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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 270: 113663, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454539

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Video-based interventions hold promise for improving quality of life (QoL) among African American breast cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: An interactive, cancer-communication intervention using African American breast cancer survivors' narratives was tested in a randomized controlled trial to determine whether viewing survivor stories improved newly diagnosed African American breast cancer patients' QoL. METHOD: Participants were 228 African American women with non-metastatic breast cancer interviewed five times over two years; 120 controls received standard medical care, and 108 intervention-arm participants also received a tablet-computer with survivor stories three times in 12 months. Growth curve models were used to analyze differences between arms in change in eight RAND 36-Item Health Survey subscales, depressive symptoms, and concerns about recurrence. Additional models explored the effects of intervention usage and other intervention-related variables on QoL among patients in the intervention arm. RESULTS: Models showed no effect of study arm on QoL, depressive symptoms, or concerns about recurrence. Longer use of the intervention was associated with an increase in concerns about recurrence and decline in three QoL subscales: emotional wellbeing, energy/fatigue, and role limitations due to physical health. CONCLUSION: Although no significant impact of the intervention on QoL was observed when comparing the two study arms, in the intervention arm longer intervention use was associated with declines in three QoL subscales and increased concerns about recurrence. Women with improving QoL may have interacted with the tablet less because they felt less in need of information; it is also possible that encouraging patients to compare themselves to survivors who had already recovered from breast cancer led some patients to report lower QoL. Future work is warranted to examine whether adding different stories to this cancer-communication intervention or using stories in conjunction with additional health promotion strategies (e.g., patient navigation) might improve QoL for African American breast cancer patients.

2.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394020

RESUMO

Importance: Supplemental oxygen is commonly administered to pregnant women at the time of delivery to prevent fetal hypoxia and acidemia. There is mixed evidence on the utility of this practice. Objective: To compare the association of peripartum maternal oxygen administration with room air on umbilical artery (UA) gas measures and neonatal outcomes. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from February 18 to April 3, 2020. Search terms included labor or obstetric delivery and oxygen therapy and fetal blood or blood gas or acid-base imbalance. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials comparing oxygen with room air at the time of scheduled cesarean delivery or labor in patients with singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies. Studies that did not collect paired umbilical cord gas samples or did not report either UA pH or UA Pao2 results were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. The analysis was stratified by the presence or absence of labor at the time of randomization. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome for this review was UA pH. Secondary outcomes included UA pH less than 7.2, UA Pao2, UA base excess, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Results: The meta-analysis included 16 randomized clinical trials (n = 1078 oxygen group and n = 974 room air group). There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 49.88%; P = .03). Overall, oxygen administration was associated with no significant difference in UA pH (weighted mean difference, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.01). Oxygen use was associated with an increase in UA Pao2 (weighted mean difference, 2.57 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.80-4.34 mm Hg) but no significant difference in UA base excess, UA pH less than 7.2, Apgar scores, or neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Umbilical artery pH values remained similar between groups after accounting for the risk of bias, type of oxygen delivery device, and fraction of inspired oxygen. After stratifying by the presence or absence of labor, oxygen administration in women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery was associated with increased UA Pao2 (weighted mean difference, 2.12 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.09-4.15 mm Hg) and a reduction in the incidence of UA pH less than 7.2 (relative risk, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90), but these changes were not noted among those in labor (Pao2: weighted mean difference, 3.60 mm Hg; 95% CI, -0.30 to 7.49 mm Hg; UA pH<7.2: relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.58-3.11). Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that studies to date showed no association between maternal oxygen and a clinically relevant improvement in UA pH or other neonatal outcomes.

