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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) is associated with poorer engagement in HIV care and treatment. However, there is a dearth of research on the psychological (e.g., mental health) and structural (e.g., food insecurity) factors that mediate and moderate this association. GBV could lead to poor mental health, which in turn impacts adherence, while food insecurity could worsen the effect of GBV on engagement in care. This study uses data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study to address these gaps. METHODS: Women completed six assessments from 2013-16 on GBV, mental health, food insecurity, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and missed HIV care appointments in the past six months. Multi-level logistic regression models estimated associations between GBV and engagement in care, and whether associations were mediated by depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and moderated by food insecurity. RESULTS: GBV was associated with higher odds of suboptimal adherence (AOR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.24-2.87) and missed appointments (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.16-2.67). The association between GBV and adherence was mediated by depressive symptoms, GAD, and PTSD, accounting for 29.7%, 15.0% and 16.5% of the total association. The association between GBV and missed appointments was mediated by depression and GAD, but not PTSD, with corresponding figures of 25.2% and 19.7%. Associations did not differ by food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: GBV is associated with suboptimal engagement in care, which may be explained by mental health. Interventions should address women's mental health needs, regardless of food insecurity, when improving engagement in HIV care.

2.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(11): 441-448, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739336

RESUMO

Stigma in health care settings can have negative consequences on women living with HIV, such as increasing the likelihood of missed visits and reducing trust in their clinical providers. Informed by prior stigma research and considering knowledge gaps related to the effect of patient-provider race concordance, we conducted this study to assess if patient-provider race concordance moderates the expected association between HIV-related stigma in health care settings and patients' trust in their providers. Moderation analyses were conducted using Women's Interagency HIV Study data (N = 931). We found significant main effects for patient-provider race concordance. Higher experienced stigma was associated with lower trust in providers in all patient-provider race combinations [White-White: B = -0.89, standard error (SE) = 0.14, p = 0.000, 95% confidence interval, CI (-1.161 to -0.624); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.19, SE = 0.06, p = 0.003, 95% CI (-0.309 to -0.062); and Black-Black: B = -0.30, SE = 0.14, p = 0.037, 95% CI (-0.575 to -0.017)]. Higher anticipated stigma was also associated with lower trust in providers [White-White: B = -0.42, SE = 0.07, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.552 to -0.289); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.17, SE = 0.03, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.232 to -0.106); and Black-Black: B = -0.18, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI (-0.293 to -0.066)]. Significant interaction effects indicated that the negative associations between experienced and anticipated HIV-related stigma and trust in providers were stronger for the White-White combination compared with the others. Thus, we found that significant relationships between HIV-related experienced and anticipated stigma in health care settings and trust in providers exist and that these associations vary across different patient-provider race combinations. Given that reduced trust in providers is associated with antiretroviral medication nonadherence and higher rates of missed clinical visits, interventions to address HIV-related stigma in health care settings may improve continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Confiança , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estigma Social
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 426-438, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). METHODS: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 prevention efforts, social disruptions (loss of employment, childcare, health insurance, and financial supports), experiences of abuse, and psychosocial health. Interviews were performed between April and June 2020. Associations between social disruptions and psychosocial health were explored using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and HIV status. RESULTS: Almost all (97.4%) participants reported COVID-19 prevention behavior; 40.1% participants reported social disruptions, and 34.3% reported health care appointment disruption. Men living with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative men to experience social disruptions (40.6% vs. 32.9%; P < 0.01), whereas HIV-negative women were more likely than women with HIV to experience social disruptions (51.1% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced ≥2 social disruptions had significantly higher odds of depression symptoms [aOR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.56], anxiety (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27), and social support dissatisfaction (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the psychosocial health impact related to the COVID-19 pandemic by providing context specific to PLHIV. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease social disruption and address psychosocial health needs among the most vulnerable populations.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648131

RESUMO

Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP. Women face unique barriers to LAI use yet little research has examined women's perceptions of potential LAI HIV therapy candidates. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at six Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) sites with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from 2017 to 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Participants identified specific sub-populations who could most benefit from LAI over daily pills: (1) young people; (2) women with childcare responsibilities; (3) people with adherence-related psychological distress; (4) individuals with multiple sex partners; and (5) people facing structural insecurities such as homelessness. Women are underserved by current HIV care options and their perspectives are imperative to ensure a successful scale-up of LAI PrEP and LAI ART that prioritizes equitable access and benefit for all individuals.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

