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1.
Anesthesiology ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation is an analgesic technique involving the percutaneous implantation of a lead followed by the delivery of electric current using an external pulse generator. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation has been used extensively for chronic pain, but only uncontrolled series have been published for acute postoperative pain. The current multicenter study was undertaken to (1) determine the feasibility and optimize the protocol for a subsequent clinical trial and (2) estimate the treatment effect of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation on postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: Preoperatively, an electrical lead was percutaneously implanted to target the sciatic nerve for major foot/ankle surgery (e.g., hallux valgus correction), the femoral nerve for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, or the brachial plexus for rotator cuff repair, followed by a single injection of long-acting local anesthetic along the same nerve/plexus. Postoperatively, participants were randomized to 14 days of either electrical stimulation (n = 32) or sham stimulation (n = 34) using an external pulse generator in a double-masked fashion. The dual primary treatment effect outcome measures were (1) cumulative opioid consumption (in oral morphine equivalents) and (2) mean values of the "average" daily pain scores measured on the 0 to 10 Numeric Rating Scale within the first 7 postoperative days. RESULTS: During the first 7 postoperative days, opioid consumption in participants given active stimulation was a median (interquartile range) of 5 mg (0 to 30) versus 48 mg (25 to 90) in patients given sham treatment (ratio of geometric means, 0.20 [97.5% CI, 0.07 to 0.57]; P < 0.001). During this same period, the average pain intensity in patients given active stimulation was a mean ± SD of 1.1 ± 1.1 versus 3.1 ± 1.7 in those given sham (difference, -1.8 [97.5% CI, -2.6 to -0.9]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation reduced pain scores and opioid requirements free of systemic side effects during at least the initial week after ambulatory orthopedic surgery.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 943-951, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and breakdown of pain symptoms among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted for nonpain symptoms and the association between the presence of pain and intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter prospective study, data on the intensity and type of pain were collected on 169 patients with active severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection at 2 teaching hospitals in the United States and Korea and on 8 patients with acute pain at another large teaching hospital between February 1, 2020, and June 15, 2020. RESULTS: Sixty-five of 169 patients (38.5%) reported an active pain condition. Among the 73 patients with pain, the most common pain symptoms were headache (n=22; 30.1%), chest pain (n=17; 23.3%), spinal pain (n=18; 24.7%), myalgia (n=13; 17.8%), abdominal or pelvic pain (n=13; 17.8%), arthralgia (n=11; 15.1%), and generalized pain (n=9; 12.3%). Those reporting headache as their main symptom were less likely to require ICU admission (P=.003). Acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed to 80.8% (n=59), opioids to 17.8% (n=13), adjuvants to 8.2% (n=6), and ketamine to 5.5% (n=4) of patients with pain. When age 65 years and older and sex were controlled for in multivariable analysis, the absence of pain was associated with ICU admission (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.42 to 6.28; P=.004) and death (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.40 to 9.76; P=.01). CONCLUSION: Acute pain is common during active COVID-19 infection with the most common manifestations being headache, chest pain and spine pain. Individuals without pain were more likely to require intensive care and expire than those with pain. Reasons why pain may be associated with reduced mortality include that an intense systemic stimulus (eg, respiratory distress) might distract pain perception or that the catecholamine surge associated with severe respiratory distress might attenuate nociceptive signaling.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , /fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755647

RESUMO

This Practice Advisory presents a comprehensive and evidence-based set of position statements and recommendations for the use of contrast media in interventional pain procedures. The advisory was established by an international panel of experts under the auspices of 11 multinational and multispecialty organizations based on a comprehensive review of the literature up to December 31, 2019. The advisory discusses the risks of using gadolinium-based contrast agents. These include nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, gadolinium brain deposition/retention, and encephalopathy and death after an unintentional intrathecal gadolinium injection. The advisory provides recommendations on the selection of a specific gadolinium-based contrast agent in patients with renal insufficiency, those who had multiple gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and in cases of paraspinal injections. Additionally, recommendations are made for patients who have a history of mild, moderate, or severe hypersensitivity reactions to contrast medium.

