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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients can be severe, and presently there is no effective treatment. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cells has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of many viral infections, and could represent a novel treatment approach for chronic norovirus infection. Hence, we sought to generate human norovirus-specific T-cells (NSTs) that can recognize different viral sequences. METHODS: NSTs were generated from peripheral blood of healthy donors by stimulation with overlapping peptide libraries spanning the entire coding sequence of the norovirus genome. RESULTS: We successfully generated T-cells targeting multiple norovirus antigens with a mean 4.2 ± 0.5-fold expansion after 10 days. NSTs were comprised of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells that expressed markers for central memory and effector memory phenotype with minimal expression of co-inhibitory molecules, and were polyfunctional based on cytokine production. We identified novel CD4 and CD8-restricted immunodominant epitopes within NS6 and VP1 antigens. Furthermore, NSTs showed a high degree of cross-reactivity to multiple variant epitopes from clinical isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify immunodominant human norovirus T-cell epitopes and demonstrate that it is feasible to generate potent NSTs from third party donors for use in antiviral immunotherapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507602

RESUMO

Interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) is critical for T cell signaling and cytotoxicity, and control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We identified a patient with a novel homozygous missense mutation (D540N) in a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of ITK who presented with EBV-positive lymphomatoid granulomatosis. She was treated with interferon and chemotherapy and her disease went into remission; however, she has persistent elevation of EBV DNA in the blood, low CD4 T cells, low NK cells, and nearly absent iNKT cells. Molecular modeling predicts that the mutation increases the flexibility of the ITK kinase domain impairing phosphorylation of the protein. Stimulation of her T cells resulted in reduced phosphorylation of ITK, PLCγ, and PKC. The CD8 T cells were moderately impaired for cytotoxicity and degranulation. Importantly, addition of magnesium to her CD8 T cells in vitro restored cytotoxicity and degranulation to levels similar to controls. Supplemental magnesium in patients with mutations in another protein important for T cell signaling, MAGT1, was reported to restore EBV-specific cytotoxicity. Our findings highlight the critical role of ITK for T cell activation and suggest the potential for supplemental magnesium to treat patients with ITK deficiency.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3020, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289263

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persistently infect humans, but how HCMV avoids humoral immunity is not clear. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) controls IgG transport from the mother to the fetus and prolongs IgG half-life. Here we show that US11 inhibits the assembly of FcRn with ß2m and retains FcRn in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consequently blocking FcRn trafficking to the endosome. Furthermore, US11 recruits the ubiquitin enzymes Derlin-1, TMEM129 and UbE2J2 to engage FcRn, consequently initiating the dislocation of FcRn from the ER to the cytosol and facilitating its degradation. Importantly, US11 inhibits IgG-FcRn binding, resulting in a reduction of IgG transcytosis across intestinal or placental epithelial cells and IgG degradation in endothelial cells. Hence, these results identify the mechanism by which HCMV infection exploits an ER-associated degradation pathway through US11 to disable FcRn functions. These results have implications for vaccine development and immune surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Humoral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
5.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159224