3.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(2): 222-231, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with gestational diabetes are 7 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and require lifelong diabetes screening. Loss of health coverage after pregnancy, as occurs in states that did not expand Medicaid, limits access to guideline-driven follow-up care and fosters health inequity. This study aims to understand the factors associated with the receipt of postpartum diabetes screening for women with gestational diabetes in a state without Medicaid expansion. METHODS: Electronic health record and Medicaid claims data were linked to generate a retrospective cohort of 1,078 women with gestational diabetes receiving care in Federally Qualified Health Centers in Missouri from 2010 to 2015. In 2019-2020, data were analyzed to determine the factors associated with the receipt of recommended postpartum diabetes screening (fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, or HbA1c in specified timeframes) using a Cox proportional hazards model through 18 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Median age in this predominantly urban population was 28 (IQR=24-33) years. Self-reported racial or ethnic minorities comprised more than half of the population. Only 9.7% of women were screened at 12 weeks, and 20.8% were screened at 18 months. Prenatal certified diabetes education (adjusted hazard ratio=1.74, 95% CI=1.22, 2.49) and access to public transportation (adjusted hazard ratio=1.70, 95% CI=1.13, 2.54) were associated with increased screening in a model adjusted for race/ethnicity, the total number of prenatal visits, the use of diabetes medication during pregnancy, and a pregnancy-specific comorbidity index that incorporated age. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the importance of access to public transportation, prenatal diabetes education, and continued healthcare coverage for women on Medicaid to support the receipt of guideline-recommended follow-up care and improve health equity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical use of breast cancer risk prediction requires simplified models. We evaluate a simplified version of the validated Rosner-Colditz model and add percent mammographic density (MD) and polygenic risk score (PRS), to assess performance from ages 45-74. We validate using prospective data from the Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS). METHODS: We derived the model in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) based on: MD, 77SNP PRS and a questionnaire score (QS) (lifestyle and reproductive factors). 2799 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed from 1990-2000. MD (using Cumulus software) and PRS were assessed in a nested case-control study. We assess model performance using this case-control data set and evaluate 10-year absolute breast cancer risk. The prospective MMHS validation dataset includes 21.8% of women age <50, and 434 incident cases identified over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the NHS, MD has the highest odds ratio (OR) for 10-year risk prediction: OR per SD =1.48 (95% CI 1.31 - 1.68), followed by PRS, OR per SD = 1.37 (95% CI 1.21 - 1.55) and QS, OR per SD = 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 - 1.41). In MMHS, the AUC adjusted for age was 0.595; for age+MD 0.636; for age+MD+QS 0.650; for age+MD+QS+PRS 0.687. CONCLUSIONS: A simplified assessment of QS, MD and PRS performs consistently to discriminate those at high 10-year breast cancer risk. IMPACT: This simplified model provides accurate estimation of 10-year risk of invasive breast cancer that can be used in a clinic setting to identify women who may benefit from chemopreventive intervention.

5.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(11): 2325967120969863, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294476

RESUMO

Background: Prearthritic hip disorders (PAHD), such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), acetabular dysplasia, and acetabular labral tears, are a common cause of pain and dysfunction in adolescent and young adult athletes, and optimal patient-specific treatment has not been defined. Operative management is often recommended, but conservative management may be a reasonable approach for some athletes. Purpose: To identify (1) the relative rate of progression to surgery in self-reported competitive athletes versus nonathletes with PAHD and (2) baseline demographic, pain, and functional differences between athletes who proceeded versus those who did not proceed to surgery within 1 year of evaluation. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: An electronic medical record review was performed of middle school, high school, and college patients who were evaluated for PAHD at a single tertiary-care academic medical center between June 22, 2015, and May 1, 2018. Extracted variables included patients' self-reported athlete status, decision to choose surgery within 1 year of evaluation, and baseline self-reported pain and functional scores on Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) domains, the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), and the modified Harris Hip Score. Results: Of 260 eligible patients (289 hips), 203 patients (78%; 227 hips) were athletes. Athletes were no more likely to choose surgery than nonathletes (130/227 hips [57%] vs 36/62 hips [58%]; relative risk [RR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.78-1.25]). Among athletes, those who proceeded to surgery over conservative care were more likely to be female (81% vs 69%; RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.98-1.83]) and had more known imaging abnormalities (FAI: 82% vs 69%, RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.09-1.99]; dysplasia: 48% vs 27%, RR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.16-1.79]; mixed deformity: 30% vs 10%, RR, 2.91 [95% CI, 1.53-5.54]; known labral tear: 84% vs 40%, RR, 2.79 [95% CI, 2.06-3.76]). Athletes who chose surgery also reported worse baseline hip-specific symptoms on all HOOS subscales (mean difference, 10.8-17.7; P < .01 for all). Conclusion: Similar to nonathletes, just over half of athletes with PAHD chose surgical management within 1 year of evaluation. Many competitive athletes with PAHD continued with conservative management and deferred surgery, but more structural hip pathology and worse hip-related baseline physical impairment were associated with the choice to pursue surgery.

