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2.
Am Surg ; : 31348221086785, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438575
3.
Am Surg ; : 31348221075593, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142564

RESUMO

Sarcopenia and frailty have both emerged as risk factors for elderly falls. We investigated whether radiologic sarcopenia or frailty are associated with falls in a high-risk geriatric outpatient population. We reviewed 114 patients followed at the Center for Healthy Senior Living who had undergone a computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis for any reason from 2013 to 2019. Sarcopenia was determined by psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3 on CT scan. Their individual frailty score was calculated. The primary outcome was admission to hospital for falls. There were no statistical differences in frailty score or sarcopenia between the 2 groups (left/right psoas muscle: no hospital admission = 6.8 ± 2.4/6.4 ± 2.5 vs falls requiring hospital admission 6.5 ± 2.3/6.5 ± 2.3 cm2). We concluded that neither frailty score nor sarcopenia predicted the occurrence of falls in our high-risk geriatric outpatient population.

5.
Am Surg ; : 3134821995053, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if statewide marijuana laws impact upon the detection of drugs and alcohol in victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data collected at trauma centers in Arizona, California, Ohio, Oregon, New Jersey, and Texas between 2006 and 2018 was performed. The percentage of patients testing positive for marijuana tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was compared to the percentage of patients driving under the influence of alcohol (blood alcohol level >0.08 g/dL) that were involved in an MVC. RESULTS: The data were analyzed to evaluate the trends in THC and alcohol use in victims of MVC, related to marijuana legalization. The change in incidence of THC detection (percentage) over the time period where data were available are as follows: Arizona 9.5% (0.4 to 9.9), California 5.4% (20.8 to 26.2), Ohio 5.9% (6.7 to 12.6), Oregon 3% (3.0 to 6.0), New Jersey 2.3% (2.7 to 5.0), and Texas 15.3% (3.0 to 18.3). Alcohol use did not change over time in most states. There did not appear to be a relationship between the legalization of marijuana and the likelihood of finding THC in patients admitted after MVC. In fact, in Texas, where marijuana remains illegal, there was the largest change in detection of THC. CONCLUSIONS: There was no apparent increase in the incidence of driving under the influence of marijuana after legalization. In addition, the changes in marijuana legislation did not appear to impact alcohol use.

6.
Am Surg ; : 3134821995063, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigations have demonstrated that trocar site hernia (TSH) is an under-appreciated complication of laparoscopic surgery, occurring in as many as 31%. We determined the incidence of fascial defects prior to laparoscopic appendectomy and its impact relative to other risk factors upon the development of TSH. METHODS: TSH was defined as a fascial separation of ≥ 1 cm in the abdominal wall umbilical region on abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT) following laparoscopic appendectomy. Patients admitted to our medical center who had both a preoperative CT and postoperative CT for any reason (greater than 30 days after surgery) were reviewed for the presence of TSH from May 2010 to December 2018. CT scans were measured for fascial defects, while investigators were blinded to film timing (preoperative or postoperative) and patient identity. Demographic information was collected. RESULTS: 241 patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy had both preoperative and late postoperative CT. TSH was identified in 49 (20.3%) patients. Mean preoperative fascial gap was 3.3 ± 4.3 mm in those not developing a postoperative hernia versus 14.8 ± 7.3 mm in those with a postoperative hernia (P < .0001). Preoperative fascial defect on CT was predictive of TSH (P < .001, OR = 1.44), with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of .921 (95%CI: .88-.92). Other major risk factors for TSH were: age greater than 59 years (P < .031, OR = 2.48); and obesity, BMI > 30 (P < .012, OR = 2.14). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of trocar site hernia was one in five following laparoscopic appendectomy. The presence of a pre-existing fascial defect, advanced age, and obesity were strong predictors for the development of trocar site hernia.