RESUMO

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human herpesvirus, causes chickenpox and establishes a latent infection in ganglia, reactivating decades later to produce zoster and associated neurological complications. An understanding of VZV neurotropism in humans has long been hampered by the lack of an adequate animal model. For example, experimental inoculation of VZV in small animals including guinea pigs and cotton rats results in the infection of ganglia but not a rash. The severe combined immune deficient human (SCID-hu) model allows the study of VZV neurotropism for human neural sub-populations. Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques (RM) closely resembles both human primary VZV infection and reactivation, with analyses at early times after infection providing valuable information about the extent of viral replication and the host immune responses. Indeed, a critical role for CD4 T-cell immunity during acute SVV infection as well as reactivation has emerged based on studies using RM. Herein we discuss the results of efforts from different groups to establish an animal model of VZV neurotropism.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 220(6): 990-1000, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) causes genital herpes in >400 million persons worldwide. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of a replication-defective HSV2 vaccine, HSV529. Twenty adults were enrolled in each of 3 serogroups of individuals: those negative for both HSV1 and HSV2 (HSV1-/HSV2-), those positive or negative for HSV1 and positive for HSV2 (HSV1±/HSV2+), and those positive for HSV1 and negative for HSV2 (HSV1+/HSV2-). Sixty participants received vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary end point was the frequency of solicited local and systemic reactions to vaccination. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of vaccinees experienced mild-to-moderate solicited injection site reactions, compared with 47% of placebo recipients (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-67.6%; P = .006). Sixty-four percent of vaccinees experienced systemic reactions, compared with 53% of placebo recipients (95% CI, -17.9% to 40.2%; P = .44). Seventy-eight percent of HSV1-/HSV2- vaccine recipients had a ≥4-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titer after 3 doses of vaccine, whereas none of the participants in the other serogroups had such responses. HSV2-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 36%, 46%, and 27% of HSV1-/HSV2-, HSV1±/HSV2+, and HSV1+/HSV2- participants, respectively, 1 month after the third dose of vaccine, and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in 14%, 8%, and 18% of participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HSV529 vaccine was safe and elicited neutralizing antibody and modest CD4+ T-cell responses in HSV-seronegative vaccinees. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01915212.

7.
Blood ; 133(26): 2753-2764, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064750

RESUMO

Patients with classic hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) typically have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in T cells and/or natural killer (NK) cells in blood and skin lesions induced by sun exposure that are infiltrated with EBV-infected lymphocytes. HVLPD is very rare in the United States and Europe but more common in Asia and South America. The disease can progress to a systemic form that may result in fatal lymphoma. We report our 11-year experience with 16 HVLPD patients from the United States and England and found that whites were less likely to develop systemic EBV disease (1/10) than nonwhites (5/6). All (10/10) of the white patients were generally in good health at last follow-up, while two-thirds (4/6) of the nonwhite patients required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonwhite patients had later age of onset of HVLPD than white patients (median age, 8 vs 5 years) and higher levels of EBV DNA (median, 1 515 000 vs 250 000 copies/ml) and more often had low numbers of NK cells (83% vs 50% of patients) and T-cell clones in the blood (83% vs 30% of patients). RNA-sequencing analysis of an HVLPD skin lesion in a white patient compared with his normal skin showed increased expression of interferon-γ and chemokines that attract T cells and NK cells. Thus, white patients with HVLPD were less likely to have systemic disease with EBV and had a much better prognosis than nonwhite patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00369421 and #NCT00032513.

8.
Immunity ; 50(5): 1305-1316.e6, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979688

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with epithelial-cell cancers and B cell lymphomas. An effective EBV vaccine is not available. We found that antibodies to the EBV glycoprotein gH/gL complex were the principal components in human plasma that neutralized infection of epithelial cells and that antibodies to gH/gL and gp42 contributed to B cell neutralization. Immunization of mice and nonhuman primates with nanoparticle vaccines that displayed components of the viral-fusion machinery EBV gH/gL or gH/gL/gp42 elicited antibodies that potently neutralized both epithelial-cell and B cell infection. Immune serum from nonhuman primates inhibited EBV-glycoprotein-mediated fusion of epithelial cells and B cells and targeted an epitope critical for virus-cell fusion. Therefore, unlike the leading EBV gp350 vaccine candidate, which only protects B cells from infection, these EBV nanoparticle vaccines elicit antibodies that inhibit the virus-fusion apparatus and provide cell-type-independent protection from virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/virologia , Células CHO , Fusão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetulus , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Soros Imunes/administração & dosagem , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Ligação Viral
9.
Vaccine ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522906

