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1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617959

RESUMO

Importance: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at risk for venous and arterial thromboembolism and death. Optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing in high-risk patients is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs institutional standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose heparins for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The HEP-COVID multicenter randomized clinical trial recruited hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 with D-dimer levels more than 4 times the upper limit of normal or sepsis-induced coagulopathy score of 4 or greater from May 8, 2020, through May 14, 2021, at 12 academic centers in the US. Interventions: Patients were randomized to institutional standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg subcutaneous, twice daily if creatinine clearance was 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater (0.5 mg/kg twice daily if creatinine clearance was 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) throughout hospitalization. Patients were stratified at the time of randomization based on intensive care unit (ICU) or non-ICU status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), or death from any cause, and the principal safety outcome was major bleeding at 30 ± 2 days. Data were collected and adjudicated locally by blinded investigators via imaging, laboratory, and health record data. Results: Of 257 patients randomized, 253 were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 66.7 [14.0] years; men, 136 [53.8%]; women, 117 [46.2%]); 249 patients (98.4%) met inclusion criteria based on D-dimer elevation and 83 patients (32.8%) were stratified as ICU-level care. There were 124 patients (49%) in the standard-dose vs 129 patients (51%) in the therapeutic-dose group. The primary efficacy outcome was met in 52 of 124 patients (41.9%) (28.2% VTE, 3.2% ATE, 25.0% death) with standard-dose heparins vs 37 of 129 patients (28.7%) (11.7% VTE, 3.2% ATE, 19.4% death) with therapeutic-dose LMWH (relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.96; P = .03), including a reduction in thromboembolism (29.0% vs 10.9%; RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.21-0.66; P < .001). The incidence of major bleeding was 1.6% with standard-dose vs 4.7% with therapeutic-dose heparins (RR, 2.88; 95% CI, 0.59-14.02; P = .17). The primary efficacy outcome was reduced in non-ICU patients (36.1% vs 16.7%; RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81; P = .004) but not ICU patients (55.3% vs 51.1%; RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.39; P = .71). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, therapeutic-dose LMWH reduced major thromboembolism and death compared with institutional standard heparin thromboprophylaxis among inpatients with COVID-19 with very elevated D-dimer levels. The treatment effect was not seen in ICU patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04401293.

2.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211045293, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546809

RESUMO

The study objective was to measure the prevalence and predictors of cognitive impairment (CI) and delirium. Adults undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery completed the Clock Draw Test to screen for CI, defined as a score of 0 or 1. Postoperative delirium was recorded. Predictors of delirium and length of stay were assessed by univariate logistic regression and the latter with multivariate linear regression. Overall 274 patients were included, of which 47% had a Clock Draw Test score of 0 or 1. Post-operative delirium occurred in 17 (6%). CI was a predictor of postoperative delirium (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12; P = .02). Postoperative delirium was a predictor of increased length of stay (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.57; P = .0073) on multivariate regression while baseline Clock Draw Test result was not a predictor on univariate regression (P = .98). Screening for CI can help predict delirium and facilitate targeted interventions in the postoperative period.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1133-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370516

RESUMO

Male hypogonadism is defined as an abnormally low serum testosterone concentration or sperm count. As men age, often in the context of obesity and other comorbid conditions, serum testosterone levels may decrease. Normalizing serum testosterone levels in male adults with hypogonadism may improve symptoms related to androgen deficiency, but controversies exist regarding the long-term benefits and risks of hormone supplementation in this setting. In 2020, the American College of Physicians published a clinical guideline for the use of testosterone supplementation in adult men based on a systematic review of available evidence. Among their recommendations were that clinicians discuss whether to initiate testosterone treatment in men with age-related low testosterone with sexual dysfunction who want to improve sexual function and not initiate testosterone treatment in men with age-related low testosterone to improve energy, vitality, physical function, or cognition. Here, two clinicians with expertise in this area, one a generalist and the other an endocrinologist, debate the management of a patient with sexual symptoms and a low serum testosterone level. They discuss the diagnosis of male hypogonadism, the indications for testosterone therapy, its potential benefits and risks, how it should be monitored, and how long it should be continued.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/deficiência , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Visitas com Preceptor
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323968