6.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This mixed methods study identified positive psychological factors and life themes expressed in autobiographical narratives of predominantly Black women living with HIV (WLWH) and investigated these in relation to depressive symptoms, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (≥ 95% of time), and undetectable HIV viral load (VL) (< 80 copies/ml). METHOD: Ninety-eight WLWH from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Chicago site (M age = 45.3; 91% Black) narrated three autobiographical life turning points, reliably coded for positive factors and life themes. ART adherence, VL and depressive symptoms, assessed with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale total score (TOT) including its four factors (negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), somatic symptoms (SS), and interpersonal problems (IP)), were collected over two time points: concurrently with narratives and 6 months later. Composite scores across the two time points were used in all analyses. RESULTS: Ten positive psychological factors (gratitude, insight, compassion, meaning-making, acceptance, mindfulness, generativity, optimism, self-reliance, and benevolent God beliefs) and three positive life themes (health improvements, positive relationships, and accomplishments) were identified in narratives. Higher accomplishments, overall positive factors, insight, mindfulness, self-reliance, optimism, meaning-making, and acceptance related to lower depressive symptoms (TOT, NA, SS, or IP). Positive factors and life themes did not significantly relate to PA. Higher compassion related to higher ART adherence. Higher accomplishments related to undetectable VL independent of ART adherence. CONCLUSION: Findings that positive psychological factors and life accomplishments may relate to better health, especially to lower depression, potentially contribute to developing positive psychology interventions for Black WLWH.

7.
AIDS ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with decreased physical function and increased mortality in the general population. We previously found that PAD is common in middle-aged women with and without HIV infection, but its association with functional decline is unclear. We examine the contribution of PAD to functional decline in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV-related factors. METHODS: Analysis included 1,839 participants (72% with HIV) with measured ankle-brachial index (ABI) and 4-meter gait speed. ABI values categorized PAD severity. Linear models with repeated measures estimated the association of PAD severity with log-transformed gait speed after controlling for demographic, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors, and HIV/HCV status. RESULTS: Median age was 50 years and >70% were Black. Compared to normal ABI, there was a dose-response relationship between increasing PAD severity and slower gait speed in univariable analyses: 6% slower gait speed for low-normal ABI (95% confidence interval[CI]:4%-9%), 10% for borderline PAD (95%CI:6%-13%), 14% for mild PAD (95%CI:9%-18%), and 16% for moderate-severe PAD (95%CI:5%-25%). PAD severity remained associated with slower gait speed in multivariable analyses. HIV/HCV coinfection was independently associated with 9%(95%CI:4%-14%) slower gait speed compared to those with neither infection. Among women with HIV, neither CD4 count nor HIV-RNA level was associated with gait speed. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged women with and without HIV infection, greater PAD severity is associated with progressively slower gait speed. Early detection of subclinical PAD may decrease the risk of lower extremity functional impairment and its long-term health consequences.

8.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 877-885, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neighborhood poverty and deprivation are associated with adverse health outcomes including death, but evidence is limited among persons with HIV, particularly women. We estimated changes in mortality risk from improvement in three measures of area-level socioeconomic context among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: Starting in October 2013, we linked geocoded residential census block groups to the 2015 Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and two 2012-2016 American Community Survey poverty variables, categorized into national tertiles. We used parametric g-computation to estimate, through March 2018, impacts on mortality of improving each income or poverty measure by one and two tertiles maximum versus no improvement. RESULTS: Of 1596 women with HIV (median age 49), 91 (5.7%) were lost to follow-up and 83 (5.2%) died. Most women (62%) lived in a block group in the tertile with the highest proportions of individuals with income:poverty <1; 13% lived in areas in the tertile with the lowest proportions. Mortality risk differences comparing a one-tertile improvement (for those in the two highest poverty tertiles) in income:poverty <1 versus no improvement increased over time; the risk difference was -2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.7, -0.64) at 4 years. Estimates from family income below poverty level (-1.0%; 95% CI = -2.7, 0.62) and ADI (-1.5%; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.21) exposures were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent results from three distinct measures of area-level socioeconomic environment support the hypothesis that interventions to ameliorate neighborhood poverty or deprivation reduce mortality risk for US women with HIV. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B863.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pobreza , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 296, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel urine biomarkers have enabled the characterization of kidney tubular dysfunction and injury among persons living with HIV, a population at an increased risk of kidney disease. Even though several urine biomarkers predict progressive kidney function decline, antiretroviral toxicity, and mortality in the setting of HIV infection, the relationships among the risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and urine biomarkers are unclear. METHODS: We assessed traditional and infection-related CKD risk factors and measured 14 urine biomarkers at baseline and at follow-up among women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency Health Study (WIHS). We then used simultaneously adjusted multivariable linear regression models to evaluate the associations of CKD risk factors with longitudinal changes in biomarker levels. RESULTS: Of the 647 women living with HIV in this analysis, the majority (67%) were Black, the median age was 45 years and median follow-up time was 2.5 years. Each traditional and infection-related CKD risk factor was associated with a unique set of changes in urine biomarkers. For example, baseline hemoglobin a1c was associated with worse tubular injury (higher interleukin [IL]-18), proximal tubular reabsorptive dysfunction (higher α1-microglobulin), tubular reserve (lower uromodulin) and immune response to injury (higher chitinase-3-like protein-1 [YKL-40]). Furthermore, increasing hemoglobin a1c at follow-up was associated with further worsening of tubular injury (higher kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1] and IL-18), as well as higher YKL-40. HCV co-infection was associated with worsening proximal tubular reabsorptive dysfunction (higher ß2-microglobulin [ß2m]), and higher YKL-40, whereas HIV viremia was associated with worsening markers of tubular and glomerular injury (higher KIM-1 and albuminuria, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CKD risk factors are associated with unique patterns of biomarker changes among women living with HIV, suggesting that serial measurements of multiple biomarkers may help in detecting and monitoring kidney disease in this setting.

