center variability of LA testing.

12.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(2): 456-472, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225594

RESUMO

Organisms are composed of hierarchically arranged component parts that must work together to successfully achieve whole organism functions. In addition to integration among individual parts, some ecological demands require functional systems to work together in a type of inter-system performance integration. While performance can be measured by the ability to successfully accomplish ecologically relevant tasks, integration across performance traits can provide a deeper understanding of how these traits allow an organism to survive. The ability to move and the ability to consume food are essential to life, but during prey capture these two functions are typically integrated. Suction-feeding fishes have been used as a model of these interactions, but it is unclear how other ecologically relevant scenarios might reduce or change integration. To stimulate further research into these ideas, we highlight three contexts with the potential to result in changes in integration and underlying performance traits: (1) behavioral flexibility in aquatic feeding modes for capturing alternative prey types, (2) changes in the physical demands imposed by prey capture across environments, and (3) secondary adaptation for suction prey capture behaviors. These examples provide a broad scope of potential drivers of integration that are relevant to selection pressures experienced across vertebrate evolution. To demonstrate how these ideas can be applied and stimulate hypotheses, we provide observations from preliminary analyses of locally adapted populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) capturing prey using suction and biting feeding strategies and an Atlantic mudskipper (Periophthalmus barbarus) capturing prey above and below water. We also include a re-analysis of published data from two species of secondarily aquatic cetaceans, beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), to examine the potential for secondary adaptation to affect integration in suction prey capture behaviors. Each of these examples support the broad importance of integration between locomotor and feeding performance but outline new ways that these relationships can be important when suction demands are reduced or altered. Future work in these areas will yield promising insights into vertebrate evolution and we hope to encourage further discussion on possible avenues of research on functional integration during prey capture.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Poecilia/fisiologia
13.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 49(3): 464-468, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and history of recurrent thrombosis have higher levels of adjusted Global AntiphosPholipid Syndrome Score (aGAPSS) when compared to patients without recurrent thrombosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients, we identified APS patients with a history of documented thrombosis from the AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance For Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION) Clinical Database and Repository ("Registry"). Data on aPL-related medical history and cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively collected. The aGAPSS was calculated at Registry entry by adding the points corresponding to the risk factors: three for hyperlipidemia, one for arterial hypertension, five for positive anticardiolipin antibodies, four for positive anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I antibodies and four for positive lupus anticoagulant test. RESULTS: The analysis included 379 APS patients who presented with arterial and/or venous thrombosis. Overall, significantly higher aGAPSS were seen in patients with recurrent thrombosis (arterial or venous) compared to those without recurrence (7.8 ±â€¯3.3 vs. 6 ±â€¯3.9, p<0.05). When analyzed based on the site of the recurrence, patients with recurrent arterial, but not venous, thrombosis had higher aGAPSS (8.1 ± SD 2.9 vs. 6 ±â€¯3.9; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on analysis of our international large-scale Registry of aPL-positive patients, the aGAPSS might help risk stratifying patients based on the likelihood of developing recurrent thrombosis in APS.

14.
Chem Senses ; 44(6): 365-369, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111142

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the long-term test-retest reliability of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and its individual items, in cognitively intact older adults. A community sample of older adults received a neuropsychological test battery, including the 12-item, 6-trial Selective Reminding Test (SRT). The UPSIT was administered at baseline and follow-up that occurred between 1 and 4 years after baseline. UPSIT scores of participants who were cognitively intact and did not decline cognitively were examined for test-retest reliability. In 92 older adults with mean age 77.6 years followed for 2.79 (standard deviation [SD] 0.69) years, mean UPSIT score declined from 30.29 (SD 5.83) to 27.80 (SD 5.50). In linear mixed models that adjusted for time, age, sex, and education, intraclass correlation coefficients for UPSIT were 0.65, SRT delayed recall 0.59, and SRT total immediate recall 0.49. Among 4 possible response combinations, the largest proportion of participants had correct responses at both visits for 35 out of 40 items. Consistency of item responses ranged from 50% to 90% across the 2 time points. The long-term test-retest reliability of the UPSIT was moderately strong without practice effects over long periods of time in older adults. These results provide indirect support to prior findings on odor identification impairment predicting cognitive decline and dementia, and suggest potential use of olfactory testing as a biomarker in prevention and treatment trials of cognitive enhancers.