RESUMO

Importance: Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) results in an inflammatory reaction, but its association with the rate of locoregional and distant control, disease-free survival, and overall survival in laryngeal cancer remains uncertain. Objective: To determine if pharyngocutaneous fistula after salvage laryngectomy is associated with locoregional and distant control, disease-free survival, and/or overall survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter collaborative retrospective cohort study conducted at 5 centers in Canada and the US of 550 patients who underwent salvage laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal cancer from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014. The median follow-up time was 5.7 years (range, 0-18 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes examined included locoregional and distant control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Fine and Gray competing risk regression and Cox-proportional hazard regression models were used for outcomes. Competing risks and the Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate outcomes at 3 years and 5 years. Results: In all, 550 patients (mean [SD] age, 64 [10.4] years; men, 465 [85%]) met inclusion criteria. Pharyngocutaneous fistula occurred in 127 patients (23%). The difference in locoregional control between the group of patients with PCF (75%) and the non-PCF (72%) group was 3% (95% CI, -6% to 12%). The difference in overall survival between the group with PCF (44%) and the non-PCF group (52%) was 8% (95% CI, -2% to 20%). The difference in disease-free survival between PCF and non-PCF groups was 6% (95% CI, -4% to 16%). In the multivariable model, patients with PCF were at a 2-fold higher rate of distant metastases (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.27). Distant control was reduced in those with PCF, a 13% (95% CI, 3% to 21%) difference in 5-year distant control. Conclusions and Relevance: This multicenter retrospective cohort study found that development of PCF after salvage laryngectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of distant metastases.

7.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(4): 293-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319924

RESUMO

COVID-19 necessitated significant care redesign, including new ambulatory workflows to handle surge volumes, protect patients and staff, and ensure timely reliable care. Opportunities also exist to harvest lessons from workflow innovations to benefit routine care. We describe a dedicated COVID-19 ambulatory unit for closing testing and follow-up loops characterized by standardized workflows and electronic communication, documentation, and order placement. More than 85% of follow-ups were completed within 24 hours, with no observed staff, nor patient infections associated with unit operations. Identified issues include role confusion, staffing and gatekeeping bottlenecks, and patient reluctance to visit in person or discuss concerns with phone screeners.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sistemas , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(5): 731-739, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sinonasal and skull base tumors are rare, making it difficult to identify trends in surgical outcome. This study examines complications in a large cohort of patients undergoing surgery for sinonasal malignancy. METHODS: Following IRB approval, an institutional database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent surgery for sinonasal or skull base malignancies from 1973 to 2016 at our institution. Charlson comorbidity index score and Clavien-Dindo grade were calculated. The main study endpoint was subgroup analysis of Clavien-Dindo Grade 0, Grades 1-2, and Grades 3-5 complications. An ordinal logistic regression model was constructed to assess the association between comorbidities, demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgical complications. RESULTS: In total, 448 patients met inclusion criteria. Perioperative mortality rate at 30 days was 1.6% (n = 7). The rate of severe complications (Clavien-Dindo 3 or higher) was 13.6% (n = 61). Multivariate analysis using an ordinal logistic regression model showed no association between Charlson comorbidity index score and Clavien-Dindo grade of postoperative complication. Advanced T-stage was significantly associated with complications (p = 0.0014; odds ratio: 3.442 [95% confidence interval: 1.615, 7.338]). CONCLUSION: Surgery for sinonasal and skull base tumors is safe with a low mortality rate. Advanced T-stage is associated with postoperative complications. These findings have implications for preoperative risk stratification. Key Points Surgery for sinonasal malignancy is safe with a 30 mortality of 1.6% and rate of severe complications of 12.8%. There is no association between patient comorbidity and post operative complication. On multivariate analysis, only advanced T stage was associated with increased rate of surgical complication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasais/cirurgia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Nasais/patologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938981

