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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) is the most aggressive cancer predisposition syndrome associated with multiorgan cancers, often presenting in childhood. There is variability in age and presentation of cancers and benign manifestations mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. Genetic testing may not be informative and is complicated by pseudogenes associated with the most commonly associated gene, PMS2. To date, no diagnostic criteria exist. Since surveillance and immune-based therapies are available, establishing a CMMRD diagnosis is key to improve survival. METHODS: In order to establish a robust diagnostic path, a multidisciplinary international working group, with representation from the two largest consortia (International Replication Repair Deficiency (IRRD) consortium and European Consortium Care for CMMRD (C4CMMRD)), was formed to establish diagnostic criteria based on expertise, literature review and consensus. RESULTS: The working group established seven diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of CMMRD, including four definitive criteria (strong evidence) and three likely diagnostic criteria (moderate evidence). All criteria warrant CMMRD surveillance. The criteria incorporate germline mismatch repair results, ancillary tests and clinical manifestation to determine a diagnosis. Hallmark cancers for CMMRD were defined by the working group after extensive literature review and consultation with the IRRD and C4CMMRD consortia. CONCLUSIONS: This position paper summarises the evidence and rationale to provide specific guidelines for CMMRD diagnosis, which necessitates appropriate surveillance and treatment.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(12): 104080, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039684

RESUMO

In case of suspected hereditary predisposition to digestive cancers, next-generation sequencing can analyze simultaneously several genes associated with an increased risk of developing these tumors. Thus, "Gastro Intestinal" (GI) gene panels are commonly used in French molecular genetic laboratories. Lack of international recommendations led to disparities in the composition of these panels and in the management of patients. To harmonize practices, the Genetics and Cancer Group (GGC)-Unicancer set up a working group who carried out a review of the literature for 31 genes of interest in this context and established a list of genes for which the estimated risks associated with pathogenic variant seemed sufficiently reliable and high for clinical use. Pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been excluded. This expertise defined a panel of 14 genes of confirmed clinical interest and relevant for genetic counseling: APC, BMPR1A, CDH1, EPCAM, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, PMS2, POLD1, POLE, PTEN, SMAD4 and STK11. The reasons for the exclusion of the others 23 genes have been discussed. The paucity of estimates of the associated tumor risks led to the exclusion of genes, in particular CTNNA1, MSH3 and NTHL1, despite their implication in the molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of GI cancers. A regular update of the literature is planned to up-grade this panel of genes in case of new data on candidate genes. Genetic and epidemiological studies and international collaborations are needed to better estimate the risks associated with the pathogenic variants of these genes either selected or not in the current panel.

3.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(12): 104078, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059073

RESUMO

MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) was first described in 2002. It is an autosomal recessive condition associated with germline pathogenic variants of both MUTYH alleles. In 2011, a group of French experts reviewed the available data on this syndrome and established recommendations concerning the indications and strategies for molecular analysis of the MUTYH gene in index cases and their relatives, as well as the clinical management of affected individuals under the auspices of the French Institut National du Cancer (INCa). Some of these recommendations have become obsolete as a result of recent progress, especially those concerning the molecular strategy for MUTYH testing, as this gene has recently been included in a consensus panel of 14 colorectal cancer predisposition genes, justifying revision of the previous report. We report here the revised version of this work, which successively considers the phenotype and tumor risks associated with this genotype, differential diagnoses, criteria and strategy for molecular genetic testing and recommendations for the management of affected individuals. We also discuss the phenotype and tumor risks associated with monoallelic pathogenic variants of MUTYH.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3593-3605, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641407

RESUMO

BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related information were combined to determine the minimal requirement of FL BRCA2 transcripts. Of 100 BRCA2e3 variants tested in the minigene assay, 64 were found to be spliceogenic, causing mild to severe RNA defects. Splicing defects were also confirmed in patients' RNA when available. Analysis of a neutral leaky variant (c.231T>G) showed that a reduction of approximately 60% of FL BRCA2 transcripts from a mutant allele does not cause any increase in cancer risk. Moreover, data obtained from mESCs suggest that variants causing a decline in FL BRCA2 with approximately 30% of wild-type are not pathogenic, given that mESCs are fully viable and resistant to DNA-damaging agents in those conditions. In contrast, mESCs producing lower relative amounts of FL BRCA2 exhibited either null or hypomorphic phenotypes. Overall, our findings are likely to have broader implications on the interpretation of BRCA2 variants affecting the splicing pattern of other essential exons. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that BRCA2 tumor suppressor function tolerates substantial reduction in full-length transcripts, helping to determine the pathogenicity of BRCA2 leaky splicing variants, some of which may not increase cancer risk.