6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6(1): 61, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298962

RESUMO

Adolescent drinking is associated with higher risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and invasive breast cancer (BC). Furthermore, adolescent nut and fiber consumptions are associated with lower risks of benign lesions and premenopausal BC. We hypothesize that diet (nuts, fiber) may mitigate the elevated BBD risk associated with alcohol. A prospective cohort of 9031 females, 9-15 years at baseline, completed questionnaires in 1996-2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2014. Participants completed food frequency questionnaires in 1996-2001. In 2005, participants (>=18 years) began reporting biopsy-confirmed BBD (N = 173 cases). Multivariable logistic regression estimated associations between BBD and cross-classified intakes (14-17 years) of alcohol and peanut butter/nuts (separately, total dietary fiber). Only 19% of participants drank in high school; drinking was associated with elevated BBD risk (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.56; p = 0.004) compared to nondrinkers. Participants consuming any nuts/butter had lower BBD risk (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.90; p = 0.01) compared to those consuming none. Participants in top 75% fiber intake had lower risk (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.81; p = 0.002) compared to bottom quartile. Testing our hypothesis that consuming nuts/butter mitigates the elevated alcohol risk, analyzing alcohol and nuts combined found that those who consumed both had lower risk (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89; p = 0.02) compared to drinkers eating no nuts. Our analysis of alcohol and fiber together did not demonstrate risk mitigation by fiber. For high school females who drink, their BBD risk may be attenuated by consuming nuts. Due to modest numbers, future studies need to replicate our findings in adolescent/adult females. However, high school students may be encouraged to eat nuts and fiber, and to avoid alcohol, to reduce risk of BBD and for general health benefits.

7.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001482, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether pollen triggers urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome flares. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed flare status every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain case-crossover analysis of flare triggers (NCT01098279). Flare symptoms, flare start date and exposures in the 3 days before a flare were queried for the first 3 flares and at 3 randomly selected nonflare times. These data were linked to daily pollen count by date and the first 3 digits of participants' zip codes. Pollen count in the 3 days before and day of a flare, as well as pollen rises past established thresholds, were compared to nonflare values by conditional logistic regression. Poisson regression was used to estimate flare rates in the 3 weeks following pollen rises past established thresholds in the full longitudinal study. Analyses were performed in all participants and separately in those who reported allergies or respiratory tract disorders. RESULTS: Although no associations were observed for daily pollen count and flare onset, positive associations were observed for pollen count rises past medium or higher thresholds in participants with allergies or respiratory tract disorders in the case-crossover (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.66) and full longitudinal (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46) samples. CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence to suggest that rising pollen count may trigger flares of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may help to inform flare pathophysiology, prevention and treatment, and control over the unpredictability of flares.

8.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cancer stage at diagnosis, treatment delays, and breast cancer mortality vary with insurance status. METHODS: Using the Missouri Cancer Registry, this analysis included 31,485 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) of a late-stage (stage III or IV) diagnosis and a treatment delay (>60 days after the diagnosis) were calculated with logistic regression. The hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer mortality was calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Mediation analysis was used to quantify the individual contributions of each covariate to mortality. RESULTS: The OR of a late-stage diagnosis was higher for patients with Medicaid (OR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-1.91) or no insurance (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.91-2.78) in comparison with privately insured patients. Medicare (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.37), Medicaid (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.37-1.85), and uninsured patients (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.18-2.12) had higher odds of a treatment delay. The HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly increased in the groups with public insurance or no insurance and decreased after sequential adjustments for sociodemographic factors (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.96-2.91), tumor characteristics (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), and treatment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.50). Late-stage diagnoses accounted for 72.5% of breast cancer mortality in the uninsured. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the privately insured, women with public or no insurance had a higher risk for advanced breast cancer, a >60-day treatment delay, and death from breast cancer. Particularly for the uninsured, Medicaid expansion and increased funding for education and screening programs could decrease breast cancer disparities.

10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E140, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155970

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening is recommended for current and former smokers who meet eligibility criteria. Few studies have quantitatively examined disparities in access to LDCT screening. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between 1) rurality, sociodemographic characteristics, and access to LDCT lung cancer screening and 2) screening access and lung cancer mortality. METHODS: We used census block group and county-level data from Missouri and Illinois. We defined access to screening as presence of an accredited screening center within 30 miles of residence as of May 2019. We used mixed-effects logistic models for screening access and county-level multiple linear regression models for lung cancer mortality. RESULTS: Approximately 97.6% of metropolitan residents had access to screening, compared with 41.0% of nonmetropolitan residents. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of having access to screening in rural areas were 17% of the odds in metropolitan areas (95% CI, 12%-26%). We observed no association between screening access and lung cancer mortality. Southeastern Missouri, a rural and impoverished area, had low levels of screening access, high smoking prevalence, and high lung cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: Although access to LDCT is lower in rural areas than in urban areas, lung cancer mortality in rural residents is multifactorial and cannot be explained by access alone. Targeted efforts to implement rural LDCT screening could reduce geographic disparities in access, although further research is needed to understand how increased access to screening could affect uptake and rural disparities in lung cancer mortality.