RESUMO

There is increasing demand for home-based devices for the treatment of dermatologic conditions and cosmesis. Commercially available devices include intense pulsed light, laser diodes, radiofrequency, light-emitting diodes, and ultraviolet B phototherapy. The objective of this report is to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of home-based devices for the treatment of skin conditions. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cinahl was conducted on November 9, 2020 using PRISMA guidelines. Original research articles that investigated the efficacy and safety of home-based devices for dermatologic use were included. Bibliographies were screened for additional relevant articles. Strength of evidence was graded using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Clinical recommendations were then made based on the quality of the existing literature. After review, 37 clinical trials were included-19 were randomized controlled trials, 16 were case series, and 2 were non-randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, from our analysis, we recommend the home-based use of intense pulsed light for hair removal, laser diodes for androgenic alopecia, low power radiofrequency for rhytides and wrinkles, and light-emitting diodes for acne vulgaris. Trials investigating ultraviolet B phototherapy for psoriasis revealed mixed evidence for home treatments compared to clinic treatments. All devices had favorable safety profiles with few significant adverse events. Limitations to our review include a limited number of randomized controlled trials as well as a lack of data on the long-term efficacy and safety of each device.

10.
Head Neck ; 43(7): 2110-2123, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus testing for oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma has been recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network since 2012. We examine disparities, reported rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and the impact on these findings of limitations with the variable in database registries. METHODS: The HPV variable was queried for patients with oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OPSCC) from 2013 to 2016 in National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Multivariable regression was used to identify disparities based on sociodemographic variables. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate limitations of the variable. RESULTS: Despite limitations in the HPV variable in the databases, there was less than 100% adherence to recommended testing, and there were significant disparities in multiple sociodemographic variables. For example, in NCDB 70% of white versus 60.4% of black patients were tested (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.85, p ≤ 0.0001); in SEER 59.8% of white and 47.6% of black patients were tested (OR 0.73, CI 0.67-0.81; p ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Disparities exist among patients undergoing testing for HPV-associated OPSCC and adherence to guideline recommended HPV testing has been suboptimal. In addition, the HPV variable definition, especially as it relates to p16 positivity, and use in these two registries should be improved.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
11.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(9): 2383-2389, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MTHFR, one of the major enzymes in the folate cycle, is known to acquire single-nucleotide polymorphisms that significantly reduce its activity, resulting in an increase in circulating homocysteine. Methylation processes are of crucial importance in gametogenesis, involved in the regulation of imprinting and epigenetic tags on DNA and histones. We have retrospectively assessed the prevalence of MTHFR SNPs in a population consulting for infertility according to gender and studied the impact of the mutations on circulating homocysteine levels. METHODS: More than 2900 patients having suffered at least two miscarriages (2 to 9) or two failed IVF/ICSI (2 to 10) attempts were included for analysis of MTHFR SNPs C677T and A1298C. Serum homocysteine levels were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: We observed no difference in the prevalence of different genetic backgrounds between men and women; only 15% of the patients were found to be wild type. More than 40% of the patients are either homozygous for one SNP or compound heterozygous carriers. As expected, the C677T SNP shows the greatest adverse effect on homocysteine accumulation. The impact of MTHFR SNPs on circulating homocysteine is different in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of MTHFR SNPs in both men and women must be seriously advocated in the presence of long-standing infertility; male gametes, from MTHFR SNPs carriers, are not exempted from exerting a hazardous impact on fertility. Patients should be informed of the pleiotropic medical implications of these SNPs for their own health, as well as for the health of future children.