RESUMO

A human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccine to prevent infection and/or reduce disease associated with congenital infection or visceral disease in transplant recipients is a high priority, but has remained elusive. We created a disabled infectious single cycle rhesus CMV (RhCMV) deleted for glycoprotein L (gL) and the MHC class I immune evasion genes Rh178 and Rh182-189, and restored its epithelial cell tropism by inserting the Rh128-131A genes. The resulting virus, RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189, was used to vaccinate rhesus monkeys intramuscularly and was compared with vaccination of animals with soluble RhCMV glycoprotein B (gB) in alum/monophosphoryl lipid A or with PBS as a control. At 4 weeks after the second vaccination, an increased frequency of RhCMV-specific CD8 T cells was detected in animals vaccinated with the RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189 vaccine compared to animals vaccinated with soluble gB. In contrast, monkeys vaccinated with soluble gB had 20-fold higher gB antibody titers than animals vaccinated with RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189. Titers of neutralizing antibody to RhCMV infection of fibroblasts were higher in animals vaccinated with gB compared with RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189. Following vaccination, monkeys were challenged subcutaneously with RhCMV UCD59, a low passage virus propagated in monkey kidney epithelial cells. All animals became infected after challenge; however, the frequency of RhCMV detection in the blood was reduced in monkeys vaccinated with soluble gB compared with those vaccinated with RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189. The frequency of challenge virus shedding in the urine and saliva and the RhCMV copy number shed at these sites was not different in animals vaccinated with RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189 or soluble gB compared with those that received PBS before challenge. Although the RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189 vaccine was superior in inducing cellular immunity to RhCMV, it induced lower titers of neutralizing antibody and antibody to gB than the soluble gB vaccine; after challenge, animals vaccinated with soluble gB had a lower frequency of virus detection in the blood than those vaccinated with RhCMVRΔgL/178/182-189.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274169

RESUMO

Among the many stressors astronauts are exposed to during spaceflight, cosmic radiation may lead to various serious health effects. Specifically, space radiation may contribute to decreased immunity, which has been documented in astronauts during short- and long-duration missions, as evidenced by several changes in cellular immunity and plasma cytokine levels. Reactivation of latent herpes viruses, either directly from radiation of latently infected cells and/or from perturbation of the immune system, may result in disease in astronauts. Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV) is one of the eight human herpes viruses known to infect more than 90% of human adults and persists for the life of the host without normally causing adverse effects. Reactivation of several latent viruses in astronauts is well documented, although the mechanism of reactivation is not well understood. We studied the effect of four different types of radiation, (1) 137Cs gamma rays, (2) 150-MeV protons, (3) 600 MeV/n carbon ions, and (4) 600 MeV/n iron ions on the activation of lytic gene transcription and of reactivation of EBV in a latently infected cell line (Akata) at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The data showed that for all doses used in this study, lytic gene transcription was induced and median viral loads were significantly higher for all types of radiation than in corresponding control samples, with the increases detected as early as four days post-exposure and generally tapering off at later time points. The viability and size of EBV-infected Akata cells were highly variable and exhibited approximately the same trend in time for all radiation types at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. This work shows that reactivation of viruses can occur due to the effect of different types of radiation on latently infected cells in the absence of changes or cytokines produced in the immune system. In general, gamma rays are more effective than protons, carbon ions, and iron ions in inducing latent virus reactivation, though these high-energy particles did induce more sustained and later reactivation of EBV lytic gene transcription. These findings also challenge the common relative biological effectiveness concept that is often used in radiobiology for other end points.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

13.
J Virol ; 92(22)2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111570

RESUMO

One hundred thirty-eight new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences have been determined. One hundred twenty-five of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple-sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. The type 1/type 2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV. A small insertion within the BART microRNA region of the genome was present in 21 EBV strains. EBV from saliva of U.S. patients with chronic active EBV infection aligned with the wild-type EBV genome with no evidence of WZhet rearrangements. The V3 polymorphism in the Zp promoter for BZLF1 was found to be frequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases from both Hong Kong and Indonesia. Codon usage was found to differ between latent and lytic cycle EBV genes, and the main forms of variation of the EBNA1 protein have been identified.IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus causes most cases of infectious mononucleosis and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. It contributes to several types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma. EBV genome variation is important because some of the diseases associated with EBV have very different incidences in different populations and geographic regions, and differences in the EBV genome might contribute to these diseases. Some specific EBV genome alterations that appear to be significant in EBV-associated cancers are already known, and current efforts to make an EBV vaccine and antiviral drugs should also take account of sequence differences in the proteins used as targets.

