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1.
Food Sci Technol Int ; : 10820132211014985, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983853

RESUMO

Ozone application has been suggested as an additional measure to the slaughter animals under hygiene programs. In this study, we determined the efficacy of gaseous ozone applied to pig carcasses during chilling (16 h at 2-5°C). Forty carcasses were allocated to each treatment: control, without ozone application (T1) and 5 ppm gaseous ozone application (T2), divided in two 4-h periods. The carcasses were sampled before and after chilling. The average counts of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) bacteria before chilling were not different (p = 0.55) between T1 and T2. In turn, after chilling, the ozone-treated carcasses had significantly reduced about 0.4 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 of TAM counts (p < 0.001) than the control carcasses. No significant reduction was observed in the number of carcasses positive for Listeria sp. and Escherichia coli after gaseous ozone treatment; while a tendency (p = 0.08) of lower number of Salmonella positive carcasses in T2 was observed. Common macrorestriction (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) patterns of S. enterica were observed in the carcasses before and after chilling. Pork samples from treated and untreated carcasses with ozone showed no lipid oxidation or altered color and pH. The results indicate that the gaseous ozone in the tested protocol is effective in reducing TAM populations, but not effective in decreasing the number of carcasses positive for E. coli and Listeria sp. Regarding Salmonella, the tendency of positive carcasses reduction may encourage further studies by testing other protocols of gaseous ozone application inside the chilling chamber.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007698

RESUMO

A collection of kinetic models to explore the bacteria pathway inhibition by high-ammonia during deammonification process was fitted. The main goal was to determine the substrate concentration to operate the deammonification with efficiency, performance and low impact to ANAMMOX and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) by substrate. A new mathematical model was created to describe the deammonification behavior, since the empirical theoretical models showed inconsistent parameters to describe the process. The proposed model showed significant prediction to the estimable parameters and according to it, until 550 mg NH3-N L-1 no inhibitions by ammonia and nitrite were observed. However, concentrations higher than this promote the decrease on specific bacterial activity and nitrite accumulation, since it was not quickly consumed by the bacteria. The proposed model can be applied to predict microorganism affinity and inhibition by substrate over a wide range of ammonia concentrations (<900 mgNH3-N L-1) in reactors treating high-ammonia concentration swine wastewater.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Amônia , Animais , Nitritos , Oxirredução , Suínos , Águas Residuárias
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 857-869, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725949

RESUMO

Wild boars represent a potential dissemination source of important pathogens to public and animal health, since they can host several pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the health profile of wild boars hunted for population control in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), south of Brazil. For this study, tissue and blood samples were collected from 61 wild boars hunted from October 2017 to November 2018. All 61 serum samples were screened for antibodies by different assays, presenting the following seroprevalence: 52.4% for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2); 21.3% for Leptospira spp.; 19.7% for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; 13.1% for hepatitis E virus (HEV); and 9.8% for influenza A virus (IAV). No seroreaction was observed for Brucella spp. and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). At necropsy, the main lesions observed were evidence of pulmonary metastrongylid parasites, haemorrhagic lymph nodes and white-spotted liver. Histopathological analyses mainly showed interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and bronchi-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) hyperplasia. There was a significant association between metastrongylid parasitism and BALT hyperplasia in lungs. Pathological findings of wild boars indicate that the assessed individuals were not exposed to notifiable diseases, such as CSFV, African swine fever virus and foot-and-mouth disease, which cause economic damage by non-tariff trade barriers. However, the detection of antibodies against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae, pathogens that impact commercial production, indicates the circulation of these agents, with frequency variation in wild populations. This shows the potential risk of pathogen transmission among domestic swine populations and free-living ones. The detection of antibodies against zoonotic agents such as HEV, IAV and Leptospira spp., other than characterizing the pathogens' circulation in these populations, suggests a potential risk to public health and pig farming, depending on the interactions established with the environment, humans and domestic swine.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Zoonoses
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06685, 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279539

RESUMO

To increase the amount of meat produced, researchers have promoted intensive genetic selection for growth rate and muscling and have improved nutrition and management conditions. However, there has been an increase in the number of reports of breast muscle myopathies observed in poultry processing plants, including white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB). This study aimed to evaluate and to compare the occurrence of WS and WB myopathies in three poultry processing plants and to perform an anatomopathological characterization, including macroscopic and microscopic analyses. A total of 408,334 carcasses were condemned or downgraded due to the presence of WB or WS, which represents 0.73% of the total number of slaughtered animals during the evaluated period. WB was more frequent than WS, but the occurrence of each myopathy varied significantly according to each establishment. WB was more frequent in the establishment which includes only male flocks, an average age of 45 days, and an average live weight of 2775g (B). WS was more frequent in establishment with male, female and mixed flocks, average ages ranging from 41 to 44 days, and average live weight 1731g-2830g (A). It is probably related with specific condition of each poultry company, including genetics, age, nutrition and management conditions. Macroscopically, WB and WS lesions are characterized by hypertrophy and stiffness of the pectoralis major muscle. Under microscopy, the myopathies showed similarities regarding the detected histological abnormalities, characterized by a process of myodegeneration, although the connective tissue infiltrate was more severe in the breasts with WB than in those with WS myopathy. The results found in this study demonstrate that the rates of condemnation for these myopathies are high, vary significantly among the analyzed companies and may cause major economic losses for the productive sector in the region.(AU)


