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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721432

RESUMO

CHD8 has been reported as an autism susceptibility/intellectual disability gene but emerging evidence suggests that it additionally causes an overgrowth phenotype. This study reports 27 unrelated patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CHD8 variants (25 null variants, two missense variants) and a male:female ratio of 21:6 (3.5:1, p < .01). All patients presented with intellectual disability, with 85% in the mild or moderate range, and 85% had a height and/or head circumference ≥2 standard deviations above the mean, meeting our clinical criteria for overgrowth. Behavioral problems were reported in the majority of patients (78%), with over half (56%) either formally diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder or described as having autistic traits. Additional clinical features included neonatal hypotonia (33%), and less frequently seizures, pes planus, scoliosis, fifth finger clinodactyly, umbilical hernia, and glabellar hemangioma (≤15% each). These results suggest that, in addition to its established link with autism and intellectual disability, CHD8 causes an overgrowth phenotype, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with increased height and/or head circumference in association with intellectual disability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714006

RESUMO

BRWD3 has been described as a cause of X-linked intellectual disability, but relatively little is known about the specific phenotype. We report the largest BRWD3 patient series to date, comprising 17 males with 12 distinct null variants and 2 partial gene deletions. All patients presented with intellectual disability, which was classified as moderate (65%) or mild (35%). Behavioral issues were present in 75% of patients, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit/hyperactivity and/or autistic spectrum disorders. Mean head circumference was +2.8 SD (2.8 standard deviations above the mean), and mean BMI was +2.0 SD (in the context of a mean height of +1.3 SD), indicating a predominant macrocephaly/obesity phenotype. Shared facial features included a tall chin, prognathism, broad forehead, and prominent supraorbital ridge. Additional features, reported in a minority (<30%) of patients included cryptorchidism, neonatal hypotonia, and small joint hypermobility. This study delineates the clinical features associated with BRWD3 null variants and partial gene deletions, and suggests that BRWD3 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) phenotype, particularly in male patients with a mild or moderate intellectual disability associated with macrocephaly and/or obesity.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144222

RESUMO

The present study describes the development and initial validation of a newly developed measure of child and caregiver knowledge of the child's own IBD and treatment, called IBD KNOW-IT. One hundred and fifty-five children and their caregivers completed the IBD KNOW-IT as well as a scale designed to compare each dyad's perceived knowledge to their actual knowledge. Initial psychometric evaluation of IBD KNOW-IT was completed by conducting factor analysis and determining internal consistency, convergent validity, and associations with demographic and medical characteristics. Results supported the validity of a 12-item measure with 4 subscales including Symptoms, Medication Regimen, Disease Monitoring, and Medical Team. Support for the internal consistency of IBD KNOW-IT was obtained. Evidence of validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between child and caregiver scales, and high congruence between perceived and actual knowledge across all subscales. The reliability of the measure was demonstrated by good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Preliminary psychometric evaluation suggests that IBD KNOW-IT is reliable and valid.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4304-4318, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132118

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Kisspeptin-neurokinin B (NKB)-dynorphin neurons are critical regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. NKB and dynorphin are hypothesized to influence the frequency of GnRH pulses, whereas kisspeptin is hypothesized to be a generator of the GnRH pulse. How these neuropeptides interact remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To probe the role of NKB in GnRH pulse generation and to determine the interactions between NKB, kisspeptin, and dynorphin in humans and mice with a complete absence of NKB. DESIGN: Case/control. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Members of a consanguineous family bearing biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding NKB and NKB-deficient mice. INTERVENTIONS: Frequent blood sampling to characterize neuroendocrine profile and administration of kisspeptin, GnRH, and naloxone, a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist used to block dynorphin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LH pulse characteristics. RESULTS: Humans lacking NKB demonstrate slow LH pulse frequency, which can be increased by opioid antagonism. Mice lacking NKB also demonstrate impaired LH secretion, which can be augmented with an identical pharmacologic manipulation. Both mice and humans with NKB deficiency respond to exogenous kisspeptin. CONCLUSION: The preservation of LH pulses in the absence of NKB and dynorphin signaling suggests that both peptides are dispensable for GnRH pulse generation and kisspeptin responsiveness. However, NKB and dynorphin appear to have opposing roles in the modulation of GnRH pulse frequency.