14.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(7): 844, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921983

RESUMO

In the version of this News and Views originally published, the author made an incorrect reference to 'mice deficient in Mx1'. This has now been corrected so that the text instead refers to 'mice congenic for Mx1'. The full corrected sentence reads as "Pretreatment of mice congenic for Mx1, an ISG that is critical for protection of animals from influenza, with intranasal neomycin significantly improved survival; however, about 50% of the mice died."

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1045: 477-493, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896681

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunocompromised persons, as well as multiple sclerosis. A vaccine is currently unavailable. While monomeric EBV gp350 was shown in a phase 2 trial to reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis, but not the rate of EBV infection, newer formulations of gp350 including multimeric forms, viruslike particles, and nanoparticles may be more effective. A vaccine that also includes additional viral glycoproteins, lytic proteins, or latency proteins might improve the effectiveness of an EBV gp350 vaccine. Clinical trials to determine if an EBV vaccine can reduce the rate of infectious mononucleosis or posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease should be performed. The former is important since infectious mononucleosis can be associated with debilitating fatigue as well as other complications, and EBV infectious mononucleosis is associated with increased rates of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. A vaccine to reduce EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease would be an important proof of principle to prevent an EBV-associated malignancy. Trials of an EBV vaccine to reduce the incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, or Burkitt lymphoma would be difficult but feasible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/genética , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/imunologia , Mononucleose Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mononucleose Infecciosa/virologia
16.
J Infect Dis ; 218(6): 886-891, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718378

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that higher levels of antibody targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein350 (gp350), an EBV vaccine candidate, were protective against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in genetically high-risk families from Taiwan. The current study attempted to extend this association to a general population cohort. Methods: We compared total and IgA-specific gp350 antibody levels in 35 incident NPC cases and 81 disease-free controls from the Cancer Screening Program in Taiwan (23943 individuals recruited 1991-1992). Luciferase immunoprecipitation assays quantified gp350 antibody. Results: Total EBVgp350 antibody levels were not higher in individuals who remained disease free compared to those who developed NPC (P = .11). This lack of a protective gp350 association persisted for cases diagnosed ≥5 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05; P = .91) and <5 years (OR = 1.85; P = .40) after blood draw. IgA-specific gp350 antibody levels were higher in cases than controls (OR = 7.03; P = .001). This increased risk was most pronounced for cases diagnosed <5 years after blood draw (OR = 11.7; P = .004). Conclusion: Unlike our prior findings in those with a strong family history of NPC, total gp350 antibody levels were not protective against NPC development in this general population setting.

17.
Blood ; 131(26): 2899-2905, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712633

RESUMO

T-cell chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) is a rare disease in which EBV is present predominantly in T cells that infiltrate the tissues; patients have high levels of EBV in the blood. If untreated, patients often develop liver failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, coronary artery aneurysms, EBV infiltrating T cells impairing organ function, or T-cell lymphomas refractory to treatment. At present, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only curative therapy, and it is critical to make a proper diagnosis and initiate transplantation before the disease progresses to an irreversible stage. Specific medications such as high-dose systemic corticosteroids or ganciclovir combined with either histone deacetylase inhibitors or bortezomib may temporarily reduce systemic toxicity associated with T-cell CAEBV and allow the patient time to receive a transplant. Relapses of the disease after transplantation have also occurred, and the use of donor-derived virus-specific T cells may help to treat these relapses.

18.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(5): 531-532, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693655
19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 237, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599765

RESUMO

The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. They present with lymphoproliferation and often have infections, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe virus infections. The most frequent virus infections are due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV); patients often present with persistent EBV and/or CMV viremia, EBV lymphoproliferative disease, or CMV lymphadenitis. No patients have been reported with CMV pneumonia, colitis, or retinitis. Other herpesvirus infections have included herpes simplex pneumonia, recurrent zoster, and varicella after vaccination with the varicella vaccine. Additional viral infections have included adenovirus viremia, severe warts, and extensive Molluscum contagiosum virus infection. The increased susceptibility to virus infections in these patients is likely due to a reduced number of long-lived memory CD8 T cells and an increased number of terminally differentiated effector CD8 T cells.

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