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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 58, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the individual and economic disease burden of depression is particularly high for long-term symptoms, little is known of the lifetime course of chronic depression. Most evidence derives from clinical samples, and the diagnostic distinction between persistent depressive disorder (PDD) and non-chronic major depression (NCMDD) is still debated. Thus, we examined characteristics of PDD among clinical vs. non-clinical cases, and the associated disease burden at a population level. METHODS: Data were drawn from the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH, 2009-2012, n = 4483) and a clinical sample of PDD inpatients at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (2018-2019, n = 45). The DSM-5 definition of PDD was operationalized a priori to the study using interview-based DSM-IV diagnoses of dysthymia and major depression lasting at least 2 years in both surveys. Additional depression characteristics (depression onset, self-classified course, suicidality, comorbid mental disorders, treatment history and current depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire-9]) were assessed. In the DEGS1-MH, health-related quality of life (Short Form Health Survey-36, SF-36), chronic somatic conditions, number of sick days (past 12 months) or days with limitations in normal daily life activities (past 4 weeks), and health service utilization (past 12 months) were compared for PDD vs. NCMDD. RESULTS: PDD cases from the clinical sample had a significantly earlier depression onset, a higher proportion of self-classification as persistent course, and treatment resistance than PDD and NCMDD cases in DEGS1-MH. At a population level, PDD cases showed worse outcomes compared with NCMDD cases in terms of somatic comorbidity, SF-36 mental component score, and activity limitations owing to mental health problems, as well as a higher risk for outpatient mental health care contact. CONCLUSIONS: The distinction between PDD and NCMDD proposed for DSM-5 seems warranted. Early onset depression, self-classification as persistent depressive course, and treatment resistance are suggested as markers of more severe and chronic depression courses. At a population level, PDD is associated with remarkably higher individual and economic disease burden than NCMDD, highlighting the need to improve medical recognition of chronic courses and establish specific treatment concepts for chronic depression.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529180