10.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287753

RESUMO

Social support is associated with improved HIV care and quality of life. We utilized latent class analysis to identify three classes of baseline emotional and tangible perceived social support, termed "Strong", "Wavering" and "Weak". "Weak" vs. "Strong" perceived social support was associated over time with an 8% decreased risk of optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for emotional and 6% decreased risk for tangible perceived social support. Importantly, "Wavering" vs "Strong" social support also showed a decreased risk of ART adherence of 6% for emotional and 3% for tangible support. "Strong" vs. "Weak" perceived support had a similar association with undetectable viral load, but the association for "Strong" vs. "Wavering" support was not statistically significant. Intensity of social support is associated with HIV care outcomes, and strong social support may be needed for some individuals. It is important to quantify the level or intensity of social support that is needed to optimize HIV outcomes.

11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(6): e25751, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is frequently observed among people with HIV, and food insecurity is associated with frailty in the general population. Evidence is scarce on the associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with HIV who may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of food insecurity. The goal of this study was to assess associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV. METHODS: There were 1265 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study who participated in frailty assessments in 2017. Frailty was measured using the Fried Frailty Phenotype, and women were subsequently categorized as robust, pre-frail or frail. Food insecurity was assessed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, with women categorized as having high, marginal, low or very low food security. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and frailty while adjusting for socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV status covariates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately one-third (31.9%) of the women had marginal, low or very low food security, and the proportions of women who met the criteria for frailty or pre-frailty were 55.6% and 12.4% respectively. In the adjusted model, the relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty for women with very low food security versus women with high food security was 3.37 (95% CI [1.38 to 8.24], p < 0.01); the corresponding RRR of pre-frailty was 3.63 (95% CI [1.76 to 7.51], p < 0.001). Higher annual household income was associated with lower RRRs of frailty or pre-frailty (p < 0.01). Similarly, older age was associated with more frequent frailty (RRR=1.06, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.09], p < 0.001). HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with either pre-frailty (RRR=0.97, 95% CI [0.71 to 1.31]) or frailty (RRR=0.75, 95% CI [0.48 to 1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Very low food security was associated with more frequent frailty and pre-frailty among women with and without for HIV. HIV serostatus was not associated with frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Kidney Med ; 3(3): 395-404.e1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136786