7.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1809-1822, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a non-opioid analgesic commonly utilized for pain control after several types of surgical procedures. METHODS: This scoping primary literature review provides recommendations for intravenous (IV) acetaminophen use based on type of surgery. RESULTS: Intravenous acetaminophen has been widely studied for postoperative pain control and has been compared to other agents such as NSAIDs, opioids, oral/rectal acetaminophen, and placebo. Some of the procedures studied include abdominal, gynecologic, orthopedic, neurosurgical, cardiac, renal, and genitourinary surgeries. Results of these studies have been conflicting and largely have not shown consistent clinical benefit. CONCLUSION: Overall, findings from this review did not support the notion that IV acetaminophen has significant efficacy for postoperative analgesia. Given the limited clinical benefit of IV acetaminophen, especially when compared to the oral or rectal formulations, use is generally not justifiable.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
8.
Am Surg ; 87(6): 872-879, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238721

RESUMO

In this article, we review controversies in assessing the risk of serious adverse effects caused by administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our focus is upon NSAIDs used in short courses for the management of acute postoperative pain. In our review of the literature, we found that the risks of short-term NSAID use may be overemphasized. Specifically, that the likelihood of renal dysfunction, bleeding, nonunion of bone, gastric complications, and finally, cardiac dysfunction do not appear to be significantly increased when NSAIDs are used appropriately after surgery. The importance of this finding is that in light of the opioid epidemic, it is crucial to be aware of alternative analgesic options that are safe for postoperative pain control.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10558, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101805

RESUMO

Skin grafts generated from cultured autologous epidermal stem cells may have potential advantages when compared to traditional skin grafting. In this report, we will share our initial experience with a new technique for the treatment of difficult cutaneous wounds. Eight patients with traumatic or complex wounds underwent full-thickness skin harvesting and processing of epidermal stem cells, followed by the application of our novel management protocol. The patients were at high risk for non-healing and/or severe scar formation due to large traumatic de-gloving crush injuries, wounds from necrotizing fasciitis, or chronic wounds from osteomyelitis. We examined the percent graft success, recipient to donor size ratios, the median time to epithelialization, and two-point sensory discrimination. An international scale (The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale - POSAS) was used to evaluate wound cosmesis and included parameters such as pain, pruritus, vascularity, pigmentation, and thickness of the healing wound. In total, 10 out of 11 wounds had 100% survival of the graft, and one patient had an 80% graft take. The largest wound was 1600 cm2, and all wounds were harvested from small-donor sites, which were closed primarily. The mean wound to donor ratio was >25:1. Most wounds were fully epithelialized within 30 days. Neurologically, four out of six patients studied exhibited two-point discrimination similar to the adjacent native uninjured skin. The majority of patients reported their wounds to have limited pain or pruritus, and similar pigmentation to adjacent skin.

10.
Cureus ; 12(7): e9370, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850238

RESUMO

Background This study was performed to determine whether trauma patients are at an increased risk of developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) within the first 48 hours of hospitalization. Materials and methods A retrospective review was performed using a prospectively maintained database of patients admitted to a trauma center during a five-year time period. Patients hospitalized for greater than 48 hours who received a screening venous duplex for DVT were included in the study. Results There were 1067 venous duplex scans obtained, 689 (64.5%) within the first 48 hours of admission (early DVT group), 378 (35.4%) after the first 48 hours (late DVT group). Only 142 (13.2%) patients had a positive duplex scan for DVT, 55 (early group), 87 (late group). Comorbid conditions of congestive heart failure (P = 0.02), pelvic fractures (P = 0.04), and a lower initial systolic blood pressure on presentation (p = 0.04) were associated with early DVT. Head trauma (P < 0.01), mechanical ventilation (P < 0.001), and transfusion of blood products (P < 0.001), were predictors of DVT in the late group. Conclusions Trauma patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thrombosis early in the hospital course due to comorbidities associated with trauma. Whereas, venous thrombosis in trauma patients diagnosed after the first 48 hours of hospitalization appears to be associated with prolonged patient immobility.