5.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1624-1628, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678338

RESUMO

In Lynch-like syndrome, patients have tumors with microsatellite instability but no germline pathogenic variant in mismatch repair genes or somatic methylation of the MLH1 promoter. Identification of the mechanism that causes these tumors is crucial for guiding screening of the patients and their relatives. Double somatic hits are the usual explanation for these cases; however, we have previously reported a de novo mosaic pathogenic variant in a patient with Lynch-like syndrome. Using tumoral NGS analysis of a series of 16 patients with Lynch-like syndrome, we found six patients with double somatic hits, including one patient with mosaicism of a de novo pathogenic variant in MSH2. This variant was transmitted to the patient's offspring, which has significant implications for genetic counseling.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1387-1393, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533092

RESUMO

PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome is a diverse multi-system disorder predisposing to the development of hamartomatous growths, increasing risk of breast, thyroid, renal cancer, and possibly increasing risk of endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. There is no international consensus on cancer surveillance in PHTS and all current guidelines are based on expert opinion. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken and guidelines were developed by clinicians with expertise from clinical genetics, gynaecology, endocrinology, dermatology, radiology, gastroenterology and general surgery, together with affected individuals and their representatives. Recommendations were put forward for surveillance for breast, thyroid and renal cancers. Limited recommendations were developed for other sites including endometrial, colon and skin. The proposed cancer surveillance recommendations for PHTS require a coordinated multidisciplinary approach and significant patient commitment. The evidence base for cancer surveillance in this guideline are limited, emphasising the need for prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of surveillance in the PHTS population.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report a very rare case of familial breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer, with germline pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and CDH1 genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association.Family description: The proband is a woman diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 52 years. She requested genetic counselling in 2012, at the age of 91 years, because of a history of breast cancer in her daughter, her sister, her niece and her paternal grandmother and was therefore concerned about her relatives. Her sister and maternal aunt also had gastric cancer. She was tested for several genes associated with hereditary breast cancer. RESULTS: A large deletion of BRCA1 from exons 1 to 7 and two CDH1 pathogenic cis variants were identified. CONCLUSION: This complex situation is challenging for genetic counselling and management of at-risk individuals.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1533-1541, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis is a dominantly inherited colorectal cancer syndrome caused by exonuclease domain missense variants in the DNA polymerases POLE and POLD1. Manifestations may also include malignancies at extracolonic sites. Cancer risks in this syndrome are not yet accurately quantified. METHODS: We sequenced POLE and POLD1 exonuclease domains in 354 individuals with early/familial colorectal cancer (CRC) or adenomatous polyposis. We assessed the pathogenicity of POLE variants with yeast fluctuation assays and structural modeling. We estimated the penetrance function for each cancer site in variant carriers with a previously published nonparametric method based on survival analysis approach, able to manage unknown genotypes. RESULTS: Pathogenic POLE exonuclease domain variants P286L, M294R, P324L, N363K, D368N, L424V, K425R, and P436S were found in ten families. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at 30, 50, and 70 years was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2-17.5), 48.5% (33.2-60.3), and 74% (51.6-86.1). Cumulative risk of glioblastoma was 18.7% (3.2-25.8) at 70 years. Variants interfering with DNA binding (P286L and N363K) had a significantly higher mutagenic effect than variants disrupting ion metal coordination at the exonuclease site. CONCLUSION: The risk estimates derived from this study provide a rational basis on which to provide genetic counseling to POLE variant carriers.

