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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3727, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140517

RESUMO

Clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells contributes to the long-term persistence of the HIV reservoir in ART-suppressed individuals. However, the contribution from cell clones that harbor inducible proviruses to plasma viremia is poorly understood. Here, we describe a single-cell approach to simultaneously sequence the TCR, integration sites and proviral genomes from translation-competent reservoir cells, called STIP-Seq. By applying this approach to blood samples from eight participants, we show that the translation-competent reservoir mainly consists of proviruses with short deletions at the 5'-end of the genome, often involving the major splice donor site. TCR and integration site sequencing reveal that cell clones with predicted pathogen-specificity can harbor inducible proviruses integrated into cancer-related genes. Furthermore, we find several matches between proviruses retrieved with STIP-Seq and plasma viruses obtained during ART and upon treatment interruption, suggesting that STIP-Seq can capture clones that are responsible for low-level viremia or viral rebound.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/metabolismo , Provírus/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Viremia/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Carga Viral/genética
2.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 97, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823910

RESUMO

The integration of a viral genome into the host genome has a major impact on the trajectory of the infected cell. Integration location and variation within the associated viral genome can influence both clonal expansion and persistence of infected cells. Methods based on short-read sequencing can identify viral insertion sites, but the sequence of the viral genomes within remains unobserved. We develop PCIP-seq, a method that leverages long reads to identify insertion sites and sequence their associated viral genome. We apply the technique to exogenous retroviruses HTLV-1, BLV, and HIV-1, endogenous retroviruses, and human papillomavirus.

3.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012811

RESUMO

While current antiretroviral therapies are able to halt HIV-1 progression, they are not curative, as an interruption of treatment usually leads to viral rebound. The persistence of this stable HIV-1 latent reservoir forms the major barrier in HIV-1 cure research. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind reservoir persistence resulted in the development of several novel assays allowing to perform an extensive in-depth characterization. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current state-of-the-art PCR-based technologies to study the replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir. Here, we outline the advantages, limitations, and clinical relevance of different approaches. Future HIV-1 eradication studies would benefit from information-rich, high-throughput assays as they provide a more efficient and standardized way of characterizing the persisting HIV-1 reservoir.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Latência Viral , Animais , Genoma Viral , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Carga Viral/métodos , Replicação Viral
4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(2): e25453, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Viral remission after analytical treatment interruption (ATI), termed post-treatment control, has been described in a small proportion of HIV-positive patients. This phenomenon has been separately associated to both low levels of HIV-1 proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA. We investigated whether the combination of both parameters could help predict delayed viral rebound after treatment interruption (TI). METHODS: We conducted an open single-arm ATI study in four Belgian HIV reference centres from January 2016 to July 2018. Eligible participants were adults who had fewer than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL for more than two years, more than 500 CD4 cells/µL for more than three months, and were in general good health. Consenting participants who had fewer than 66 copies total HIV-1 DNA (t-DNA) and fewer than 10 copies cell-associated HIV-1 unspliced RNA (US-RNA) per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), interrupted therapy and were monitored closely. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was resumed after two consecutive viral loads exceeding 1000 copies or one exceeding 10,000 copies/mL. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with fewer than 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL 48 weeks after TI. Secondary outcomes were time to viral rebound, the frequency of serious adverse events (AEs) and evolution of t-DNA and US-RNA after TI. RESULTS: All 16 consenting participants who interrupted therapy experienced rapid viral rebound two to eight weeks after TI. No serious AEs were observed. Levels of t-DNA and US-RNA increased after TI but returned to pre-ATI levels after treatment restart. None of the studied demographic, clinical and biological parameters were predictive of time of viral rebound. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of low levels of t-DNA and US-RNA in PBMCs, corresponding respectively to a small and transcriptionally silent viral reservoir, is not predictive of viral remission after TI in patients on ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Transcrição Genética , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
5.
J Virus Erad ; 5(1): 10-22, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800421

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess the safety and tolerability as well as antiretroviral impact of ABX464, an oral investigational drug with a novel mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02735863). Methods: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase IIa study in individuals living with HIV-1 on antiretroviral therapy at six clinical centres in Spain, France and Belgium. ABX464 was administered once a day to 22 fully controlled HIV-1-positive participants at two doses (50 mg, n=6 and 150 mg, n=16) versus placebo, which was given to eight participants for 28 days in combination with a boosted protease inhibitor (darunavir/ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat). The primary objective of the study was to assess ABX464 safety and tolerability when used in combination with darunavir boosted therapy. The secondary objective was to study antiretroviral efficacy on viral reservoirs using time to viral rebound following treatment interruption. The impact of ABX464 on HIV-1 reservoirs was further assessed by measuring levels of total HIV-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the intervention arm versus placebo. A positive response was defined as an absolute reduction in HIV-1 DNA of at least 50 copies/106 PBMCs and a relative decrease >25% of HIV-1 DNA level. Results: Twenty-six of the 30 randomly allocated participants completed the study according to the study protocol. ABX464 was found to be safe and well tolerated with the majority of adverse events (AEs) being mild or moderate. Of the participants, 22 (73.3%) experienced treatment-associated AEs (93.8%, 66.7%, 37.5% in the ABX464 150-mg, 50-mg dose and placebo arms, respectively). Percentages for combined grade 3/4 AEs for the three arms were 6.3%, 0% and 12.5%, respectively. Median time (Kaplan-Meier estimates) to viral rebound for ABX464 150-mg, 50-mg and placebo arms were 12.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10-15), 15.5 (95% CI 14-22) and 15.5 (95% CI 1-22) days, respectively with no significant difference between the 150-mg treatment arm and placebo. Median changes in total HIV-1 DNA copies/106 PBMCs for ABX464 150-mg, 50-mg and placebo arms after 28 days of treatment were -40 (range -434 to +194), -115 (range -116 to -114) and 25 (range -35 to +218), respectively, showing a decrease in the intervention arms. There were 6/14, 2/2, and 0/4 responders for ABX464 150 mg, 50 mg and placebo, respectively. No significant difference was seen between treatment arms and placebo with respect to these virological parameters. Conclusions: This small controlled study confirmed the good safety and tolerability of ABX464 and provides some evidence of a potential reduction of the HIV-1 reservoir in terms of HIV-1 DNA levels in PBMCs when it was added to an HIV-1 protease inhibitor-based regimen. These results will need to be confirmed in a larger study.

6.
J Virus Erad ; 4(1): 55-58, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568556

RESUMO

For the second time, the HIV Cure Research Center (HCRC) at Ghent University organised the HIV Cure and Reservoir Symposium, in Ghent, Belgium, where in this two-day conference, virologists, molecular biologists, immunologists and clinicians presented the most recent achievements in the field of HIV cure, including data on therapeutic vaccines, HIV remission strategies such as 'shock and kill' or 'block and lock', benefits of early ART and potential of haematopoietic stem cell transplant in achieving cure. Furthermore, methods to characterise and quantify the HIV reservoir were discussed along with HIV reservoir characterisation in different body parts, including the central nervous system. An HIV activist and representative of a patients' agency also presented the patients' perspective on HIV cure. This report is a summary of all topics discussed during this symposium.

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