Para melhorar a quantidade de carne produzida, os pesquisadores têm promovido ao longo dos anos uma seleção genética intensiva para a taxa de crescimento e desenvolvimento de músculos, além de melhorias nas condições nutricionais, sanitárias e de manejo. No entanto, houve um aumento no número de relatos de miopatias dos músculos do peito observados em abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves, incluindo white striping (WS) e wooden breast (WB). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de WB e WS em três abatedouros-frigoríficos de aves e realizar uma caracterização anatomopatológica, incluindo análises macroscópicas e microscópicas. Um total de 408.334 carcaças foi condenado (total ou parcialmente) devido à presença WB ou WS, o que representou 0,73% do número total de animais abatidos durante o período avaliado. Apesar de a ocorrência de WB ter sido maior do que a de WS, a frequência de cada uma variou significativamente de acordo com o estabelecimento. WB foi mais frequente no estabelecimento que incluía apenas lotes de machos, com média de 45 dias de idade e peso médio ao abate de 2775g (B). WS foi mais frequente no estabelecimento com lotes de machos, fêmeas e mistos, com idade entre 41 e 44 dias e peso médio ao abate entre 1731g-2830g (A). Isto pode ser justificado por condições específicas de cada empresa, incluindo genética, idade das aves, nutrição e condições de manejo. Macroscopicamente, as lesões de WB e de WS foram caracterizadas principalmente por hipertrofia e rigidez do músculo pectoralis major. À microscopia, ambas as miopatias mostraram semelhanças em relação às anormalidades histológicas detectadas, caracterizadas principalmente por um processo de miodegeneração. Nos músculos apresentando WB, o infiltrado de tecido conjuntivo foi mais intenso quando comparado àqueles com WS. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho demonstram que os índices de condenação por essas miopatias são altos, variam significativamente entre as empresas analisadas e podem causar grandes perdas econômicas para o setor produtivo da região.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/lesões , Organizações/economia , Matadouros/organização & administração , Aves Domésticas/anatomia & histologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206864

RESUMO

Campylobacter is not routinely tested in foodborne disease investigations in Brazil. Here, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter among other food-related bacteria commonly found in foodborne disease outbreaks reported in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Seventy-two food samples were analyzed by using culture-based detection methods during the 18-month investigation of 36 foodborne disease outbreaks. The sampled foods from the foodborne disease outbreaks were all negative for Campylobacter . However, at least one of other routinely investigated foodborne-related bacteria was detected in 29.17% (21/72) of the samples. Taken together, these results suggest the need to monitor Campylobacter in foodborne diseases to detect sporadic cases caused by Campylobacter that might go unnoticed in Rio Grande do Sul.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 781-790, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143415