10.
Bull Cancer ; 107(5): 586-600, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362383

RESUMO

MUTYH-associated polyposis (MUTYH-associated polyposis, MAP) is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder related to bi-allelic constitutional pathogenic variants of the MUTYH gene which was first described in 2002. In 2011, a group of French experts composed of clinicians and biologists, performed a summary of the available data on this condition and drew up recommendations concerning the indications and the modalities of molecular analysis of the MUTYH gene in index cases and their relatives, as well as the management of affected individuals. In view of recent developments, some recommendations have become obsolete, in particular with regard to the molecular analysis strategy since MUTYH gene has been recently included in a consensus panel of 14 genes predisposing to colorectal cancer. This led us to revise all the points of the previous expertise. We report here the revised version of this work which successively considers the phenotype and the tumor risks associated with this genotype, the differential diagnoses, the indication criteria and the strategy of the molecular analysis and the recommendations for the management of affected individuals. We also discuss the phenotype and the tumor risks associated with mono-allelic pathogenic variants of MUTYH gene.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/terapia , Alelos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , DNA Glicosilases/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/genética , Saúde da Família , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo
11.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1524-1532, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare, autosomal-dominantly inherited cancer predisposition caused in approximately 50% of cases by pathogenic germline variants in SMAD4 and BMPR1A. We aimed to gather detailed clinical and molecular genetic information on JPS disease expression to provide a basis for management guidelines and establish open access variant databases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, questionnaire-based European multicenter survey on and established a cohort of SMAD4/BMPR1A pathogenic variant carriers from the medical literature. RESULTS: We analyzed questionnaire-based data on 221 JPS patients (126 kindreds) from ten European centers and retrieved literature-based information on 473 patients. Compared with BMPR1A carriers, SMAD4 carriers displayed anemia twice as often (58% vs. 26%), and exclusively showed overlap symptoms with hemorrhagic telangiectasia (32%) and an increased prevalence (39% vs. 13%) of gastric juvenile polyps. Cancer, reported in 15% of JPS patients (median age 41 years), mainly occurred in the colorectum (overall: 62%, SMAD4: 58%, BMPR1A: 88%) and the stomach (overall: 21%; SMAD4: 27%, BMPR1A: 0%). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive retrospective study on genotype-phenotype correlations in 694 JPS patients corroborates previous observations on JPS in general and SMAD4 carriers in particular, facilitates recommendations for clinical management, and provides the basis for open access variant SMAD4 and BMPR1A databases.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 100-103, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335476

RESUMO

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) commercial companies offer genetic tests that are presented as allowing individuals the opportunity to increase their capacities to be in charge of their own healthcare managements. DTC companies deny performing medical tests, yet they provide data based on sequencing multigene panel or whole exome. This contradiction allows these companies to escape the requirements of a regulated medical practice that guarantees the quality of the tests, as well as the information and support for tested individuals. Herein, we illustrate the lack of such requirements by analysing the bad experience of a young man who dealt with DTC health genetic testing companies. There is an emergency for DTC testing to be either deprived of any medically relevant information, or carried out in a legally regulated medical framework.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) arises from malignant transformation of melanocytes in the uveal tract of the eye. This rare tumor has a poor outcome with frequent chemo-resistant liver metastases. BAP1 is the only known predisposing gene for UM. UMs are generally characterized by low tumor mutation burden (TMB), but some UMs display a high level of CpG>TpG mutations associated with MBD4 inactivation. Here, we explored the incidence of germline MBD4 variants in a consecutive series of 1,093 primary UM cases and a series of 192 UM tumors with monosomy 3 (M3). METHODS: We performed MBD4 targeted-sequencing on pooled germline (n = 1,093) and tumor (n = 192) DNA samples of UM patients. MBD4 variants (n = 28) were validated by Sanger sequencing. We performed Whole-Exome Sequencing on available tumor samples harboring MBD4 variants (n = 9). Variants of unknown significance were further functionally assessed. RESULTS: We identified 8 deleterious MBD4 mutations in the consecutive UM series, a 9.15 [CI95% 4.24-19.73] -fold increased incidence compared with the general population (Fisher exact test, P = 2.00 × 10-5, two-sided), and 4 additional deleterious MBD4 mutations in the M3 cohort, including three germline and one somatic mutations. Tumors carrying deleterious MBD4 mutations were all associated with high TMB and a CpG>TpG hypermutator phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that MBD4 is a new predisposing gene for UM, associated with hypermutated M3 tumors. The tumor spectrum of this predisposing condition will likely expand with the addition of MBD4 to diagnostic panels. Tumors arising in such a context should be recognized as they may respond to immunotherapy.