11.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X20968070, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine may increase the amount of probabilistic information patients encounter. Little guidance exists about communicating risk for multiple diseases simultaneously or about communicating how changes in risk factors affect risk (hereafter "risk reduction"). PURPOSE: To determine how to communicate personalized risk and risk reduction information for up to 5 diseases associated with insufficient physical activity in a way laypeople can understand and that increases intentions. METHODS: We recruited 500 participants with <150 min weekly of physical activity from community settings. Participants completed risk assessments for diabetes, heart disease, stroke, colon cancer, and breast cancer (women only) on a smartphone. Then, they were randomly assigned to view personalized risk and risk reduction information organized as a bulleted list, a simplified table, or a specialized vertical bar graph ("risk ladder"). Last, they completed a questionnaire assessing outcomes. Personalized risk and risk reduction information was presented as categories (e.g., "very low"). Our analytic sample (N = 372) included 41.3% individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic backgrounds, 15.9% with vocational-technical training or less, 84.7% women, 43.8% aged 50 to 64 y, and 71.8% who were overweight/obese. RESULTS: Analyses of covariance with post hoc comparisons showed that the risk ladder elicited higher gist comprehension than the bulleted list (P = 0.01). There were no significant main effects on verbatim comprehension or physical activity intentions and no moderation by sex, race/ethnicity, education, numeracy, or graph literacy (P > 0.05). Sequential mediation analyses revealed a small beneficial indirect effect of risk ladder versus list on intentions through gist comprehension and then through perceived risk (bIndirectEffect = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.04). CONCLUSION: Risk ladders can communicate the gist meaning of multiple pieces of risk information to individuals from many sociodemographic backgrounds and with varying levels of facility with numbers and graphs.

12.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Factors that lead to metabolic dysregulation are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosed under age 50). However, the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and early-onset CRC remains unexamined. DESIGN: We conducted a nested case-control study among participants aged 18-64 in the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2006-2015). Incident CRC was identified using pathologist-coded International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, and controls were frequency matched. MetS was defined as presence of ≥3 conditions among obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia/type 2 diabetes, based on ICD-9-CM and use of medications. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: MetS was associated with increased risk of early-onset CRC (n=4673; multivariable adjusted OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43), similar to CRC diagnosed at age 50-64 (n=14 928; OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.27). Compared with individuals without a metabolic comorbid condition, those with 1, 2 or ≥3 conditions had a 9% (1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17), 12% (1.12; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24) and 31% (1.31; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.51) higher risk of early-onset CRC (ptrend <0.001). No associations were observed for one or two metabolic comorbid conditions and CRC diagnosed at age 50-64. These positive associations were driven by proximal (OR per condition 1.14; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23) and distal colon cancer (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18), but not rectal cancer (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic dysregulation was associated with increased risk of early-onset CRC, driven by proximal and distal colon cancer, thus at least in part contribute to the rising incidence of early-onset CRC.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068181

RESUMO

The Your Disease Risk tool ( yourdiseaserisk.wustl.edu ) went live to the public in January 2000 and was one of the first personalized health risk assessment sites on the Internet. Its launch marked the culmination of years of work by a large, multi-disciplinary university team whose primary goal was to translate the science on cancer prevention into accurate, engaging, and useful messages for the public. Today, 20 years on, Your Disease Risk has expanded from its initial four cancers to include 18 different tools designed for today's users. This commentary reviews important moments and lessons learned in the first two decades of Your Disease Risk.