15.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1250-1259, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847646

RESUMO

Post-stroke dementia is common but has heterogenous mechanisms that are not fully understood, particularly in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related ischaemic stroke or TIA. We investigated the relationship between MRI small-vessel disease markers (including a composite cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA, score) and cognitive trajectory over 12 months. We included patients from the CROMIS-2 AF study without pre-existing cognitive impairment and with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) data. Cognitive impairment was defined as MoCA < 26. We defined "reverters" as patients with an "acute" MoCA (immediately after the index event) score < 26, who then improved by ≥ 2 points at 12 months. In our cohort (n = 114), 12-month MoCA improved overall relative to acute performance (mean difference 1.69 points, 95% CI 1.03-2.36, p < 0.00001). 12-month cognitive impairment was associated with increasing CAA score (per-point increase, adjusted OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.36-12.33, p = 0.012). Of those with abnormal acute MoCA score (n = 66), 59.1% (n = 39) were "reverters". Non-reversion was associated with centrum semi-ovale perivascular spaces (per-grade increase, unadjusted OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06-3.15, p = 0.03), cerebral microbleeds (unadjusted OR 10.86, 95% CI 1.22-96.34, p = 0.03), and (negatively) with multiple ischaemic lesions at baseline (unadjusted OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.90, p = 0.04), as well as composite small-vessel disease (per-point increase, unadjusted OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.23-6.88, p = 0.015) and CAA (per-point increase, unadjusted OR 6.71, 95% CI 2.10-21.50, p = 0.001) scores. In AF-related acute ischaemic stroke or TIA, cerebral small-vessel disease is associated both with cognitive performance at 12 months and failure to improve over this period.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
16.
Thromb Res ; 175: 32-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The APS ACTION International Clinical Database and Repository includes a secure web-based data capture system storing patient information including demographics, antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-related medical history, and aPL tests. Despite efforts at harmonization, inter-assay variability remains a problem in aPL testing. As a clinical repository open to researchers, ensuring comparability between assays and consistency in results between APS ACTION laboratories is essential to the validity of studies emerging from this network. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of agreement between an aPL-registry inclusion and core laboratory (core lab) anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I antibody (aß2GPI) ELISA testing results. METHODS: Patients are recruited from 25 international centers based on positive aPL tests at inclusion. All samples are retested at the corresponding national APS ACTION core lab to confirm aPL positivity based on standard validated protocols. We analysed the categorical agreement, degree of linear association, and correlation between inclusion (local laboratory) and core lab aPL tests. Samples were included in this study only if results of aPL testing with ELISA at baseline were available. RESULTS: 497 registry samples underwent confirmatory aPL tests. Categorical agreement between the inclusion and core lab values, as expressed by Cohen's kappa coefficients, ranged between 0.61 and 0.80 (as substantial agreement). The correlation between quantitative results in the aCL and aß2GPI was better for IgM and IgA compared to IgG (Spearman rho 0.789 and 0.666 vs. 0.600 for aCL and rho 0.892 and 0.744 vs. 0.432 for aß2GPI). CONCLUSIONS: The results of inclusion for aCL and aß2GPI tests used for recruitment into the registry were in agreement to the results obtained by the APS ACTION core laboratories; aCL and aß2GPI results showed very good categorical agreement. This agreement increased when considering high titer (>40 units) samples. APS ACTION is a reliable and useful research resource for APS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(1): 54-57, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384759

RESUMO

Although the major burden of disease caused by smoking is observed in the adult population, two-third of smokers start before the age of 18 years. Reducing the number of young smokers could lead to marked improvements to the health of the UK population and save billions of pounds in National Health Service finances. However, very little is known about what makes children decide to not smoke or to quit early. We believe that increased awareness of the health risks associated with smoking will reduce smoking uptake among children. This study identifies a significant lack of knowledge among children aged 11-17 years at two London secondary schools and potentially identifies an area for improving our antismoking programmes. Although 80% of pupils cited lung cancer as being a smoking-related disease, very few other conditions could be recalled. We must do all we can to reduce smoking uptake in children. Understanding their baseline knowledge is the first step towards addressing the deficits in our current antismoking programmes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(6): 940-952, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380105