RESUMO

The intensification of pig production and advances in the sanitary control of herds profoundly changed the profile of risk attributed to pork consumption. In the actual scenario, most microorganisms related to macroscopic lesions observed in the post mortem inspection are not transmitted by food, while foodborne bacteria of importance to consumer health do not cause macroscopic lesions. In Brazil, the "Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento" requested a scientific opinion on the prioritizing of pathogens potentially transmitted by unprocessed pork. After conducting a qualitative risk assessment, only Salmonella enterica was classified as of high risk to consumers. The present study was part of the validation step of the risk assessment and aimed to investigate the frequency of S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes and hygienic-sanitary indicators in pig carcasses of pigs rose under intensive production and slaughtered under the Federal Inspection System in three slaughterhouses located in Southern Brazil. Additionally, the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated pathogens was also investigated. A total of 378 carcasses were sampled by superficial sponges before the chilling step in three slaughterhouses. Samples were investigated for the presence of the three aforementioned pathogens and subjected to enumeration of Colony Formation Units (log CFU.cm-1) of total aerobic mesophiles (TAM) and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella strains were tested by disc diffusion test for resistance to eleven antimicrobials. There were significantly statistical differences (p<0.0001) on the median counts of both indicators between the slaughterhouses. The median of TAM was very close for Slaughterhouses A and B: 1.573 log CFU.cm-1 and 1.6014 log CFU.cm-1, respectively. While in Slaughterhouse C, a higher TAM median was detected (2.216 log CFU.cm-1). A similar profile was observed regarding to Enterobacteriaceae, and medians were calculated as follow: -0.426 log CFU.cm-1 in Slaughterhouse A; 0.2163 log CFU.cm-1 in B; and 0.633 log CFU.cm-1 in C. Regarding the pathogens investigated, L. monocytogenes was not detected and only one carcass from Slaughterhouse C was positive for Y. enterocolitica. Thus, the results suggest a very low prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in the sampled population. A total of 65 (17.2%) carcasses were positive for S. enterica, with a difference in frequencies between slaughterhouses and slaughter days. The prevalence of Salmonella positive carcasses was higher in the Slaughterhouse C (25.4%; CI 95% 19-32%) in comparison with A (9.5%; CI 95% 9-14%) and B (18.3%; CI 95% 12-24%). There was no significantly statistical association between Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella isolation on carcass surface (p=0.69). The slaughtering day, nested within the slaughterhouse, explains 31.3% of Salmonella prevalence variability. S. Typhimurium (38.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by S. Infantis (30.1%). Among the 61 Salmonella strains tested for resistance to antimicrobials, 18 (31.6%) were full-susceptible. No strain displayed resistance to azithromycin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime and meropenem. The highest resistance frequency was displayed to tetracycline (54.1%), followed by ampicillin (50.82%), nalidixic acid (42.62%) and chloramphenicol (42.62). Multi-resistance was detected in 52.54% of the, strains. In conclusion, S. enterica is more prevalent in pre-chill pig carcasses than Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes and thus should be prioritized in monitoring and control programs at slaughter. Salmonella serovars varied among slaughterhouses and present significant differences in their resistance to antimicrobials. Slaughterhouses that present higher medians of TAM or Enterobacteriaceae in a monitoring period may have higher S. enterica prevalences as well. However, there is a high variation of S. enterica prevalence among slaughter days, which cannot be always related to the hygienic indicators counts observed on a given day.(AU)


A intensificação da produção de suínos e os avanços no controle sanitário dos rebanhos alterou de forma importante o perfil de risco do consumo de carne suína. No cenário atual, a maioria dos microrganismos causadores de lesões macroscópicas detectáveis na inspeção post mortem não são transmissíveis por alimentos, enquanto bactérias de importância como causadoras de doenças transmitidas por alimentos não causam lesões macroscópicas. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento solicitou uma opinião científica sobre a priorização de patógenos potencialmente transmitidos pela carne suína in natura. Após conduzir uma avaliação de risco qualitativa, apenas Salmonella enterica foi classificada como de alto risco para o consumidor. O presente estudo foi parte da etapa de validação da avaliação de risco e objetivou: investigar a frequência de S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica e Listeria. monocytogenes; e enumerar indicadores higiênico-sanitários em carcaças de suínos abatidos sob inspeção federal em frigoríficos dedicados ao abate de suínos sob sistema intensivo de criação no sul do Brasil. Além disso, o perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos dos patógenos isolados foi investigado. A superfície de um total de 378 carcaças foi amostrada por esponjas, na etapa de pré-resfriamento em três matadouros frigoríficos (A, B, C). As amostras foram investigadas quanto à presença dos três patógenos acima mencionados e quanto à enumeração de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia (log UFC.cm-1) de mesófilos aeróbios totais (MAT) e Enterobacteriaceae. As cepas isoladas de Salmonella foram testadas quanto à resistência a onze antimicrobianos pela técnica de disco difusão. As medianas de contagem de ambos os indicadores apresentaram diferença significativa (p<0,0001) entre matadouros-frigoríficos. A mediana de MAT foi bastante próxima para A e B (1,573 log UFC.cm-1 e 1,6014 log UFC.cm-1, respectivamente), enquanto em C uma mediana de MAT mais elevada foi determinada (2,216 log CFU.cm-1). Um perfil semelhante foi observado em relação a Enterobacteriaceae, sendo as medianas calculadas para A, B e C, respectivamente: -0,426 log CFU.cm-1; 0,2163 log UFC.cm-1; e 0,633 log UFC.cm-1. Em relação aos patógenos investigados, L. monocytogenes não foi detectada e apenas uma carcaça, do Matadouro C, foi positiva para Y. enterocolitica. Portanto, os resultados sugerem uma prevalência muito baixa desses patógenos na população amostrada. Em um total de 65 (17,2%) carcaças houve isolamento de S. enterica, com diferença nas frequências observadas entre matadouros e dias de abate. A prevalência de carcaças positivas para S. enterica foi maior no Matadouro C (25,4%; IC95% 19-32%) em comparação com A (9,5%; IC95% 9-14%) e B (18,3%; IC95% 12-24%). Não houve associação estatística entre o número de Enterobacteriaceae e o isolamento de S. enterica na superfície das carcaças (p=0,69). O dia de abate agrupado por frigorífico explica 31,3% da variação na prevalência de Salmonella. O sorovar mais frequente de S. enterica foi Typhimurium (38,1%) seguido de S. Infantis (30,1%). Entre as 61 cepas de S. enterica testadas quanto à resistência a antimicrobianos, 18 (31,6%) foram totalmente suscetíveis aos antimicrobianos testados. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência a azitromicina, ceftazidima, cefotaxima e meropenem. As maiores frequências de resistência foram demonstradas contra tetraciclina (54,1%), ampicilina (50,8%), ácido nalidíxico (42,62%) e cloranfenicol (42,62%). Em 52,54% das cepas foi detectada multi-resistência. Em conclusão, S. enterica é mais prevalente em carcaças suínas no pré-resfriamento do que Y. enterocolitica e L. monocytogenes. Portanto, S. enterica deve ser priorizada em programas de monitoramento e controle ao abate. Os sorovares de Salmonella variam entre matadouros e apresentam diferenças significativas na resistência a antimicrobianos. Matadouros de suínos que apresentam medianas de MAT e Enterobacteriaceae num período de monitoramento podem apresentar também prevalências mais de altas de presença de S. enterica. Entretanto, há uma alta variabilidade na frequência de S. enterica entre dias de abate, e nem sempre há relação entre essa frequência e a contagem de indicadores higiênico-sanitários determinados num determinado dia.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Sus scrofa
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620008

