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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5006, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408135

RESUMO

Obesity is a strong risk factor for cancer progression, posing obesity-related cancer as one of the leading causes of death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that endow cancer cells with metastatic properties in patients affected by obesity remain unexplored.Here, we show that IL-6 and HGF, secreted by tumor neighboring visceral adipose stromal cells (V-ASCs), expand the metastatic colorectal (CR) cancer cell compartment (CD44v6 + ), which in turn secretes neurotrophins such as NGF and NT-3, and recruits adipose stem cells within tumor mass. Visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and the onset of metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming CRC cells into a highly metastatic phenotype. Notably, obesity-associated tumor microenvironment provokes a transition in the transcriptomic expression profile of cells derived from the epithelial consensus molecular subtype (CMS2) CRC patients towards a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4). STAT3 pathway inhibition reduces ZEB2 expression and abrogates the metastatic growth sustained by adipose-released proteins. Together, our data suggest that targeting adipose factors in colorectal cancer patients with obesity may represent a therapeutic strategy for preventing metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Reprogramação Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209495

RESUMO

Since cancer is a multifactorial disease with a high mortality rate, the study of new therapeutic strategies is one of the main objectives in modern research. Numerous chemotherapeutic agents, although widely used, have the disadvantage of being not very soluble in water or selective towards cancerous cells, with consequent side effects. Therefore, in recent years, a greater interest has emerged in innovative drug delivery systems (DDSs) such as calixarene, a third-generation supramolecular compound. Calixarene and its water-soluble derivatives show good biocompatibility and have low cytotoxicity. Thanks to their chemical-physical characteristics, calixarenes can be easily functionalized, and by itself can encapsulate host molecules forming nanostructures capable of releasing drugs in a controlled way. The encapsulation of anticancer drugs in a calixarene derivate improves their bioavailability and efficacy. Thus, the use of calixarenes as carriers of anticancer drugs could reduce their side effects and increase their affinity towards the target. This review summarizes the numerous research advances regarding the development of calixarene nanoparticles capable of encapsulating various anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Calixarenos , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanopartículas , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Calixarenos/química , Calixarenos/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298658

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most aggressive tumor of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by excessive proliferation, necrosis and invasiveness. The survival rate for patients with GB still remains low. Angiogenesis and apoptosis play a key role in the development of GB. Thus, the modulation of angiogenesis and apoptosis processes represent a possible strategy to counteract GB progression. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of KYP-2047, an inhibitor of the prolyl-oligopeptidase (POP), known to modulate angiogenesis, in an in vivo U87-xenograft model and in an in vitro study on human GB cells. Our results showed that KYP-2047 at doses of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg was able to reduce tumor burden in the xenograft-model. Moreover, KYP-2047 significantly reduced vascular endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF), angiopoietins (Ang) and endothelial-nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. In vitro study revealed that KYP-2047 at different concentrations reduced GB cells' viability. Additionally, KYP-2047 at the concentrations of 50 µM and 100 µM was able to increase the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, p53 and caspase-3 expression whereas Bcl-2 expression was reduced. Thus, KYP-2047 could represent a potential therapeutic treatment to counteract or reduce GB progression, thanks its abilities to modulate angiogenesis and apoptosis pathways.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210067

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults and, although its genetic background has been extensively studied, little is known about the contribution of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to its pathogenesis. Indeed, its competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network comprising microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs has been insufficiently explored. Thanks to UM findings from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), it is now possible to statistically elaborate these data to identify the expression relationships among RNAs and correlative interaction data. In the present work, we propose the VECTOR (uVeal mElanoma Correlation NeTwORk) database, an interactive tool that identifies and visualizes the relationships among RNA molecules, based on the ceRNA model. The VECTOR database contains: i) the TCGA-derived expression correlation values of miRNA-mRNA, miRNA-lncRNA and lncRNA-mRNA pairs combined with predicted or validated RNA-RNA interactions; ii) data of sense-antisense sequence overlapping; iii) correlation values of Transcription Factor (TF)-miRNA, TF-lncRNA, and TF-mRNA pairs associated with ChiPseq data; iv) expression data of miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs both in UM and physiological tissues. The VECTOR web interface can be queried, by inputting the gene name, to retrieve all the information about RNA signaling and visualize this as a graph. Finally, VECTOR provides a very detailed picture of ceRNA networks in UM and could be a very useful tool for researchers studying RNA signaling in UM. The web version of Vector is freely available at the URL reported at the end of the Introduction.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297488

RESUMO

Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy is frequently employed in the therapeutic management of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Radiotherapy can both reduce local recurrence and improve the success of surgical procedures by reducing tumor mass size. However, some patients show a poor response to treatment, which results in primary resistance or relapse after apparent curative surgery. In this work, we report in vitro and in vivo models based on patient-derived cancer stem cells (CSCs); these models are able to predict individual responses to radiotherapy in LARC. CSCs isolated from colorectal cancer biopsies were subjected to in vitro irradiation with the same clinical protocol used for LARC patients. Animal models, generated by CSC xenotransplantation, were also obtained and treated with the same radiotherapy protocol. The results indicate that CSCs isolated from rectal cancer needle biopsies possess an intrinsic grade of sensitivity to treatment, which is also maintained in the animal model. Notably, the specific CSCs' in vitro and in vivo sensitivity values correspond to patients' responses to radiotherapy. This evidence suggests that an in vitro radiotherapy response predictivity assay could support clinical decisions for the management of LARC patients, thus avoiding radiation toxicity to resistant patients and reducing the treatment costs.