5.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(4): 298-304, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a surge in interest in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the genicular nerves over the past decade, with wide variability in selection, technique and outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine factors associated with treatment outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of 23 demographic, clinical and technical variables on outcomes in 265 patients who underwent genicular nerve RFA for knee pain at 2 civilian and 1 military hospital. A primary outcome was designated as a > 30% decrease in average knee pain score lasting at least 3 months without cointerventions. RESULTS: The overall rate of a positive response was 61.1% (95% CI 55.2% to 67.0%). In univariable analysis, larger electrode size (p=0.01), repeated lesions (p=0.02), having>80% pain relief during the prognostic block (p=0.02), not being on opioids (p=0.04), having no coexisting psychiatric condition (p=0.02), having a lower baseline pain score (p=0.01) and having >3 nerves targeted (p=0.02) were associated with a positive outcome. In multivariate logistic analysis, being obese (OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.66 to 8.19, p=0.001), not using opioids (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77, p=0.009), not being depressed (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.82, p=0.02), use of cooled RFA (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.23, p=0.002) and performing multiple lesions at each neural target (OR 15.88, 95% CI 4.24 to 59.50, p<0.001) were associated with positive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple clinical and technical factors associated with treatment outcome, which should be considered when selecting patients for RFA treatment and in the design of clinical trials.

6.
Pain Med ; 22(3): 548-560, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lumbar radiofrequency ablation is a commonly used intervention for chronic back pain. However, the pain typically returns, and though retreatment may be successful, the procedure involves destruction of the medial branch nerves, which denervates the multifidus. Repeated procedures typically have diminishing returns, which can lead to opioid use, surgery, or implantation of permanent neuromodulation systems. The objective of this report is to demonstrate the potential use of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) as a minimally invasive, nondestructive, motor-sparing alternative to repeat radiofrequency ablation and more invasive surgical procedures. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter trial. METHODS: Individuals with a return of chronic axial pain after radiofrequency ablation underwent implantation of percutaneous PNS leads targeting the medial branch nerves. Stimulation was delivered for up to 60 days, after which the leads were removed. Participants were followed up to 5 months after the start of PNS. Outcomes included pain intensity, disability, and pain interference. RESULTS: Highly clinically significant (≥50%) reductions in average pain intensity were reported by a majority of participants (67%, n = 10/15) after 2 months with PNS, and a majority experienced clinically significant improvements in functional outcomes, as measured by disability (87%, n = 13/15) and pain interference (80%, n = 12/15). Five months after PNS, 93% (n = 14/15) reported clinically meaningful improvement in one or more outcome measures, and a majority experienced clinically meaningful improvements in all three outcomes (i.e., pain intensity, disability, and pain interference). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous PNS has the potential to shift the pain management paradigm by providing an effective, nondestructive, motor-sparing neuromodulation treatment.

7.
Spine J ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610802

RESUMO

The contribution of bacterial infection to chronic low back pain and its treatment with antibiotics have generated considerable controversy in literature. If efficacious, antibiotics have the potential to transform the treatment of chronic low back pain in a significant subset of patients. Some microbiology studies of disc tissue from patients with CLBP have shown that bacteria are present, most likely due to infection, while others conclude they are absent or if found, it is due to surgical contamination. Clinical studies testing the efficacy of oral antibiotics to treat CLBP have either shown that the treatment is efficacious leading to significantly reduced pain and disability or that their effect is modest and not clinically significant. Critical review of the literature on CLBP, bacterial infection and treatment with antibiotics identified five well-designed and executed microbiology studies characterizing bacteria in disc samples that demonstrate that bacteria do infect herniated disc tissue, but that the bacterial burden is low and may be below the limits of detection in some studies. Two randomized, controlled clinical trials evaluating oral antibiotics in patients with CLBP indicate that for certain subsets of patients, the reduction in pain and disability achieved with antibiotic therapy may be significant. In patients for whom other therapies have failed, and who might otherwise progress to disc replacement or fusion surgery, antibiotic therapy may well be an attractive option to reduce the individual suffering associated with this debilitating condition. Additional clinical research is recommended to refine the selection of patients with CLBP caused or complicated by bacterial infection and most likely to respond to antibiotics, to optimize antibiotic therapy to maximize patient benefit, to minimize and manage side effects, and to address legitimate concerns about antibiotic stewardship.

9.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483425

RESUMO

Genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation has emerged as a treatment option for patients with painful knee osteoarthritis who have failed conservative management but who may not qualify or wish to avoid a surgical procedure. Radiofrequency ablation techniques targeting the genicular nerves have evolved as our understanding of the anatomy of the anterior knee joint capsule has become more defined. The article aims to review the basic anatomy of the anterior knee joint and both the traditional and revised approaches to nerve ablation.