RESUMO

Twenty-seven neonate piglets (range from 0.35 to 1.17 kg) were evaluated for the effectiveness of blunt force trauma as a method of on-farm cull. Brainstem function, brain injury, and hemorrhage scores (increasing from 0 to 3) were assessed after striking the head against a concrete floor. Electroencephalograms (EEG) from a subset of 15 piglets were recorded before and after blunt force trauma for electrophysiological assessments. Blunt force trauma was performed by a single experienced farmer in a commercial farm by holding the piglet by its both hind legs and striking the head against the concrete floor. All piglets remained recumbent and did not show brainstem reflexes. Only one piglet did not presented tonic/clonic physical activity. The mean time to the onset of persistent isoelectric EEG was 64.3 ± 7.3 s (range 18 to 115). Total power, theta, alpha, and beta power decreased to approximately 45%, 30%, 20%, and 15% from pretreatment power, respectively, by 15-s post-impact. There were no periods of normal-like EEG after the culling. Bruises in the neck and shoulder were found in 67% and 70% of piglets, respectively. All piglets presented skull fractures with 20% having the nasal bone(s) fractured. Brain damage was found in all piglets, mainly in the frontal lobe(s). The occipital lobe(s) presented the greatest frequency of severe damage. The analysis of the radiographs also found a high frequency of fractures in this region. Hemorrhage was most frequent in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and midbrain. When performed correctly with the appropriate weight class, blunt force trauma can be used as an effective method for the on-farm killing of nursing piglets resulting in death. However, this method should not be promoted over more reliable and repeatable cull methods such as captive bolt gun. As with blunt force trauma, there is a significant potential for animal welfare harm associated with inappropriate practice, lack of accuracy, issues with repeatability, and operator fatigue.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Eutanásia Animal/métodos , Suínos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fazendas , Cabeça
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(6): 1043-1050, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020462

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an immunosuppressive viral disease of chickens, associated with severe economic losses and major threats to poultry production worldwide. Disease prevention programs rely on unequivocal identification of the pathogen, as well as vaccination programs. This study developed a sensitive, one-step, real-time, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay using a hydrolysis probe system for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, VP1 gene) detection and quantification, which was compared to other routinely used diagnostic methods. The assay successfully detected IBD reference viruses and field isolates. The absence of cross-reactivity was detected with negative samples or with other avian viruses in the analytical specificity test. The detection limit of this assay was 70 RNA copies. RT-qPCR was more sensitive in the detection of serially diluted IBDV isolates compared to virus isolation. For clinical samples, the sensitivity and specificity values of RT-qPCR compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were 97.5% and 100%, respectively, and compared to histopathology, these values were 100% and 93.94%, respectively. RT-qPCR can provide a simple and reliable assay for IBDV surveillance programs and for evaluation of control strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Galinhas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Virulência/genética
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108527, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902516

RESUMO

Salmonella Enteritidis remains a leading cause of human foodborne disease, mostly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. To more strategically implement a phage therapy scheme for S. Enteritidis control in broilers, a cocktail containing three wild-type lytic bacteriophages (LBs) previously isolated from chickens was evaluated shortly and later after a challenge. Genomic characterization, lytic spectrum and in vitro efficacy were determined for each studied LB. In independent trials, broilers challenged with S. Enteritidis on day of hatch received phage therapy from 6 to 10 days of age (early treatment), and from 31 to 35 days of age (later treatment). S. Enteritidis analyses were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment (dpt) in both trials. Partial DNA sequence analysis of each LB revealed close similarity to the Ackermannviridae family. LBs lysed different Salmonella enterica serovars, while other tested bacteria were refractory. An in-vitro reduction of 1.49, 0.65 and 0.58 log10 CFU/mL in S. Enteritidis number was obtained after co-incubation for 3 h with each LB. Both in vivo trials showed a significant reduction in the average number of intestinal S. Enteritidis calculated after phage therapy compared with controls. However, the highest efficiency was found in the later therapy, which resulted in a reduction of 1.08 log10 CFU/g in the average from 4 to 10 dpt, showing potential for future use as a pre-harvest strategy to reduce the S. Enteritidis intestinal colonization in broilers on farms.