12.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823560

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality particularly among hospitalized patients with critical illness and elevated D-dimer (Dd) levels. Conflicting data have yet to elucidate optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing. HEP-COVID (NCT04401293) is a phase 3, multicenter, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, pseudo-blinded, active control trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus prophylactic-/intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH) for prevention of a primary efficacy composite outcome of VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality 30 ± 2 days post-enrollment. Eligible patients have COVID-19 diagnosis by nasal swab or serologic testing, requirement for supplemental oxygen per investigator judgment, and Dd >4 × upper limit of normal (ULN) or sepsis-induced coagulopathy score ≥4. Subjects are randomized to enoxaparin 1 mg/kg subcutaneous (SQ)/two times a day (BID) (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 30 mL/min) or 0.5 mg/kg (CrCl 15-30 mL/min) versus local institutional prophylactic regimens including (1) UFH up to 22,500 IU (international unit) daily (divided BID or three times a day), (2) enoxaparin 30 and 40 mg SQ QD (once daily) or BID, or (3) dalteparin 2,500 IU or 5,000 IU QD. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. Events are adjudicated locally. Based on expected 40% relative risk reduction with treatment-dose compared with prophylactic-dose prophylaxis, 308 subjects will be enrolled (assuming 20% drop-out) to achieve 80% power. Distinguishing design features include an enriched population for the composite endpoint anchored on Dd >4 × ULN, stratification by intensive care unit (ICU) versus non-ICU, and the ability to capture asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis via screening ultrasonography prior to discharge.

13.
Health Serv Res ; 56(4): 731-739, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of placing a wellness team (nurse and social worker) in senior housing on ambulance transfers and visits to emergency departments over 18 months. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Intervention sites included seven Boston-area buildings, with five buildings at comparable settings acting as controls. Data derive from building-level ambulance data from emergency responders; building-level Medicare claims data on emergency department utilization; and individual-level baseline assessment data from participants in the intervention (n = 353) and control (n = 208) sites. STUDY DESIGN: We used a pre/postdifference in difference quasi-experimental design applying several analytic methods. The preintervention period was January 2016-March 2017, while the intervention period was July 2017-December 2018. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Emergency responders provided aggregate transfer data on a daily basis for intervention and control buildings; the Quality Improvement Organization provided quarterly aggregate data on emergency department visit rates; and assessment data came from a modified Vitalize 360 assessment and coaching tool. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study found an 18.2% statistically significant decline in ambulance transfers in intervention buildings, with greater declines in buildings that had fewer services available at baseline, compared to other intervention sites. Analysis of Medicare claims data, adjusted for the proportion of residents over 75 per building, found fewer visits to emergency departments in intervention buildings. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related supports in senior housing sites can be effective in reducing emergency transfers and visits to emergency departments.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(4): e017008, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559485

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk but increases bleeding in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Identification of patients at lower bleeding risk is important in selecting patients who are likely to derive more favorable outcomes versus risk from this strategy. Methods and Results PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) randomized 21 162 patients with prior myocardial infarction in a 1:1:1 fashion to ticagrelor 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily or placebo, with ticagrelor 60 mg approved for long-term use. TIMI major or minor bleeding was the primary end point for this analysis. Causes of bleeding were categorized by site and etiology, and independent predictors were identified. At 3 years, ticagrelor 60 mg increased the rate of TIMI major or minor bleeding by 2.0% versus placebo (1.4% placebo versus 3.4% ticagrelor). The bleeding excess was driven primarily by spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeds. A history of spontaneous bleeding requiring hospitalization and the presence of anemia were independent predictors of bleeding but not of ischemic risk. Patients with at least 1 risk predictor had 3-fold higher rates of bleeding with ticagrelor 60 mg versus those who had neither (absolute risk increase, 4.4% versus 1.5%; P=0.01). Patients with neither predictor had a more favorable benefit profile with ticagrelor 60 mg versus placebo including lower mortality (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.96; P interaction = 0.03). Conclusions In patients with prior myocardial infarction, bleeding with ticagrelor 60 mg twice daily is predominantly spontaneous gastrointestinal. A history of spontaneous bleeding requiring hospitalization or the presence of anemia identifies patients at higher risk of bleeding, and the absence of either identifies patients likely to have a more favorable net benefit with ticagrelor. Registration URL https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01225562.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 139-148, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586179