11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 222-225, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Trauma patients with isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (iSAH) presenting to nontrauma centers are typically transferred to an institution with neurosurgical availability. However, recent studies suggest that iSAH is a benign clinical entity with an excellent prognosis. This investigation aims to evaluate the neurosurgical outcomes of traumatic iSAH with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15 who were transferred to a higher level of care. METHODS: The American College of Surgeon Trauma Quality Improvement Program was retrospectively analyzed from 2010 to 2015 for transferred patients 16 years and older with blunt trauma, iSAH, and GCS of 13 or greater. Those with any other body region Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, positive or unknown alcohol/drug status, and requiring mechanical ventilation were excluded. The primary outcome was need for neurosurgical intervention (i.e., intracranial monitor or craniotomy/craniectomy). RESULTS: A total of 11,380 patients with blunt trauma, iSAH, and GCS of 13 to 15 were transferred to an American College of Surgeon level I/II from 2010 to 2015. These patients were 65 years and older (median, 72 [interquartile range (IQR), 59-81]) and white (83%) and had one or more comorbidities (72%). Eighteen percent reported a bleeding diathesis/chronic anticoagulation on admission. Most patients had fallen (80%), had a GCS of 15 (84%), and were mildly injured (median Injury Severity Score, 9 [IQR, 5-14]). Only 1.7% required neurosurgical intervention with 55% of patients being admitted to the intensive care unit for a median of 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Furthermore, 2.2% of the patients died. The median hospital length of stay was only 3 days (IQR, 2-5 days), and the most common discharge location was home with self-care (62%). Patient factors favoring neurosurgical intervention included high Injury Severity Score, low GCS, and chronic anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Trauma patients transferred for iSAH with GCS of 13 to 15 are at very low risk for requiring neurosurgical intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, Level IV.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/cirurgia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/mortalidade
12.
Am Surg ; 85(11): 1246-1252, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775966

RESUMO

When endoscopy is performed for acute GI bleeding, therapeutic endoscopic procedures are infrequently required (only 6% of cases). We sought to determine the natural history of GI hemorrhage in patients who have undergone therapeutic endoscopy. We queried our hospital database for inpatients with acute GI bleeding who underwent therapeutic endoscopy between 2015 and 2017. The primary endpoints were recurrence of bleeding and the subsequent need for repeated endoscopic interventions, angioembolization, or surgery. Demographic information was collected. We reviewed 205 hospitalized patients: mean age was 70 years, 58 per cent were male, and mean hemoglobin was 9 g/dL. Patients had medical conditions predisposing them to bleeding in 59 per cent and history of previous GI bleeding in 37 per cent of cases. Sixty per cent were on antiplatelet/anticoagulation medications, and 10 per cent were receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Blood transfusions were given to 78 per cent of patients, with an average of 2.3 units of packed red blood cells transfused per patient before intervention. Recurrence of hemorrhage after therapeutic endoscopy was seen in 9 per cent of patients. Only 2 per cent underwent a second therapeutic endoscopic procedure, and 5 per cent had surgery or angioembolization (half of these patients then had a further recurrence of bleeding). In total, seven patients died (3%). Recurrence of GI bleeding after therapeutic endoscopies is uncommon (9%). Surgery and angioembolization are not commonly necessary, but when used are only successful in 50 per cent of cases.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia/métodos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemoglobina A/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cureus ; 11(6): e5034, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501726

RESUMO

In patients with significant comorbid conditions, acute cholecystitis is managed through surgical intervention or with cholecystostomy tube placement (CTP). The literature is not definitive in its recommendations for cholecystectomy versus cholecystostomy. This case report describes a presentation of acute calculous cholecystitis managed with CTP. Over a 10-week period, due to complications with the tube, the decision was made to perform a cholecystectomy. Upon open surgical exploration, an atraumatic, ruptured, and chronically inflamed gallbladder was found without attachment to the subhepatic plate and, in essence, free "floating" in the peritoneum. To our knowledge, this is the first-known documented case report in the English medical literature. An elderly woman, with significant co-morbidities, following two months of antibiotic treatment for acute cholecystitis and subsequent percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement and re-placements, underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was converted to open surgery. Upon exploration, a detached, "floating" gallbladder was found posterior to the transverse colon and removed after lysing extensive peritoneal adhesions. Subsequent to the cholecystectomy, the patient had uncomplicated recovery. The literature does not present a clear consensus on CTP use vs early cholecystectomy in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. This management decision is based primarily on the surgeon's clinical judgment and the use of evidence-based risk assessment indices. The "floating gallbladder" is a rare, benign complication that affirms the importance of extensively assessing the risks and benefits of CTP as compared to cholecystectomy in the elderly and/or comorbid patient.