Assuntos
Terapia por Fagos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Salmonelose Animal/terapia , Fagos de Salmonella/genética , Salmonella enteritidis/virologia , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(11): e20190328, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133222

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We performed a two-stage experiment: a preference and a validation test in swine litters, to determine whether suckling piglets preferred alternative light colors in their creep area over white light; we also determined whether the preferred color affected piglet behavior. In the first stage, five trials of two consecutive days were performed, each at 21-day intervals. In each trial, 40 piglets, from three to five days old, from four F1 sows (Large White x Landrace), were distributed in four treatments, in a paired scheme, receiving the following treatments: Treatment GR: white light vs. green light ; Treatment BL: white light vs. blue light; Treatment YE: yellow light vs. white light; Treatment RD: white light vs. red light. For the validation test, three consecutive lots of eight F1 sows (Large White x Landrace) and their corresponding maternity were used, remaining from birth under the influence of treatments T_Gr and T_Wh, totaling three replicates. T_Gr corresponded to four creep areaswith green LED light and T_Wh to four nurseries with white LED light. The piglets showed a significant preference only for white over blue. Among the alternative colors, piglets significantly preferred green. In the validation stage, there was no significant effect of colors on the mean percentage of permanence of the piglets inside the creep areas over all evaluated periods. Piglets between two and five days of age prefer green lighting;however,in the creep area, the light color used did not influence piglet behavior.


RESUMO: Foi realizado um experimento de duas etapas: teste de preferência e validação em maternidade suína, para verificar se leitões possuem preferência por cores alternativas de luz do abrigo escamoteador em relação à luz branca, e o efeito da cor de luz preferida em teste realizado em abrigos escamoteadores (cor alternativa e branca) no comportamento de leitões. Na primeira, foram realizados cinco ensaios de dois dias cada, em intervalos de 21 dias. Quarenta leitões, entre três e cinco dias de vida, provenientes de quatro matrizes F1 (Large White x Landrace), foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, em esquema pareado: Tratamento Vd: luz branca/luz verde; Tratamento Az: luz branca/luz azul; Tratamento Am: luz amarela/luz branca; Tratamento Vm: luz branca/luz vermelha. Para a validação, três lotes consecutivos de oito matrizes F1 (Large White x Landrace) e suas leitegadas permaneceram desde o nascimento sob os tratamentos T_Vd e T_Br. T_Vd correspondia a quatro escamoteadores com luz de LED verde e T_Br a quatro escamoteadores com luz de LED branca. A comparação entre cada cor alternativa e o branco mostrou diferença quanto à preferência (p<0,05) apenas para o azul. Entre as cores alternativas os leitões preferem a cor verde (p<0,05). Na etapa de validação, não houve efeito (p>0,05) no percentual médio de permanência dos leitões no interior dos escamoteadores, entre as cores de luz, para todos os períodos avaliados. Leitões entre dois a cinco dias de vida preferem a iluminação verde, porém no ambiente de maternidade, a cor de luz utilizada não influenciou no comportamento dos leitões.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9002-9008, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322885

RESUMO

The diphenylurea 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the residue of concern left in edible tissues of broilers fed diets containing the anticoccidial nicarbazin. When chicken meat is submitted to thermal processing, p-nitroaniline (p-NA) is expected from DNC degradation. This work aimed at evaluating whether thermal processing of DNC-containing chicken meat induces p-NA appearance. First, a hydrolysis assay was performed in aqueous solutions at 100 °C in different pH, confirming that DNC cleavage yields p-NA. Then a novel LC-MS/MS method was used to detect traces of this aromatic amine in DNC-containing chicken breast fillets subjected to cooking methods. Our evidence showed p-NA occurrence in such chicken meat samples, which corroborated results from hydrolysis assay. The p-NA appearance in fillets was rather discrete during boiling treatment, but its concentration became pronounced over time for grilling, frying, and roasting, achieving respectively 326.3, 640.0, and 456.9 µg/kg. As far as we are concerned, no other research identified degradation products from DNC residue in heat-processed chicken fillets. Therefore, this study leads to additional approaches to assess impacts on food safety.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbanilidas/química , Coccidiostáticos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Carne/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Culinária , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 16(11): 738-743, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211917