RESUMO

Cerebral and cardiovascular ischaemic events are frequent complications of SLE and constitute primary causes of permanent damage. However, the pathogenic determinants of an increased thromboembolic risk in patients with SLE are only partially understood. Atherosclerosis constitutes fertile soil for the development of thrombosis and shows disproportionately high prevalence and progression rates in patients with SLE. aPLs are independent risk factors for acute thrombosis but can also prompt long-term vascular inflammation. Aberrant interactions among immune cells and dysfunctions in the deployment of the coagulation cascade have historically been less explored in SLE, but recent evidence suggests they can also play a critical role at the crossroads between inflammation and haemostasis. In this review we discuss how different prothrombotic mechanisms can be prompted by and synergize with SLE-specific pathogenic events and speculate about novel potential directions for research and drug development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/imunologia
19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(3): 320-325, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal time to start oral anticoagulant (OAC) in patients with ischaemic stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We reviewed OAC timing in relation to 90-day clinical outcomes as a post hoc analysis from a prospective multicentre observational study. METHODS: We included patients with data on time to initiation of OAC from CROMIS-2 (Clinical Relevence Of Microbleeds In Stroke-2), a prospective observational inception cohort study of 1490 patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and AF treated with OAC. The primary outcome was the composite outcome of TIA, stroke (ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage) or death within 90 days of the qualifying stroke or TIA. We performed adjusted logistic regression analyses to compare early (0-4 days) and later (≥5 days or never started) OAC initiation. RESULTS: We included 1355 patients, mean age 76 (SD 10), 580 (43%) women. OAC was started early in 358 (26%) patients and later (or not at all) in 997 (74%) patients. The event rate within 90 days was 48/997 (5%) in the late-OAC group (2 intracranial haemorrhages, 18 ischaemic strokes or TIAs and 31 deaths (three deaths were as a result of new ischaemic strokes)) versus 7/358 (2%) in the early-OAC group (5 ischaemic strokes or TIAs and 2 deaths). In adjusted analyses, late OAC was not associated with the composite outcome (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.48 to 2.84, p=0.736). CONCLUSION: In adjusted analyses, early OAC after acute ischaemic stroke or TIA associated with AF was not associated with a difference in the rate of the composite outcome of stroke, TIA or death at 90 days, compared with late OAC. However, despite adjustment for important baseline factors, patients selected for early OAC and late OAC might still have differed in important respects; evaluation of OAC timing in adequately powered randomised trials is required. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02513316.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(6): 539-547, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds are a potential neuroimaging biomarker of cerebral small vessel diseases that are prone to intracranial bleeding. We aimed to determine whether presence of cerebral microbleeds can identify patients at high risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage when anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Our observational, multicentre, prospective inception cohort study recruited adults aged 18 years or older from 79 hospitals in the UK and one in the Netherlands with atrial fibrillation and recent acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, treated with a vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulant, and followed up for 24 months using general practitioner and patient postal questionnaires, telephone interviews, hospital visits, and National Health Service digital data on hospital admissions or death. We excluded patients if they could not undergo MRI, had a definite contraindication to anticoagulation, or had previously received therapeutic anticoagulation. The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurring at any time before the final follow-up at 24 months. The log-rank test was used to compare rates of intracranial haemorrhage between those with and without cerebral microbleeds. We developed two prediction models using Cox regression: first, including all predictors associated with intracranial haemorrhage at the 20% level in univariable analysis; and second, including cerebral microbleed presence and HAS-BLED score. We then compared these with the HAS-BLED score alone. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02513316. FINDINGS: Between Aug 4, 2011, and July 31, 2015, we recruited 1490 participants of whom follow-up data were available for 1447 (97%), over a mean period of 850 days (SD 373; 3366 patient-years). The symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage rate in patients with cerebral microbleeds was 9·8 per 1000 patient-years (95% CI 4·0-20·3) compared with 2·6 per 1000 patient-years (95% CI 1·1-5·4) in those without cerebral microbleeds (adjusted hazard ratio 3·67, 95% CI 1·27-10·60). Compared with the HAS-BLED score alone (C-index 0·41, 95% CI 0·29-0·53), models including cerebral microbleeds and HAS-BLED (0·66, 0·53-0·80) and cerebral microbleeds, diabetes, anticoagulant type, and HAS-BLED (0·74, 0·60-0·88) predicted symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage significantly better (difference in C-index 0·25, 95% CI 0·07-0·43, p=0·0065; and 0·33, 0·14-0·51, p=0·00059, respectively). INTERPRETATION: In patients with atrial fibrillation anticoagulated after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, cerebral microbleed presence is independently associated with symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage risk and could be used to inform anticoagulation decisions. Large-scale collaborative observational cohort analyses are needed to refine and validate intracranial haemorrhage risk scores incorporating cerebral microbleeds to identify patients at risk of net harm from oral anticoagulation. FUNDING: The Stroke Association and the British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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