14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 100-103, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative outpatient narcotic overprescription plays a significant role in the opioid epidemic. Outpatient opioid prescription ranges from 150 to 350 oral morphine equivalent (OME) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy, with 75 OME (10 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone) being the lowest recommendation (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). We hypothesized that the addition of nonopioid medications to the outpatient pain control regimen would decrease the need for narcotics. METHODS: In this prospective, observational pilot study, we prescribed a 3-day regimen of ibuprofen and acetaminophen to patients after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomies and appendectomies. An additional opioid prescription for 5 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) was written for breakthrough pain. During their postoperative visit, we evaluated patients' adherence to the pain control regime, their postdischarge opioid use, and the adequacy of their pain control. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were included in the study (52% male). The majority (80%) of surgeries were performed urgently or emergently. The visual analog scale pain score at home was significantly better than upon discharge (3.7 vs. 5.5, p = 0.001). The average number of oxycodone pills taken postdischarge was 1.8 pills. Half (51%) of the patients did not take any opioids. All but four patients reported that their pain was adequately controlled. No patient required additional opioid prescriptions or visited the emergency department. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that opioids can be eliminated in at least half of the patients and that five pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) is sufficient for outpatient pain control when a 3-day course of ibuprofen and acetaminophen is prescribed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level V.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicectomia/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Am Surg ; 85(3): 306-311, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947780

RESUMO

MRI after a CT scan for thoracolumbar spine (TLS) trauma has become commonplace because of the concerns for detection of posterior ligamentous complex injuries in the absence of substantial scientific evidence to support its use. We hypothesized that MRI scans were not necessary in the clinical management of TLS fractures. A prospective study was conducted at our Level I trauma center. A total of 39 neurologically intact patients with TLS fracture on CT were enrolled. The patients' CT scan and neurological examination were reviewed by a senior neurosurgeon, who determined clinical management based on these data. Assessment was repeated after an MRI of the spine was performed, and a second clinical plan was devised. The two treatment schemes were then compared. MRI resulted in a change in clinical management in 15 per cent of patients. Ten per cent of patients changed from requiring a brace to no brace and merely observation alone. In no patient planned for nonoperative care was surgery deemed necessary after completion of MRI. Among five patients with initial plans for operative intervention, two avoided surgery after the MRI. MRI has little impact on the management of patients with CT-proven thoracic and lumbar spine fractures. Only when surgery is planned based on CT studies does an MRI seem to assist with determining optimal care.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cureus ; 11(1): e3889, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911446

RESUMO

Background Platelets are commonly administered to trauma patients to reverse the effects of pre-injury anti-platelet drugs if these individuals are judged to be at risk for ongoing bleeding (i.e., traumatic brain injury). In the U.S. blood banks, platelets are maintained at room temperature and are not infused prior to 72 hours storage due to rigorous screening methods. Recent work suggested that cold refrigerated platelets may be effective at restoring platelet function. We hypothesized that refrigerated platelets might be superior to room temperature platelets in reversing aspirin and clopidogrel-induced platelet dysfunction. Methods Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy, adult subjects underwent platelet removal by apheresis, received anti-platelet drugs (aspirin 325 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg) daily for three days, and then had return of their own platelets (about 3 x 1011 platelets). Five subjects were randomly assigned to receive platelets stored at 4°C, and five received platelets stored at room temperature. One month later, this entire process was repeated with each subject receiving platelets stored by the alternative method. Thus, subjects served as their own controls. At multiple time points during the study in vivo platelet function was assessed by bleeding times, which were measured by a single observer blinded to patient group. Results Bleeding times rose dramatically after anti-platelet drugs were given, but remained well above the normal range (seven minutes) despite reinfusion of platelets. There were no differences in platelet function according to the method of storage. Conclusions Transfusion with autologous platelets appears to be ineffective in reversing the anti-platelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel. Cold refrigerated platelets were no more effective than room temperature stored platelets in restoring platelet function. This abstract was presented at American College of Surgeons-clinical congress, Boston 10-22-2018. (Khoury L, Cohn S, Panzo M. Inability to Reverse Aspirin and Clopidogrel-Induced Platelet Dysfunction with Platelet Infusion. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2018. 227. S265. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.07.546).

17.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(5): 1519-1523, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six hours has long been considered the threshold of ischemia after peripheral artery injury. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the impact of operative delays on morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity arterial injuries. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 3,441,259 injured patients entered into the National Trauma Data Bank Research Dataset from 2012 to 2015. Patients (≥16 years) with lower extremity arterial injuries were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision injury and procedure codes. Patients with crush injuries, patients with prehospital or emergency department cardiac arrest, those not transferred directly from point of injury, and patients in whom a nonoperative management strategy was attempted were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: We examined the data from 4406 patients with lower extremity arterial injuries; 85% of the patients were male, with a mean age of 35 years. The overall mortality in this cohort was 3.2% (143/4406); the amputation rate was 11.3% (499/4406). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, blunt mechanisms of injury, increased time from injury to operating room arrival, nerve injury, associated lower extremity fractures, increased age, and Injury Severity Score were associated with increased amputation risk. The amputation rate in those undergoing repair within 60 minutes was 6% compared with 11.7% and 13.4% in those undergoing repair after 1 to 3 hours and 3 to 6 hours, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal limb salvage is achieved when revascularization of lower extremity arterial injury occurs within 1 hour of injury. To improve survival and recovery after extremity arterial injury, efforts should be focused on strategies to expedite reperfusion of the injured limb.