RESUMO

A study using sentinel broiler chickens was performed to address Campylobacter persistence in litter that was reused for successive flocks. Cloacal swabs, litter, drag swabs, darkling beetles, feed, and drinking water were weekly sampled and analyzed by standard microbiological procedures. Thermotolerant Campylobacter isolated strains were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Campylobacter was not detected in samples collected immediately after downtime between broiler flocks. However, Campylobacter-positive samples were first detected at 21 d. After Campylobacter was initially isolated from the cloacal swabs, reused litter, drag swabs, or darkling beetles, these samples remained Campylobacter positive in the following weeks until the end of the rearing period. Campylobacter-positive cloacal swabs obtained from sentinel broilers ranged from 97.3% to 100% at 42 d. All isolated strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Among the subtypes identified, an indistinguishable C. jejuni strain was predominant in sentinel broilers and was also detected in the other environmental samples analyzed, suggesting a common and persistent contamination source within the flocks. Sentinel broilers may have contributed to amplify the Campylobacter level, maintaining flock and broiler house contamination until the end of the production cycle.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Termotolerância , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Cloaca/microbiologia , Besouros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Masculino
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 118-123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176397

RESUMO

The vast capacity for maintenance and dissemination in the environment are major challenges for the control of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. The aim of this study was to assess environmental contamination by non-typhoidal Salmonella in successive broiler flocks in nine commercial broiler farms integrated with three companies in the south of Brazil, for a twelve-month production period. Recycled broiler litter, feed and swabs from the evaporative cooling system pads were analyzed, and the total enterobacteria count in the litter samples was ascertained. Positive broiler houses were identified in two of the three broiler companies studied, in which non-typhoidal Salmonella were detected for the first time in the first or second flock, and recurred in the recycled litter of subsequent flocks. Feed and evaporative cooling pad swab samples were also positive in at least one of the assessed flocks. The majority of the isolates (87.5%) originating from different flocks, broiler houses and companies that were sampled were identified as S. Heidelberg, with the prevalence of one single genotype. The total enterobacteria levels in the litter diminished as the flocks progressed, but the presence of Salmonella spp. was constant over the course of time, indicating that the litter management procedures were not capable of interrupting the cycle of residual contamination. The predominance of S. Heidelberg highlights its emergence and dissemination in this region, as well as its resistance and maintenance in the environment, and reinforces the need to improve prevention and recycled litter management measures.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Estudos Longitudinais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo
14.
Meat Sci ; 155: 61-68, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077907

RESUMO

The incidence of non-ambulatory non-injured (NANI), non-ambulatory injured (NAI) and dead pigs on-arrival at three Brazilian slaughterhouses were evaluated in 37,962 pigs to identify risk factors linked to them, besides carcass bruises and limb fractures. Total pre-slaughtering losses were 1.18%, in which NAI (0.39%) and NANI (0.37%) incidences contributed the most. A positive relation between on farm steeper ramp slope >20° and the incidence of NAI, NANI and dead pigs at unloading was found. Farm size, pigs/pen, enthalpy at loading, transportation time, truck loading order, muscle thickness and carcass weight, were identified as risk factors for pre-slaughtering losses. Loading procedures influenced the occurrence of limb fractures and bruises (which are a welfare issue and should be reduced). Therefore, personal training on pre-slaughter handling is essential to reduce the risk factors to improve animal welfare and avoid losses during the pre-slaughter process.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Sus scrofa/lesões , Transportes , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(11): 1497-1505, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556763

RESUMO

This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of different combinations of on-farm fasting intervals (8, 12, 16, 20 h) and 1.5 h of transport plus lairage periods (1, 3, 6 h) at different seasons (summer/winter) on blood stress parameters (cortisol and lactate), stomach content and weight, skin lesion and meat quality in a total of 960 pigs from eight farms. Blood lactate levels were greater in the summer (P < 0.001) and stomach content was affected (P < 0.05) by season, on-farm fasting interval (P < 0.001), lairage time (P < 0.0001). Stomach content weight reduces as the total feed withdrawal time increases up to on-farm fasting of 17 and 1 h of lairage. Stomach content can be influenced by feed and water in different ways according to treatments. Only 8 h of on-farm fasting is not enough to empty stomachs from feed content. However, an on-farm fasting period of 16 h or longer can also increase the occurrence of more water in the stomachs. Carcass lesions caused by fighting were greater (P ≤ 0.005) in the winter, mainly after 3 and 6 h of lairage (P ≤ 0.005). Loin and ham pHu was lower (P ≤ 0.05) for pigs slaughtered after 6 h of lairage during the summer. The application of 12 h of on-farm fasting with 6 h of lairage seemed to be best combination to reduce stomach content weight (feed and water). In the winter, shorter lairage period can be used to reduce percentage of skin lesions and better pork quality traits in pigs.