RESUMO

High-dose (HD) cisplatin remains the standard of care with chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Cooperative group trials mandate bolus-HD (100 mg/m2 × 1 day, every 3 weeks) cisplatin administration at the beginning of the week to optimize radiosensitization-a requirement which may be unnecessary. This analysis evaluates the impact of chemotherapy administration day of week (DOW) on outcomes. We also report our institutional experience with an alternate dosing schedule, split-HD (50 mg/m2 × 2 days, every 3 weeks). We retrospectively reviewed 435 definitive chemoradiation OPC patients from 10 December 2001 to 23 December 2014. Those receiving non-HD cisplatin regimens or induction chemotherapy were excluded. Data collected included DOW, dosing schedule (bolus-HD vs split-HD), smoking, total cumulative dose (TCD), stage, Karnofsky Performance Status, human papillomavirus status and creatinine (baseline, peak and posttreatment baseline). Local failure (LF), regional failure (RF), locoregional failure (LRF), distant metastasis (DM), any failure (AF, either LRF or DM) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from radiation therapy start. Median follow-up was 8.0 years (1.8 months-17.0 years). DOW, dosing schedule and TCD were not associated with any outcomes in univariable or multivariable regression models. There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine or association with TCD in split-HD vs bolus-HD. There was no statistically significant association between DOW and outcomes, suggesting that cisplatin could be administered any day. Split-HD had no observed differences in outcomes, renal toxicity or TCD compared to bolus-HD cisplatin. Our data suggest that there is some flexibility of when and how to give HD cisplatin compared to clinical trial mandates.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Res Aging ; 43(3-4): 123-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530855

RESUMO

This special issue covers several important topics related to long-term care (LTC) systems and policy development in China. It provides a good contextual background on the development of the LTC system in China as well as the needs and preferences of LTC from family and older adults' perspectives. In addition, this issue covers the topic of evaluation of a recently developed long-term care nursing insurance and provides an example of family caregiving for persons with dementia within the Chinese context. The authors in this special issue also provided insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults' life and LTC quality, and explored potential strategies to handle the challenges during and post-pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/normas , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , China , Humanos
17.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(3): 187-196, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on procedural complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of acute coronary syndrome in the contemporary era. AIM: We sought to describe the prevalence of procedural complications of PCI in a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) cohort, and to identify their clinical characteristics and association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients randomized in TAO (Treatment of Acute coronary syndrome with Otamixaban), an international randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01076764) that compared otamixaban with unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide in patients with NSTE ACS who underwent PCI, were included in the analysis. Procedural complications were collected prospectively, categorized and adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Events Committee, with review of angiograms. A multivariable model was constructed to identify independent clinical characteristics associated with procedural complications. RESULTS: A total of 8656 patients with NSTE ACS who were enrolled in the TAO trial underwent PCI, and 451 (5.2%) experienced at least one complication. The most frequent complications were no/slow reflow (1.5%) and dissection with decreased flow (1.2%). Procedural complications were associated with the 7-day ischaemic outcome of death, myocardial infarction or stroke (24.2% vs. 6.0%, odds ratio 5.01, 95% confidence interval 3.96-6.33; P<0.0001) and with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major and minor bleeding (6.2% vs. 2.3%, odds ratio 2.79, 95% confidence interval 1.86-4.2; P<0.0001). Except for previous coronary artery bypass grafting, multivariable analysis did not identify preprocedural clinical predictors of complications. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary NSTE ACS population, procedural complications with PCI remain frequent, are difficult to predict based on clinical characteristics, and are associated with worse ischaemic and haemorrhagic outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eptifibatida/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003006, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has a known genetic contribution. We tested the performance of a genetic risk score for its ability to predict VTE in 3 cohorts of patients with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: We included patients from the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Elevated Risk), PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin), and SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus) trials (history of a major atherosclerotic cardiovascular event, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, respectively) who consented for genetic testing and were not on baseline anticoagulation. We calculated a VTE genetic risk score based on 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms with established genome-wide significance. Patients were divided into tertiles of genetic risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios for VTE across genetic risk groups. The polygenic risk score was compared with available clinical risk factors (age, obesity, smoking, history of heart failure, and diabetes) and common monogenic mutations. RESULTS: A total of 29 663 patients were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 2.4 years, of whom 174 had a VTE event. There was a significantly increased gradient of risk across VTE genetic risk tertiles (P-trend <0.0001). After adjustment for clinical risk factors, patients in the intermediate and high genetic risk groups had a 1.88-fold (95% CI, 1.23-2.89; P=0.004) and 2.70-fold (95% CI, 1.81-4.06; P<0.0001) higher risk of VTE compared with patients with low genetic risk. In a continuous model adjusted for clinical risk factors, each standard deviation increase in the genetic risk score was associated with a 47% (95% CI, 29-68) increased risk of VTE (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In a broad spectrum of patients with cardiometabolic disease, a polygenic risk score is a strong, independent predictor of VTE after accounting for available clinical risk factors, identifying 1/3 of patients who have a risk of VTE comparable to that seen with established monogenic thrombophilia.