10.
Eur J Pain ; 25(5): 986-1011, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies have reported relief of chronic shoulder pain with non-ablative pulsed neuromodulatory (pRF) or ablative radiofrequency (aRF) procedures on innervation of the shoulder joint but interpretation of these reports is hampered by inconsistent indications, anatomic targets and follow-up. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the existing literature on procedures employing pRF or aRF for treating chronic shoulder pain. DATABASES AND DATA TREATMENT: MEDLINE and other medical literature databases were reviewed up to 31 December 2019 for publications on pRF or aRF procedures on shoulder joint innervation to relieve chronic pain. Data on analgesic and functional outcomes measured at any time point following the interventions were extracted. Existing knowledge on innervation of the shoulder joint with relevance to RF procedures was also synthesized. RESULTS: In all, 42 publications, 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 35 observational studies, case series or reports were identified. Thirty-six of these publications were on pRF procedure and 29 of these reported procedures exclusively targeting the suprascapular nerve. A meta-analysis of the seven RCTs evaluating pRF indicated no analgesic benefit or functional improvement with this treatment over conventional medical management. Case series and reports on aRF indicate a potential for analgesic benefit but the quality of this evidence was low. CONCLUSIONS: RF treatments targeting the sensory innervation of the shoulder joint affected by degenerative conditions have the potential to reduce pain but the current evidence does not suggest analgesic or functional benefit (GRADE certainty of evidence-low). Studies of high methodological quality are required to further investigate the role of these interventions. SIGNIFICANCE: This is a comprehensive review of literature on pulsed (non-ablative) and ablative radiofrequency (RF) procedures for chronic shoulder pain. The systematic review and meta-analysis of 7 trials found that pulsed RF for chronic shoulder pain provided similar analgesia and functional improvement as conservative medical management at three months after the procedures. The case series and reports on ablative RF for shoulder pain indicate possible analgesic benefit but their quality was low. This review highlights the need for studies of a high quality on ablative RF treatments for chronic shoulder pain.

12.
Pain Med ; 21(Suppl 2): S13-S20, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NIH-DOD-VA Pain Management Collaboratory (PMC) supports 11 pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) on nonpharmacological approaches to management of pain and co-occurring conditions in U.S. military and veteran health organizations. The Stakeholder Engagement Work Group is supported by a separately funded Coordinating Center and was formed with the goal of developing respectful and productive partnerships that will maximize the ability to generate trustworthy, internally valid findings directly relevant to veterans and military service members with pain, front-line primary care clinicians and health care teams, and health system leaders. The Stakeholder Engagement Work Group provides a forum to promote success of the PCTs in which principal investigators and/or their designees discuss various stakeholder engagement strategies, address challenges, and share experiences. Herein, we communicate features of meaningful stakeholder engagement in the design and implementation of pain management pragmatic trials, across the PMC. DESIGN: Our collective experiences suggest that an optimal stakeholder-engaged research project involves understanding the following: i) Who are research stakeholders in PMC trials? ii) How do investigators ensure that stakeholders represent the interests of a study's target treatment population, including individuals from underrepresented groups?, and iii) How can sustained stakeholder relationships help overcome implementation challenges over the course of a PCT? SUMMARY: Our experiences outline the role of stakeholders in pain research and may inform future pragmatic trial researchers regarding methods to engage stakeholders effectively.

13.
Pain Med ; 21(Suppl 2): S53-S61, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducer needle followed by the delivery of electric current after needle withdrawal. This modality has been used extensively to treat chronic pain, but only small series have been published involving postoperative pain. The ultimate objective of this study is to determine the postoperative effects of percutaneous PNS following moderately to severely painful ambulatory surgery within a real-world clinical practice setting. The primary hypothesis is that surgical pain and opioid consumption during the initial 7 days after surgery will be reduced by percutaneous PNS compared with usual and customary analgesia (dual primary outcome measures). DESIGN: A multicenter pragmatic effectiveness trial. We are randomizing participants having painful orthopedic surgical procedures of the upper and lower extremity to receive 14 days of either 1) electrical stimulation or 2) sham in a double-masked fashion. End points are being assessed at various time points over 12 postoperative months. SUMMARY: The postoperative experience will be much improved if percutaneous PNS provides potent analgesia while concurrently decreasing opioid requirements following painful surgery. Because this modality can be administered for up to 60 days at home, it may provide postoperative analgesia that outlasts surgical pain yet has relatively few risks and, unlike opioids, has no systemic side effects or potential for abuse, addiction, and overdose. Percutaneous PNS has the potential to revolutionize postoperative analgesia as it has been practiced for the past century. This study will inform key stakeholders regarding an evidence-based nonpharmacologic approach to the management of postoperative pain.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions that has altered the practice of medicine. The pandemic has required pain clinics to transition in-person visits to telemedicine, postpone procedures and cancel face-to-face educational sessions. There are no data on how fellowship programs have adapted. METHODS: A 17-question survey was developed covering topics including changes in education, clinical care, and psychological stress due to the COVID pandemic. The survey was hosted by Qualtrics Inc. and disseminated by the Association of Pain Program Directors on April 10, 2020 to program directors at ACGME-accredited fellowships. Results are reported descriptively and stratified by COVID infection rate, which was calculated from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data on state infections, and census data. RESULTS: Among 107 surveys distributed, 70 (65%) programs responded. Twenty-nine programs were located in states in the upper tertile for per capita infection rates, 17 in the middle third, and 23 in the lowest tertile. Nearly all programs (93%) reported a decreased workload, with 11 (16%) reporting a dramatic decrease (only urgent or emergent cases). Just over half of programs had either already deployed (14%) or credentialed (39%) fellows to provide non-pain care. Higher state infection rates were significantly associated with reduced clinical demand (Rs = 0.31, 95% CI [0.08, 0.51], P = .011) and redeployment of fellows to non-pain areas (Rs = 0.30, 95% CI [0.07, 0.50], P = .013). Larger program size but not infection rate was associated with increased perceived anxiety level of trainees. CONCLUSIONS: We found a shift to online alternatives for clinical care and education, with correlations between per capita infection rates, and clinical care demands and redeployment, but not with overall trainee anxiety levels. It is likely that medicine in general, and pain medicine in particular, will change after COVID-19, with greater emphasis on telemedicine, virtual education, and greater national and international cooperation. Physicians should be prepared for these changes.