Assuntos
Jejum , Carne , Animais , Fazendas , Hidrocortisona , Estações do Ano , Suínos
16.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(1): e150479, jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1007833

RESUMO

Cases of salmonellosis in humans have been associated with consumption of eggs contaminated with this bacterial pathogen due to insufficient heat treatment. The most prevalent serotypes of Salmonella in Brazil include serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg. The first two serotypes are major causes for eggs to be withheld from sale and for recalls over Salmonella contamination concerns in both domestic and foreign markets. Eggs may be contaminated through transovarian infection (transovarial transmission) due to the presence of the microorganism in the hen's oviduct and bacterial penetration of the eggshell. There is little data in the literature on the susceptibility of egg contamination and eggshell penetration by Brazilian serotypes of Salmonella. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium serotypes to penetrate through the eggshell and detect these bacteria in the albumen and yolk according to the thickness of the eggshell. SPF (specific-pathogen-free) eggs were artificially contaminated by contact with moist cotton containing Salmonella (15 x 108 CFU/ml). Eggs were divided into the following groups: negative control (not contaminated), S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium. Subsequently, these eggs were incubated at 37°C, and their contents analyzed after 4 h and 24 h of incubation. The evaluation (assessment) of the contamination was performed by traditional bacteriology and confirmed by biochemical and serological tests. Treatments were compared with Fisher's test using a SAS statistical software. For S. Heidelberg, the percentage of positivity (positive cases) was lower in both albumen and yolk at 4 h and 24 h intervals (33.33% and 3.7%, and 3.7% and 3.7%, respectively) compared to S. Typhimurium (26.63% and 7.41%, and 33.33% and 33.33%, respectively). These findings suggest that the former strain (S. Heidelberg) was unable to survive in the hostile environment of the albumen. In contrast, eggshell thickness had no significant correlation with the number of positive samples. In conclusion, the results obtained in the egg infection model show that the Salmonella strains tested were able to penetrate the eggshell and multiply in both the albumen and yolk and that S. Typhimurium proved to be the most efficient to grow within these portions of the egg.(AU)


Salmonelose em humanos é frequentemente associada ao consumo de ovos contaminados sem o devido processamento térmico. No Brasil, os sorotipos mais prevalentes são: Enteritidis, Typhimurium e Heidelberg, alvo de barreiras sanitárias na comercialização de ovos. O ovo pode ser contaminado por via transovariana, pela presença da bactéria no oviduto da ave e também por penetração da bactéria através da casca do ovo. Existem poucas informações acerca da capacidade de contaminação no ovo por sorotipos isolados no Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade dos sorotipos S. Heidelberg e S. Typhimurium penetrar através da casca do ovo e colonizar a albumina e gema, relacionando à espessura da casca. Os ovos SPF (livres de patógenos específicos) foram contaminados artificialmente pelo contato com algodão umedecido (15 x 108 CF/mL). Os ovos foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: controle negativo (sem contaminação), S. Heidelberg e S. Typhimurium. Posteriormente foram incubadas a 37°C e seu conteúdo foi analisado após 4 e 24 h. A avaliação da contaminação foi realizada por bacteriologia tradicional e confirmada por testes bioquímicos e sorológicos. Os tratamentos foram comparados com o teste de Fisher usando o software estatístico SAS. Para S. Heidelberg, a percentagem de positividade foi menor no albúmen e gema às 4 e 24 h (33,33% e 3,7%, 3,7% e 3,7%, respectivamente) em comparação com S. Typhimurium (26,63% e 7,41%, 33,33% e 33,33%, respectivamente), sugerindo que a primeira estirpe foi mais vulnerável as condições hostis da albumina. Por outro lado, a espessura da casca do ovo não teve relação significativa com a positividade das amostras. Em conclusão, o modelo de infecção do ovo mostrou que as cepas foram capazes de penetrar a casca do ovo e sobreviver na albumina e gema, sendo que o sorotipo S. Typhimurium foi mais eficiente.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Galinhas
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 244, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida type A (PmA) is considered a secondary agent of pneumonia in pigs. The role of PmA as a primary pathogen was investigated by challenging pigs with eight field strains isolated from pneumonia and serositis in six Brazilian states. Eight groups of eight pigs each were intranasally inoculated with different strains of PmA (1.5 mL/nostril of 10e7 CFU/mL). The control group (n = 12) received sterile PBS. The pigs were euthanized by electrocution and necropsied by 5 dpi. Macroscopic lesions were recorded, and swabs and fragments of thoracic and abdominal organs were analyzed by bacteriological and pathological assays. The PmA strains were analyzed for four virulence genes (toxA: toxin; pfhA: adhesion; tbpA and hgbB: iron acquisition) by PCR and sequencing and submitted to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: The eight PmA strains were classified as follows: five as highly pathogenic (HP) for causing necrotic bronchopneumonia and diffuse fibrinous pleuritis and pericarditis; one as low pathogenic for causing only focal bronchopneumonia; and two as nonpathogenic because they did not cause injury to any pig. PCR for the gene pfhA was positive for all five HP isolates. Sequencing demonstrated that the pfhA region of the HP strains comprised four genes: tpsB1, pfhA1, tpsB2 and pfhA2. The low and nonpathogenic strains did not contain the genes tpsB2 and pfhA2. A deletion of four bases was observed in the pfhA gene in the low pathogenic strain, and an insertion of 37 kb of phage DNA was observed in the nonpathogenic strains. MLST clustered the HP isolates in one group and the low and nonpathogenic isolates in another. Only the nonpathogenic isolates matched sequence type 10; the other isolates did not match any type available in the MLST database. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that some PmA strains are primary pathogens and cause disease in pigs without any co-factor was confirmed. The pfhA region, comprising the genes tpsB1, tpsB2, pfhA1 and pfhA2, is related to the pathogenicity of PmA. The HP strains can cause necrotic bronchopneumonia, fibrinous pleuritis and pericarditis in pigs and can be identified by PCR amplification of the gene pfhA2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Pasteurella multocida/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Broncopneumonia/microbiologia , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Genes Bacterianos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Infecções por Pasteurella/genética , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Pericardite/microbiologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Pleurisia/microbiologia , Pleurisia/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Suínos , Virulência/genética
18.
Meat Sci ; 145: 347-351, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029088