14.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(1): 128-138, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to a germline pathogenic variant of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require description. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with an identified or highly suspected (personal or familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history APC gene pathogenic variants whenever available: clinical and histologic characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome, including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variants are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 not available), nonmetastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). Ten of 11 assessable patients are disease free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years (range, 1-28 y). Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant triton in the radiation field, which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with an APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying a de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variants given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(10): 1665-1670, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colonoscopic screening with indigo carmine chromoendoscopy (ICC) in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) improves the adenoma detection rate but is time consuming and poorly used in clinical practice. Narrow-band imaging (NBI), a virtual chromoendoscopy technique, highlights superficial mucosal vessels and improves adenoma characterization. We conducted a prospective multicenter trial in a back-to-back fashion to compare the third-generation NBI with ICC for detecting colonic adenomas in patients with LS. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, noninferiority trial, 138 patients underwent a double colonoscopy, first with NBI, followed by ICC, in a back-to-back design. The primary noninferiority outcome measure was the number of patients with at least one adenoma after NBI compared with the number of patients with at least one adenoma after NBI and ICC. RESULTS: The 138 analyzable patients were all proven mismatch repair mutation carriers for LS (MLH1 = 33%, MSH2 = 47%, MSH6 = 15%, PMS2 = 4%, and EPCAM = 1%). The mean age (SD) was 40.5 (14.7) years, and 64 (46.4%) were men. The median withdrawal time for an NBI procedure was 8 minutes (interquartile range 6-11) compared with 13 minutes (interquartile range 8-17) for ICC. At least one adenoma was detected during the initial NBI pass in 28 patients (20.3%), and 42 patients (30.4%) had at least one adenoma detected after both NBI and ICC (difference, 10.1%; 95% confidence interval, -0.1%-20.3%); this represents an increase of 50.0% of the adenoma detection rate. ICC detected additional adenomas in 25 patients (18.1%). DISCUSSION: Colonoscopy combining NBI and ICC detects more adenomas than third-generation NBI alone in patients with LS, respectively, 30.4% vs 20.3% (difference, 10.1%; 95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 20.3), thus failing the noninferiority assumption of NBI compared with combined NBI and ICC. Although less time consuming, colonoscopy using the third-generation NBI cannot be recommended to replace ICC in patients with LS.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/métodos , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Corantes/administração & dosagem , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Adenoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/patologia , Cor , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índigo Carmim/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 579-584, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432501

RESUMO

The rate of genetic diagnosis of French patients with familial pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not known. We report germline genetic testing data from 133 index cases meeting criteria for familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) as well as 87 'FPC-like' index cases who did not fulfilled strict FPC definition but were evocative for a PDAC predisposition. The overall rate of genetic diagnosis (in BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, and ATM genes) was 8.3% in FPC patients and 4.6% in FPC-like patients, consistent with the literature in other populations. Genetic variants were also identified in FANCA and BAP1 genes, as well as in the CDKN2A p12 transcript. This pancreas-specific transcript is a known key player in driving pancreatic oncogenesis. This might be the first described case of a PDAC genetic predisposition due to a variant in this specific transcript.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Testes Genéticos , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366136

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome, caused by heterozygous mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Biallelic mutations in these genes lead however, to constitutive mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). In this study, we follow the diagnostic journey of a 12-year old patient with CRC, with a clinical phenotype overlapping CMMRD. We perform molecular and functional assays to discard a CMMRD diagnosis then identify by exome sequencing and validation in a cohort of 134 LS patients, a candidate variant in the MLH1 UTR region in homozygosis. We propose that this variant, together with other candidates, could be responsible for age-of-onset modulation. Our data support the idea that low-risk modifier alleles may influence early development of cancer in LS leading to a LS-to-CMMRD phenotypic continuum. Therefore, it is essential that larger efforts are directed to the identification and study of these genetic modifiers, in order to provide optimal cancer prevention strategies to these patients.

19.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 421-431, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Approximately 75% of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome carry variants in MLH1 or MSH2, proteins encoded by these genes are required for DNA mismatch repair (MMR). However, 30% of these are variants of unknown significance (VUS). A assay that measures cell response to the cytotoxic effects of a methylating agent can determine the effects of VUS in MMR genes and identify patients with constitutional MMR-deficiency syndrome. We adapted this method to test the effects of VUS in MLH1 and MSH2 genes found in patients with suspected Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We transiently expressed MLH1 or MSH2 variants in MLH1- or MSH2-null human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 or LoVo), respectively. The MMR process causes death of cells with methylation-damaged DNA bases, so we measured proportions of cells that undergo death following exposure to the methylating agent; cells that escaped its toxicity were considered to have variants that affect function of the gene product. Using this assay, we analyzed 88 variants (mainly missense variants), comprising a validation set of 40 previously classified variants (19 in MLH1 and 21 in MSH2) and a prospective set of 48 VUS (25 in MLH1 and 23 in MSH2). Prediction scores were calculated for all VUS according to the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, based on clinical, somatic, in silico, population, and functional data. RESULTS: The assay correctly classified 39 of 40 variants in the validation set. The assay identified 12 VUS that did alter function of the gene product and 28 VUS that did not; the remaining 8 VUS had intermediate effects on MMR capacity and could not be classified. Comparison of assay results with prediction scores confirmed the ability of the assay to discriminate VUS that affected the function of the gene products from those that did not. CONCLUSIONS: Using an assay that measures the ability of the cells to undergo death following DNA damage induction by a methylating agent, we were able to assess whether variants in MLH1 and MSH2 cause defects in DNA MMR. This assay might be used to help assessing the pathogenicity of VUS in MLH1 and MSH2 found in patients with suspected Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Bioensaio/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Simulação por Computador , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/farmacologia , Humanos , Metilnitronitrosoguanidina/toxicidade
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