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: Single measurements of urinary biomarkers reflecting kidney tubule health are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in HIV infection, but the prognostic value of repeat measurements over time is unknown. Study Design: Cohort study. Setting & Participants: 647 women living with HIV infection enrolled in the Women's Interagency Health Study. Exposures: 14 urinary biomarkers of kidney tubule health measured at 2 visits over a 3-year period. Outcome: Incident CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at two 6-month visits and an average eGFR decline ≥ 3% per year. Analytical Approach: We used multivariable generalized estimating equations adjusting for CKD risk factors to evaluate baseline, time-updated, and change-over-time biomarker associations with incident CKD. We compared CKD discrimination between models with and without a parsimoniously selected set of biomarkers. Results: During a median 7 years of follow-up, 9.7% (63/647) developed CKD. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, 3 of 14 baseline biomarkers associated with incident CKD. In contrast, 10 of 14 time-updated biomarkers and 9 of 14 biomarkers modeled as change over time associated with incident CKD. Urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF), α1-microglobulin (A1M), and albumin were selected using penalized regression methods. In the time-updated model, lower urinary EGF (risk ratio [RR] per 2-fold higher time-updated biomarker levels, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.81), higher urinary A1M (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.25-1.73), and higher urinary albumin excretion (RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.42) were jointly associated with increased risk for CKD. Compared with a base model (C statistic, 0.75), CKD discrimination improved after adding urinary EGF, A1M, and albumin values across baseline (C = 0.81), time-updated (C = 0.83), and change-over-time (C = 0.83) models (P < 0.01 for all). Limitations: Observational design, incident CKD definition limited to eGFR. Conclusions: Repeat urinary biomarker measurements for kidney tubule health have stronger associations with incident CKD compared with baseline measurements and moderately improve CKD discrimination in women living with HIV infection.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(8): 1457-1475, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675224

RESUMO

In 2019, the National Institutes of Health combined the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) into the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). In this paper, participants who made a study visit during October 2018-September 2019 (targeted for MWCCS enrollment) are described by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus and compared with people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. Participants include 2,115 women and 1,901 men with a median age of 56 years (interquartile range, 48-63); 62% are PLWH. Study sites encompass the South (18%), the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast (45%), the West Coast (22%), and the Midwest (15%). Participant race/ethnicity approximates that of PLWH throughout the United States. Longitudinal data and specimens collected for 35 years (men) and 25 years (women) were combined. Differences in data collection and coding were reviewed, and key risk factor and comorbidity data were harmonized. For example, recent use of alcohol (62%) and tobacco (28%) are common, as are dyslipidemia (64%), hypertension (56%), obesity (42%), mildly or severely impaired daily activities (31%), depressive symptoms (28%), and diabetes (22%). The MWCCS repository includes serum, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cell pellets, urine, cervicovaginal lavage samples, oral samples, B-cell lines, stool, and semen specimens. Demographic differences between the MACS and WIHS can confound analyses by sex. The merged MWCCS is both an ongoing observational cohort study and a valuable resource for harmonized longitudinal data and specimens for HIV-related research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(5): 694-704, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544023

RESUMO

Background: To estimate the incidence, prevalence, frequency, and duration of incarceration and to identify risk factors for incarceration among women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. Methods: During semiannual study visits in a multicenter cohort study, 970 HIV sero-negative participants at risk for HIV were asked about their own incarceration (10/2007-09/2017) and incarceration of sexual partners (10/2013-09/2017). We used descriptive statistics and multivariable log-binomial regression to identify baseline predictors of incident incarceration. Results: Median follow-up time across the 970 participants was 5.5 years (IQR 3.5-9.5). Nearly half (n = 453, 46.7%) of participants were incarcerated during or before the study, and the incarceration rate was 5.5 per 100 person-years. In multivariable models, incident incarceration was associated with prior incarceration (RR 5.20, 95% CI: 3.23-8.41) and noninjection drug use (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10-2.25). Conclusions: Incarceration is common for women at risk for HIV. Prevention interventions that address the complex interplay of drug use, sex exchange, and housing instability for women who have experienced incarceration have the potential to reach an important group of U.S. women at risk of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Prisioneiros , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(1): 23-30, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400587

RESUMO

Medications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are currently daily pill regimens, which pose barriers to long-term adherence. Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP, but minimal LAI-focused research has occurred among women. Thus, little is known about how women's history of injection for medical or nonmedical purposes may influence their interest in LAI. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at 6 sites (New York, NY; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; Atlanta, GA; Chapel Hill, NC; Washington, DC) of the Women's Interagency HIV study. Interviews occurred with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from November 2017 to October 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Women's prior experiences with injections occurred primarily through substance use, physical comorbidities, birth control, or flu vaccines. Four primary categories of women emerged; those who (1) received episodic injections and had few LAI-related concerns; (2) required frequent injections and would refuse additional injections; (3) had a history of injection drug use, of whom some feared LAI might trigger a recurrence, while others had few LAI-related concerns; and (4) were currently injecting drugs and had few LAI-related concerns. Most women with a history of injectable medication would prefer LAI, but those with other frequent injections and history of injection drug use might not. Future research needs to address injection-related concerns, and develop patient-centered approaches to help providers best identify which women could benefit from LAI use.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
17.
AIDS Behav ; 25(3): 667-678, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910351