14.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(5): 1494-1504, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether meteorological factors (temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, ultraviolet index [UVI], and seasons) trigger flares in male and female urologic chronic pelvic pain patients. METHODS: We assessed flare status every 2 weeks in our case-crossover study of flare triggers in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain 1-year longitudinal study. Flare symptoms, flare start date, and exposures in the 3 days preceding a flare or the date of questionnaire completion were assessed for the first three flares and at three randomly selected nonflare times. We linked these data to daily temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, and UVI values by participants' first 3 zip code digits. Values in the 3 days before and the day of a flare, as well as changes in these values, were compared to nonflare values by conditional logistic regression. Differences in flare rates by astronomical and growing seasons were investigated by Poisson regression in the full study population. RESULTS: A total of 574 flare and 792 nonflare assessments (290 participants) were included in the case-crossover analysis, and 966 flare and 5389 nonflare (409 participants) were included in the full study analysis. Overall, no statistically significant associations were observed for daily weather, no patterns of associations were observed for weather changes, and no differences in flare rates were observed by season. CONCLUSIONS: We found minimal evidence to suggest that weather triggers flares, although we cannot rule out the possibility that a small subset of patients is susceptible.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(3): 915-925, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cutoffs of the 21-gene recurrence score (RS), a commonly used genomic assay for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, have been updated. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in RS results, RS-guided chemotherapy use, and outcomes on updated cutoff (RS ≥ 31 defined as high-risk) in the real-world setting. METHODS: A total of 81,937 women [75.0% whites, 7.7% blacks, 8.3% Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), and 9.0% Hispanics] diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer between 2004 and 2015, who received the 21-gene assay, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. Logistic regressions estimated the race-associated odds ratios (ORs) of RS and chemotherapy use. Cox regressions estimated the race-associated hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Compared with white women, black women were more likely to have RS-defined high-risk tumors (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.42). In high RS, blacks had lower odds of chemotherapy use (aOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94) than whites, particularly among women ≥ 65 years (aOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.35-0.76), while AAPI and Hispanic women had no variation in chemotherapy use compared with whites in high RS. Black women had a higher risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.12-1.67) and all-cause mortality compared with white women after adjusting for demographic and pathological factors, county-level socioeconomic deprivation, treatments and RS; AAPIs had lower mortality and Hispanics had similar mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Black women were more likely to have a high-risk RS tumor and less likely to receive chemotherapy in the group of high RS, especially those ≥ 65 years. Further studies are needed to identify barriers to chemotherapy in black patients with high RS scores.

16.
Acad Med ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941251

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science provides the tools needed to close the gap between known intervention strategies and their effective application. The authors report on the Mentored Training for Dissemination and Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC) program-a D&I training program for postdoctoral or early-career cancer prevention and control scholars. APPROACH: MT-DIRC was a 2-year training institute in which fellows attended 2 annual Summer Institutes and other conferences and received didactic, group, and individual instruction; individualized mentoring; and other supports (e.g., pilot funding). A quasi-experimental design compared changes in 3 areas: mentoring, skills, and network composition. To evaluate mentoring and D&I skills, data from fellows on their mentors' mentoring competencies, their perspectives on the importance of and satisfaction with mentoring priority areas, and their self-rated skills in D&I competency domains were collected. Network composition data were collected from faculty and fellows for 3 core social network domains: contact, mentoring, and collaboration. Paired t-test (mentoring), linear mixed models (skills), and descriptive analyses (network composition) were performed. OUTCOMES: Mentors were rated as highly competent across all mentoring competencies, and each mentoring priority area showed reductions in gaps between satisfaction and importance between the 6 and 18 month post-first Summer Institute. Fellows' self-rated skills in D&I competencies improved significantly in all domains over time (range: 42.5%-52.9% increase from baseline to 18 months post-first Summer Institute). Mentorship and collaboration networks grew over time, with the highest number of collaboration network ties for joint research projects (n = 160) in 2019 and for scholarly manuscripts (n = 199) in 2018. NEXT STEPS: Building on study findings and existing literature, mentored training of scholars is an important approach for building D&I skills and networks, and thus to better applying the vast amount of available intervention evidence to benefit cancer control.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2358-2368, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manual qualitative and quantitative measures of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution were previously reported to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. We developed and applied a deep learning method to yield quantitative measures of TDLU involution in normal breast tissue. We assessed the associations of these automated measures with breast cancer risk factors and risk. METHODS: We obtained eight quantitative measures from whole slide images from a benign breast disease (BBD) nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Studies (287 breast cancer cases and 1,083 controls). Qualitative assessments of TDLU involution were available for 177 cases and 857 controls. The associations between risk factors and quantitative measures among controls were assessed using analysis of covariance adjusting for age. The relationship between each measure and risk was evaluated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the matching factors, BBD subtypes, parity, and menopausal status. Qualitative measures and breast cancer risk were evaluated accounting for matching factors and BBD subtypes. RESULTS: Menopausal status and parity were significantly associated with all eight measures; select TDLU measures were associated with BBD histologic subtype, body mass index, and birth index (P < 0.05). No measure was correlated with body size at ages 5-10 years, age at menarche, age at first birth, or breastfeeding history (P > 0.05). Neither quantitative nor qualitative measures were associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Among Nurses' Health Studies women diagnosed with BBD, TDLU involution is not a biomarker of subsequent breast cancer. IMPACT: TDLU involution may not impact breast cancer risk as previously thought.