6.
Andrology ; 8(6): 1935-1945, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) is an important regulator of post-prandial insulin secretion, acting through a G protein-coupled cell surface receptor (GLP-1R). In addition to its expression in pancreatic ß-cells, several studies suggested that GLP-1R is located in extra-pancreatic tissues. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined for the first time the testicular distribution of the GLP-1R, both in normal human and neoplastic testicular tissues as well as in rodent testis and rodent testicular cell lines. METHODS AND METHODS: The GLP-1R distribution in testicular section has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry, the specificity of IHC was validated by demonstrating a positive staining for GLP-1RmRNA by RISH technology. While GLP-1R expression in terms of protein was detected by western blot analysis, Moreover, mRNA levels were determined in human testis, in rodent Leydig, and Sertoli cell lines. RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistrya specific staining for GLP-1R was detected in Leydig cells. The specificity of IHC was validated by demonstrating a positive staining for GLP-1RmRNA only in these cell types. Species differences in the GLP-1R expression between humans and rodents were observed. Interestingly, a decreased expression of the receptor in rodent tumor Leydig cell line and an absence in human Leydig tumor samples was detected. DISCUSSION: It may be hypothesized that GLP-1R acts like an oncosuppressor in Leydig tumors. A role in regulation of hormone secretion by GLP-1 has been shown in other endocrine cells, therefore we hypothesized that GLP-1R is able to modulate somehow the Leydig cell function. CONCLUSION: In our findings, a careful evaluation of human testicular tissues and rodent testis revealed Leydig cells as a potential target for GLP-1. Collectively, an effect of GLP-1R in Leydig cell function may be presumed although future studies are needed to ascertain the GLP-1R's role both in normal and tumor Leydig cells.

7.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 18(5): 410-420, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189158

RESUMO

The effectiveness of new personalized treatment procedures in oncology is based on the fact that certain tumors exhibit specific molecular features. More in detail, neoplastic tissues of patients should display a specific biomarker, most often a specific genetic alteration and/or under/overexpression of a definite protein, that could be the target of its respective drug. Immunohistochemical and molecular analyses, which usually include examination of nucleic acids from either tissues or fluids, are common tests to define the status of a tumor. This review focuses on the pathologist's role in carefully controlling pre- analytic procedures and standard operating procedures that are a crucial prerequisite to reach reliable and reproducible results. Six paradigmatic applications of targeted therapy, for which pathological diagnosis plays a fundamental role, are summarized. Traditional and next-generation sequencing are also addressed from the pathologist's perspective as well as the importance pathologists have in this shift to more accurate definition of disease risk and prognostication of therapy response in the personalized medicine era.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Patologistas , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico
8.
J Clin Pathol ; 68(1): 64-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378536

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the accuracy, consumable cost and time around testing (TAT) of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay, the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer Panel, as an alternative to Sanger sequencing to genotype KRAS, NRAS and BRAF in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: The Ion Torrent panel was first verified on cell lines and on control samples and then prospectively applied to routine specimens (n=114), with Sanger sequencing as reference. RESULTS: The Ion Torrent panel detected mutant alleles at the 5% level on cell lines and correctly classified all control tissues. The Ion Torrent assay was successfully carried out on most (95.6%) routine diagnostic samples. Of these, 12 (11%) harboured mutations in the BRAF gene and 47 (43%) in either of the two RAS genes, in two cases with a low abundance of RAS mutant allele which was missed by Sanger sequencing. The mean TAT, from sample receipt to reporting, was 10.4 (Sanger) and 13.0 (Ion Torrent) working days. The consumable cost for genotyping KRAS, NRAS and BRAF was €196 (Sanger) and €187 (Ion Torrent). CONCLUSIONS: Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer Panel sequencing is as robust as Sanger sequencing in routine diagnostics to select patients for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/economia , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos
9.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 8(11-12): 924-31, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25091122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: New treatment options for gastric cancer are in great demand. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are exciting therapeutic targets, but only the class I HDACs 1, 2, and 3 have been studied in gastric cancer. We have investigated class IIa HDAC expression and inhibition in gastric cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured the level of 27 (phospho)proteins related to class IIa HDAC expression and function in ten laser-capture microdissection gastric tumor samples compared to patient-matched adjacent normal mucosa. Following, we evaluated class IIa HDAC inhibition by MC1568 in SNU-16 gastric cancer cells alone and in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel. RESULTS: We demonstrate for the first time an increase of HDAC4 in gastric tumor cells. HDAC4 inhibition had a synergistic effect with docetaxel treatment, shifting the cellular response from a cytostatic to a cytotoxic phenotype. This effect was associated with increased levels of cleaved caspases 3 and 9 and increased acetylated histone H3 Lys9/Lys14. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These data support in vivo studies investigating the potential clinical use of HDAC4 inhibitors in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of gastric cancer, lowering treatment doses of docetaxel to reduce the burden of adverse side effects on patients.


Assuntos
Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Taxoides/farmacologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Docetaxel , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
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