Assuntos
Artérias/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Tempo para o Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adulto , Amputação , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/lesões , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/mortalidade
18.
Cureus ; 10(7): e3067, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians are required to assume a leadership role as part of their career. For most, this is not an innate characteristic and must be developed throughout their medical training. There are few residency courses designed to assist in the enhancement of these leadership skills. We created and implemented a novel course on leadership, utilizing weekly presentations designed to stimulate discussions and improve the leadership qualities of trainees. METHODS: Senior residents provided leadership lectures stimulated by assigned readings from the book "The Founding Fathers on Leadership." The traits and characteristics demonstrated throughout course readings and discussions were subsequently incorporated into everyday resident activities. Baseline and post-course survey responses were evaluated to assess changes in leadership qualities. RESULTS: Seven senior (postgraduate year (PGY) 3-5) participated as course leaders. All seven filled out pre- and post-course surveys. Seventeen junior residents (PGY 1-2) were involved as audience members. Significant pre- and post-course differences were noted in the following areas: feelings of increased encouragement of personal development (4.86 vs. 5.43, p=0.03); increased team participation in decision-making (4.00 vs. 4.57, p=0.03); increased ease of obtaining answers to difficult questions (4.57 vs. 5.23, p=0.047); increased team member work (4.86 vs. 5.71, p=0.047), and a sense of leading a more balanced life (3.86 vs. 4.43, p=0.03). CONCLUSION: The initiation of a novel leadership course for senior surgical residents led to an enjoyable experience, resulting in enhanced leadership skills for all participants. We believe this process resulted in a more cohesive, efficient, communicative, and supportive residency program.

19.
Cureus ; 10(7): e3078, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280073

RESUMO

Head injury is the most common cause of neurologic disability and mortality in children. We had hypothesized that in children with isolated skull fractures (SFs) and a normal neurological examination on presentation, the risk of neurosurgical intervention is very low. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children aged six to sixteen years presenting to our Level 1 trauma center with traumatic brain injuries between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. We also analyzed the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) research data set for the years 2012-2014 using the same metrics. During this study period, our center admitted 575 children with skull fractures, 197 of which were isolated (no associated intracranial lesions (ICLs)). Of the 197 patients with isolated SFs, 155 had a normal neurological examination at presentation. In these patients, there were no fatalities and only three (1.9%) required surgery, all for the elevation of the depressed skull fracture. Analyzing the NTDB yielded similar results. In 5,194 children with isolated SFs and a normal neurological examination on presentation, there were no fatalities and 249 (4.8%) required neurosurgical intervention, almost all involving craniotomy/craniectomy and/or elevation of the SF segments. In conclusion, children with non-depressed isolated skull fractures and a normal Glasgow coma scale (GCS) at the time of initial presentation are at extremely low risk of death or needing neurosurgical intervention.

20.
Cureus ; 10(7): e3049, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271695

RESUMO

Background It is essential for physicians to master the ability to deliver high-quality oral presentations. Despite this, little time is dedicated throughout residency for training and refining this important skill. In order to solve this issue, we set out to design and implement a course which will improve the oratory skills of the resident physicians. Methods Senior surgical residents (postgraduate years three and four) were involved in a single-elimination tournament with the audience voting for the top presenters. Faculty provided feedback on oration, slide layout and overall presentation format throughout the course. Baseline and post-course survey responses were evaluated to assess a change in presentation skills after the "oratory course". Results Seven senior residents participated as competitors. Seventeen other junior and chief residents (postgraduate years 1, 2 and 5) were involved as audience members along with several attending physicians, physician assistants and medical students. Both the presenters and audience appreciated a statistically significant improvement in communication skills and slide layout (p < 0.01). Conclusion The use of a structured course in public speaking and presentation skills proved to be effective in developing oratory skills in surgical residents when used in conjunction with an entertaining format.

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