18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(10): 891-904, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although a growing body of evidence supports an early-life contribution to prostate cancer (PCa) development, few studies have investigated early-life diet, and only three have examined early-life dairy product intake, a promising candidate risk factor because of its known/suspected influence on insulin-like growth factor levels and height. METHODS: We used recalled dietary data from 162,816 participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to investigate associations for milk, cheese, ice cream, total dairy, and calcium intake at ages 12-13 years with incident total (n = 17,729), advanced (n = 2,348), and fatal PCa (n = 827) over 14 years of follow-up. We calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We observed suggestive positive trends for milk, dairy, and calcium intake with total and/or advanced PCa (p-trends = 0.016-0.148). These trends attenuated after adjustment for additional components of adolescent diet, particularly red meat and vegetables/potatoes. In contrast, suggestive inverse trends were observed for cheese and ice cream intake with total and/or advanced PCa (p-trends = 0.043-0.153), and for milk, dairy, and calcium intake with fatal PCa (p-trend = 0.045-0.117). CONCLUSION: Although these findings provide some support for a role of adolescent diet in increasing PCa risk, particularly for correlates of milk intake or overall dietary patterns, our protective findings for cheese and ice cream intake with PCa risk and mortality, and for all dairy products with PCa mortality, suggest alternative explanations, such as the influence of early-life socioeconomic status, and increased PCa screening, earlier detection, and better PCa care.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta , Laticínios , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
PM R ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in patient-physician interactions based on physician gender have been demonstrated. However, the association between patients' self-perceived health and their decision to see a female versus male physician is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if self-reported physical or behavioral health is different in musculoskeletal patients who present to female vs male physicians. We hypothesized that patients who present to female physicians report worse physical and behavioral health. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Consecutive 21 980 adult patients who presented to a musculoskeletal medicine specialist for initial evaluation of a musculoskeletal condition between April 1, 2016 and November 1, 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical Function, Pain Interference, Anxiety, and Depression Computer Adaptive Test domains of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). The primary study outcome was the mean difference (MD) in PROMIS scores by physician gender. RESULTS: Patients who presented to female physicians self-reported slightly worse health in all domains: Physical Function (female physicians 40.2, male physicians 42.4, MD -2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.5 to -1.8), Pain Interference (female physicians 61.6, male physicians 60.4, MD 1.3 [1.0-1.5]), Anxiety (female physicians 52.5, male physicians 51.4, MD 1.1 [0.8-1.5]), and Depression (female physicians 47.5, male physicians 46.2, MD 1.3 [0.9-1.6]) (all P < .001). Patients who presented to female physicians were also slightly younger (51.9 vs 52.4 years, P = .034) and more likely to be female (63% vs 56%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who presented to female physicians self-reported slightly worse physical and behavioral health compared to those patients who presented to male physicians. Further investigation into this finding may provide insight into drivers of patients' preferences, which may enable physicians of both genders to optimize patient care.

20.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1605-1610, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816552

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenge for society, affecting those already subject to unacceptable health inequalities and resulting in vast economic impacts. The pandemic reminds everyone of the value and necessity of public health.In the context of an era that will be shaped by COVID-19, we outline the coming series of challenges and transitions in public health and the needed actions over the next 5 years to reinvent our public health systems. Multiple limitations in current US and global public health systems have been uncovered by the pandemic, including insufficient preparedness and surveillance capabilities complicated by long-standing and worsening health inequalities and the rapid spread of misinformation that needs to be countered. We foresee 3 phases for public health over the next 5 years: (1) reactive crisis management, (2) efforts to maintain initial gains, and (3) efforts to sustain and enhance progress.A reinvented public health system will depend highly on leadership and political will, rethinking how we categorize and address population-level risk, employing 21st-century data sciences, and applying new communication skills.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Previsões , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Política , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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