RESUMO

Eating disorders are of high clinical and societal relevance. They are among the most common chronic mental illnesses in adulthood, but show a high incidence rate and peak of disease onset even in adolescence. Eating disorders are associated with far-reaching costs, such as acute or chronic comorbidities and educational or professional attainment.Thus, from a public mental health perspective, it is essential to explore symptoms and risk factors of eating disorders and to monitor prevalence rates across time to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of prevention measures.In the present study, the recent prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents living in Germany is reported based on the Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017, N = 6599, 51.7% boys) and compared to the prevalence rates 10 years ago (KiGGS Baseline, 2003-2006, N = 6633, 51.5% boys). Moreover, we investigate a selection of risk factors for eating disorder symptoms.In KiGGS Wave 2, 19.8% of the children and adolescents showed eating disorder symptoms, a drop of 2.8 percentage points in the prevalence rate as compared to the KiGGS Baseline. The drop in the prevalence rate pertains to 11- to 13-year-old boys while the risk for 14- to 17-year-old adolescents and particularly among girls remained comparably high. Children and adolescents with emotional problems, low family cohesion, low self-efficacy, or who perceive themselves as too thick or thin, show an increased risk for eating disorder symptoms.Previous approaches and possible supplements for the prevention of eating disorders are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly established as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the current HRQoL among children and adolescents in Germany aged between 11 and 17 years taking into account common chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, obesity, ADHD) and mental health problems. METHODS: The analysis is based on information obtained from 6,599 children and adolescents (51.9% girls; 48.1% boys) from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017). HRQoL was measured with the multidimensional KIDSCREEN-27. The chronic diseases and mental health problems under investigation were assessed by several indicators. RESULTS: Differences in HRQoL could be found as a function of age and gender. The HRQoL among girls was lower at an older age across all dimensions. These age-related differences are less pronounced among boys. The HRQoL of children and adolescents with chronic diseases and mental health problems was lower compared to their healthy peer groups. The comparison of the investigated chronic diseases and mental health problems revealed significant differences. Particularly, HRQoL was lower for children and adolescents with obesity and mental health problems. DISCUSSION: The distinction of several dimensions of HRQoL allows a comprehensive understanding of age- and gender-related effects and provides a detailed assessment of the impact of chronic diseases and mental health problems. The present findings underline the importance of HRQoL as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Qual Life Res ; 27(12): 3281-3292, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) represents one central indicator for the need of prevention or intervention with gaining importance for public health monitoring. As part of this framework, the present study aims to identify potentially supportive factors of HRQoL and to determine age-related differences. METHODS: In a sample of young to older adults (18-79 years; M = 52.71, SD = 16.06) from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1 subsample, n = 3667, 52% female), we investigated interrelations between individual (e.g., chronic condition), social (e.g., social support), and lifestyle factors (e.g., healthy eating) and executive functioning with the physical composite scale (PCS) and the mental composite scale (MCS) of HRQoL with the help of path analyses. Secondly, we performed multiple regression analyses to determine age interactions. RESULTS: Results suggest direct and indirect paths on PCS, respectively, MCS from various lifestyle factors and executive functioning in addition to individual and social factors with a good model fit (PCS: CD = .63, SRMR = .001; MCS: CD = .64, SRMR = .003). Furthermore, results suggest physical activity and healthy eating to become particularly relevant with advancing age (age group × physical activity on PCS, ß = .09, p < .05; age group × healthy eating on MCS, ß > .50, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Several lifestyle factors and executive functioning offer the potential to promote HRQoL in the everyday life of individuals at various ages, independent of individual or social determinants. Public health action might want to foster behavioral multicomponent approaches supporting healthy aging.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Affect Disord ; 239: 102-106, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous study results on associations between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning, mainly based on clinical samples and explanatory mechanisms including potential protective factors, are yet to be clarified. To this end, we investigated relations between depressive symptoms and executive functioning as well as episodic memory in a representative population sample. Furthermore, we determined the role of social support and physical activity in the explanation of cognitive performance differences in individuals with depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of N = 3661 participants (52% female) from the German Health and Examination Interview for Adults (18-79 years; M = 52.71, SD = 16.06) were included in the present study. Within a larger assessment protocol, participants answered a depressive symptom questionnaire and completed a neuropsychological test battery including executive functioning and episodic memory. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms significantly predicted executive functioning and episodic memory scores with small effects of ß = -0.04. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. LIMITATIONS: As the present study is cross-sectional, future research is warranted to provide more insight into causality by following individuals with depressive symptoms over time. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that effects from depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning (a) have been overestimated and do not generalize to non-clinical populations and (b) vary owing to behavioral lifestyle factors such as social support and physical activity. Thereby, the present results highlight opportunities for buffering cognitive decline in individuals with depressive symptoms in the general population.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Exercício/fisiologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dev Psychol ; 53(9): 1777-1794, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581313

RESUMO

In previous studies, older as compared with younger individuals were more strongly motivated to regulate their momentary affect toward pleasant and calm states. Whether these motivational differences are also reflected in regulatory behavior and whether this behavior is efficient in terms of affect change, however, is unclear. To address these issues, we conducted 3 studies with samples ranging in age from adolescence to old adulthood. In Study 1, we developed a novel and age-fair music browsing paradigm for music of diverse musical styles, dates of origin, and affective characteristics. The time spent listening to self-selected music with varying levels of valence and arousal served as an indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in 2 different affectively relevant situations, namely after mood induction in Study 2 and before an upcoming discussion with a stranger in Study 3. As predicted, we found a higher preference for music with positive valence and low arousal in older as compared with younger individuals in both studies. Additionally, the efficacy of music listening as an affect-regulatory strategy was supported because individuals' current affect significantly changed from before to after music listening (Studies 2 and 3), whereas that was not the case in an active control group listening to neutral nonmusical sounds (Study 3). These results extend previous research on affect regulation by demonstrating the utility of the music browsing paradigm as a behavioral indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in individuals from various age groups. They also provide evidence for age differences in, and affect-regulatory effects of, music-choice behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Música , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1616, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826266

RESUMO

Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well as in terms of implications for further research on transfer effects from music on language.

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