16.
Pain ; 161(11): 2652-2653, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065699
17.
Pain ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021563

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain is thought to be sustained by reentrant neural pathways which provoke dysfunctional reorganization in the somatosensory cortex. We hypothesized that disrupting reentrant pathways with a 6-day-long continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom pain 4 weeks after treatment. We enrolled patients who had an upper- or lower-limb amputation and established phantom pain. Each was randomized to receive a 6-day perineural infusion of either ropivacaine or normal saline. The primary outcome was the average phantom pain severity as measured with a Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) at 4 weeks, after which an optional crossover treatment was offered within the following 0-12 weeks. Pretreatment pain scores were similar in both groups, with a median [interquartile range] of 5.0 [4.0, 7.0] for each. After 4 weeks, average phantom limb pain intensity was a mean (SD) of 3.0 (2.9) in patients given local anesthetic versus 4.5 (2.6) in those given placebo (difference (95% CI) 1.3 (0.4, 2.2), P=0.003). Patients given local anesthetic had improved global impression of change and less pain-induced physical and emotional dysfunction, but did not differ on depression scores. For subjects who received only the first infusion (no self-selected crossover), the median decrease in phantom limb pain at 6 months for treated subjects was 3.0 [0, 5.0] vs. 1.5 [0, 5.0] for the placebo group; there appeared to be little residual benefit at 12 months. We conclude that a 6-day continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom limb pain as well as physical and emotional dysfunction for at least 1 month.

18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(21): E1405-E1415, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890301

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic with meta-analysis OBJECTIVES.: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of epidural corticosteroid injections compared with placebo injection in reducing leg pain and disability in patients with sciatica. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Conservative treatments, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments, are typically the first treatment options for sciatica but the evidence to support their use is limited. The overall quality of evidence found by previous systematic reviews varies between moderate and high, which suggests that future trials may change the conclusions. New placebo-controlled randomized trials have been published recently which highlights the importance of an updated systematic review. METHODS: The searches were performed without language restrictions in the following databases from 2012 to 25 September 2019: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and trial registers. We included placebo-controlled randomized trials investigating epidural corticosteroid injections in patients with sciatica. The primary outcomes were leg pain intensity and disability. The secondary outcomes were adverse events, overall pain, and back pain intensity. We grouped similar trials according to outcome measures and their respective follow-up time points. Short-term follow-up (>2 weeks but ≤3 months) was considered the primary follow-up time point due to the expected mechanism of action of epidural corticosteroid injection. Weighted mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and conducted the analyses using random effects. RESULTS: We included 25 clinical trials (from 29 publications) providing data for a total of 2470 participants with sciatica, an increase of six trials when compared to the previous review. Epidural corticosteroid injections were probably more effective than placebo in reducing short-term leg pain (MD -4.93, 95% CI -8.77 to -1.09 on a 0-100 scale), short-term disability (MD -4.18, 95% CI: -6.04 to -2.17 on a 0-100 scale) and may be slightly more effective in reducing short-term overall pain (MD -9.35, 95% CI -14.05 to -4.65 on a 0-100 scale). There were mostly minor adverse events (i.e., without hospitalization) after epidural corticosteroid injections and placebo injections without difference between groups (RR 1.14, 95% CI: 0.91-1.42). The quality of evidence was at best moderate mostly due to problems with trial design and inconsistency. CONCLUSION: A review of 25 placebo-controlled trials provides moderate-quality evidence that epidural corticosteroid injections are effective, although the effects are small and short-term. There is uncertainty on safety due to very low-quality evidence. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1.

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