RESUMO

Brain damage resulting from penetrating and non-penetrating stunning of Nelore cattle using pneumatically powered captive bolt guns was evaluated. Heads were shot using penetrating captive bolt gun with 160 psi (P1; n = 10), 175 psi (P2; n = 10), 190 psi (P3; n = 12), and non-penetrating operating with 220 psi (NP; n = 10). Skin and bone thickness, bolt penetration angle, bolt penetration depth, haemorrhage over the cerebral hemispheres and laceration were assessed. Only P1 had shots that failed to perforate the skull (n = 2; 20%). Bolt penetration depth and haemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater for P3. Subarachnoid haemorrhage over the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes was higher for NP. Lacerations were observed only for penetrating gun in the cortical region of frontal and parietal lobes. Subarachnoid haemorrhage surrounding the brainstem and laceration in the midbrain and pons was only found for P3. Thus, penetrating captive bolt gun operating with 190 psi is more effective to achieve unconsciousness.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Encéfalo , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Armas de Fogo , Cabeça , Pressão , Inconsciência , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Tronco Encefálico , Bovinos , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Masculino , Carne , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(31): 8391-8397, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992813

RESUMO

Nicarbazin is one of the major anticoccidials used in broiler feeds. The compound 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the marker residue of concern left from nicarbazin in chicken meat. The effect of thermal processing on DNC content accumulated in chicken breast was assessed, and samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five conventional cooking methods were evaluated: boiling, grilling, microwaving, frying, and roasting. To ensure DNC in meat, broilers were fed nicarbazin without withdrawal period. All heating methods surpassed the 70 °C end point core temperature in chicken breast. Maximum DNC degradation was reached at 10 min for boiling, at 30 min for grilling, and at 2 min for microwaving, and no further reduction was observed for longer thermal processing time. Boiling was more efficient in reducing DNC (69%). Grilling, microwaving, and frying achieved on average 55% of degradation. The outcomes reported herein may be considered in decision-making regarding further review of maximum residue limits.


Assuntos
Carbanilidas/análise , Carbanilidas/química , Galinhas , Culinária/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 203: 308-314, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619162

RESUMO

The microbiological risk of recycled litter depends on the efficacy of the management system applied to inactivate residual microorganisms and preserve the health of the successive broiler flock. This study aimed to assess the viability and infectivity of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Salmonella Heidelberg in recycled litter exposed to different treatments. The litter was contaminated with microorganisms and submitted to the treatments (T): T1: shallow fermentation; T2: quicklime (calcium oxide); T3: shallow fermentation followed by addition of quicklime; T4: no treatment. Sentinel chicks housed on the treated litter showed that T1 and T3 inactivated residual IBDV. Analysis of the litter subjected to T1 also showed reduced levels of total enterobacteria. T2 was not able to reduce the microorganisms assessed and its association with T1 (T3) failed to enhance the effect of the treatment. NDV did not survive in the broiler litter, regardless of the treatment applied, and it was also not detected in the sentinel chicks. S. Heidelberg remained viable in the litter submitted to all studied treatments, being isolated from the sentinel chicks of all the experimental groups. The antimicrobial activity of T1 and T3 was associated to higher ammonia contents in the broiler litter. The results indicate that the shallow fermentation treatment is efficient for controlling residual IBDV and total enterobacteria in the recycled litter.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/fisiologia , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Óxidos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade
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