RESUMO

Long-acting injectable (LAI) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to facilitate adherence and transform HIV prevention. However, little LAI PrEP research has occurred among women, who face unique barriers. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with HIV-negative women from 2017-2018 across six sites (New York; Chicago; San Francisco; Atlanta; Washington, DC; Chapel Hill) of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Few women expressed interest in PrEP and when prompted to choose a regimen, 55% would prefer LAI, 10% daily pills, and 33% said they would not take PrEP regardless of formulation. Perceived barriers included: (1) the fear of new-and perceived untested-injectable products and (2) potential side effects (e.g., injection-site pain, nausea). Facilitators included: (1) believing shots were more effective than pills; (2) ease and convenience; and (3) confidentiality. Future studies should incorporate women's LAI PrEP-related experiences to facilitate uptake.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
18.
J Public Health Dent ; 81(1): 65-76, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research has shown inconsistent patterns of patients' HIV serostatus disclosure to their dentists. Common barriers to disclosure have included confidentiality concerns, fear of treatment refusal, and discrimination. This study evaluated the prevalence of HIV serostatus disclosure to the dentist, whether the frequency of dental care utilization is associated with disclosure, and reasons for nondisclosure among women living with HIV. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional oral health survey to 1,526 women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study including questions regarding HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dental care utilization (at least annually versus less than annually) and HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. RESULTS: Overall, 83 percent of women reported that they disclosed their HIV serostatus to their dentist. The most common reasons for nondisclosure were: a) the dentist did not ask, b) believing that the dentist did not need to know, and c) not having a consistent dentist. In the multivariable logistic regression model, at least annual dental care utilization, compared to less than annual, led to a 59 percent reduction in the odds of HIV nondisclosure to the dentist. DISCUSSION: Study findings highlight that dentists who see their patients infrequently should consider methods for overcoming barriers to HIV nondisclosure and the possibility that their patient's HIV serostatus is undisclosed. Educating women living with HIV about how disclosure to dentists is a critical component of their dental assessment and treatment, and how preventive dental treatment can improve overall health outcomes, is important.


Assuntos
Revelação , Infecções por HIV , Confidencialidade , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrevelação
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(12): 2136-2144, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with HIV are disproportionately coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and experience accelerated liver-related mortality. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) yield high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates, but uptake is suboptimal. This study characterizes the DAA-era HCV treatment cascade and barriers among US men and women with or at risk for HIV. METHODS: We constructed HCV treatment cascades using the Women's Interagency HIV Study (women, 6 visits, 2015-2018, n = 2447) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (men, 1 visit, 2015-2018, n = 2221). Cascades included treatment-eligible individuals (ie, HCV RNA-positive or reported DAAs). Surveys captured self-reported clinical (eg, CD4), patient (eg, missed visits), system (eg, appointment access), and financial/insurance barriers. RESULTS: Of 323/92 (women/men) treatment eligible, most had HIV (77%/70%); 69%/63% were black. HIV-positive women were more likely to attain cascade outcomes than HIV-negative women (39% vs 23% initiated, 21% vs 12% SVR); similar discrepancies were noted for men. Black men and substance users were treated less often. Women initiating treatment (vs not) reported fewer patient barriers (14%/33%). Among men not treated, clinical barriers were prevalent (53%). CONCLUSIONS: HIV care may facilitate HCV treatment linkage and barrier navigation. HIV-negative individuals, black men, and substance users may need additional support. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00000797 (Women's Interagency HIV Study); NCT00046280 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 2021-2029, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parametric g-computation is an analytic technique that can be used to estimate the effects of exposures, treatments and interventions; it relies on a different set of assumptions than more commonly used inverse probability weighted estimators. Whereas prior work has demonstrated implementations for binary exposures and continuous outcomes, use of parametric g-computation has been limited due to difficulty in implementation in more typical complex scenarios. METHODS: We provide an easy-to-implement algorithm for parametric g-computation in the setting of a dynamic baseline intervention of a baseline exposure and a time-to-event outcome. To demonstrate the use of our algorithm, we apply it to estimate the effects of interventions to reduce area deprivation on the cumulative incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis) among women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. RESULTS: We found that reducing area deprivation by a maximum of 1 tertile for all women would lead to a 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1%, 4.3%] reduction in 4-year STI incidence, and reducing deprivation by a maximum of 2 tertiles would lead to a 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.4%) reduction. CONCLUSIONS: As analytic methods such as parametric g-computation become more accessible, epidemiologists will be able to estimate policy-relevant effects of interventions to better inform clinical and public health practice and policy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Políticas
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