19.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(1): e009759, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed poorer outcomes in females with myocardial infarction, but older age and lower use of percutaneous coronary intervention in females are factors that potentially explain the worse outcome. This study sought to determine if female sex is an independent factor of ischemic and bleeding outcomes in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with a systematic invasive approach. METHODS: The TAO trial (Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome With Otamixaban) randomized patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome treated invasively to heparin plus eptifibatide versus otamixaban. In this post hoc analysis, the primary ischemic end point (all-cause death, myocardial infarction within 180 days) and the primary safety end point (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding within 30 days) were analyzed according to sex. RESULTS: Of 13 229 randomized patients, 3980 (30.1%) were females and 9249 (69.9%) were males. Females were older (64.8±11.0 versus 60.7±11.1 years), had more comorbidities, received less peri-procedural antithrombotic therapy, and underwent less frequently revascularization. Overall, females experienced a higher risk of ischemic (10.2% versus 9.1%; odds ratio [OR], 1.15 [1.01-1.30]) and bleeding events (4.2% versus 3.4%; OR, 1.23 [1.02-1.49]) than males. After multivariate analysis, the risk of ischemic outcomes (OR, 1.04 [0.90-1.19]), death (OR, 1.00 [0.75-1.23]), or bleeding (OR, 1.05 [0.85-1.28]), were similar between females and males. Only, noncoronary artery bypass graft related Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding were increased in females (OR, 1.69 [1.11-2.56]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome with systematic invasive management, ischemic outcomes, bleeding events, and mortality were higher in females. After multivariate analyses, female sex was not an independent predictor of ischemic and bleeding events although noncoronary artery bypass graft related Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding was higher in females. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01076764.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Hemorragia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e017693, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399018

RESUMO

Background There are limited contemporary data prevalence and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results Adult (>18 years) AMI admissions using the National Inpatient Sample database (2000-2017) were evaluated for in-hospital AIS. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs, length of stay, discharge disposition, and use of tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. The discharge destination was used to classify survivors into good and poor outcomes. Of a total 11 622 528 AMI admissions, 183 896 (1.6%) had concomitant AIS. As compared with 2000, in 2017, AIS rates increased slightly among ST-segment-elevation AMI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]) and decreased in non-ST-segment-elevation AMI (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.46-0.49]) admissions (P<0.001). Compared with those without, the AIS cohort was on average older, female, of non-White race, with greater comorbidities, and higher rates of arrhythmias. The AMI-AIS admissions received less frequent coronary angiography (46.9% versus 63.8%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (22.7% versus 41.8%) (P<0.001). The AIS cohort had higher in-hospital mortality (16.4% versus 6.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.72-1.78]; P<0.001), longer hospital length of stay, higher hospitalization costs, greater use of tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and less frequent discharges to home (all P<0.001). Among AMI-AIS survivors (N=153 318), 57.3% had a poor functional outcome at discharge with relatively stable temporal trends. Conclusions AIS is associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes in AMI admissions.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , AVC Isquêmico , Infarto do Miocárdio , Causalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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