7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 322-331, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumour is the most common childhood renal cancer and is genetically heterogeneous. While several Wilms tumour predisposition genes have been identified, there is strong evidence that further predisposition genes are likely to exist. Our study aim was to identify new predisposition genes for Wilms tumour. METHODS: In this exome sequencing study, we analysed lymphocyte DNA from 890 individuals with Wilms tumour, including 91 affected individuals from 49 familial Wilms tumour pedigrees. We used the protein-truncating variant prioritisation method to prioritise potential disease-associated genes for further assessment. We evaluated new predisposition genes in exome sequencing data that we generated in 334 individuals with 27 other childhood cancers and in exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas obtained from 7632 individuals with 28 adult cancers. FINDINGS: We identified constitutional cancer-predisposing mutations in 33 individuals with childhood cancer. The three identified genes with the strongest signal in the protein-truncating variant prioritisation analyses were TRIM28, FBXW7, and NYNRIN. 21 of 33 individuals had a mutation in TRIM28; there was a strong parent-of-origin effect, with all ten inherited mutations being maternally transmitted (p=0·00098). We also found a strong association with the rare epithelial subtype of Wilms tumour, with 14 of 16 tumours being epithelial or epithelial predominant. There were no TRIM28 mutations in individuals with other childhood or adult cancers. We identified truncating FBXW7 mutations in four individuals with Wilms tumour and a de-novo non-synonymous FBXW7 mutation in a child with a rhabdoid tumour. Biallelic truncating mutations in NYNRIN were identified in three individuals with Wilms tumour, which is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0·0001). Finally, we identified two de-novo KDM3B mutations, supporting the role of KDM3B as a childhood cancer predisposition gene. INTERPRETATION: The four new Wilms tumour predisposition genes identified-TRIM28, FBXW7, NYNRIN, and KDM3B-are involved in diverse biological processes and, together with the other 17 known Wilms tumour predisposition genes, account for about 10% of Wilms tumour cases. The overlap between these 21 constitutionally mutated predisposition genes and 20 genes somatically mutated in Wilms tumour is limited, consisting of only four genes. We recommend that all individuals with Wilms tumour should be offered genetic testing and particularly, those with epithelial Wilms tumour should be offered TRIM28 genetic testing. Only a third of the familial Wilms tumour clusters we analysed were attributable to known genes, indicating that further Wilms tumour predisposition factors await discovery. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 588-594, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793471

RESUMO

Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are characterized by increased growth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) in association with an intellectual disability. Constitutive EED variants have previously been reported in five individuals with an OGID syndrome, eponymously designated Cohen-Gibson syndrome and resembling Weaver syndrome. Here, we report three additional individuals with constitutive EED variants, identified through exome sequencing of an OGID patient series. We compare the EED phenotype with that of Weaver syndrome (56 individuals), caused by constitutive EZH2 variants. We conclude that while there is considerable overlap between the EED and EZH2 phenotypes with both characteristically associated with increased growth and an intellectual disability, individuals with EED variants more frequently have cardiac problems and cervical spine abnormalities, boys have cryptorchidism and the facial gestalts can usually be distinguished.

9.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745306

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma is the most common eye malignancy in childhood caused by mutations in the RB1 gene. Both alleles of the RB1 gene must be mutated for tumour development. The initial RB1 mutation may be constitutional germline or somatic (originating in one retinal cell only). Distinguishing between these alternative mechanisms is crucial, with wider implications for management of the patient and family members. Bilateral retinoblastoma is nearly always due to a constitutional mutation; however, approximately 15% of unilateral cases also carry a germline mutation, and identifying these cases is important. This can be achieved by identifying both mutation types in tumour tissue and excluding their presence in blood. Modern eye-saving chemotherapy treatment (systemic, intra-arterial and intravitreal) has resulted in fewer enucleations. As a result, tumour tissue required to identify sporadic RB1 mutation(s) is not always available. Modern intravitreal chemotherapeutic techniques for retinoblastoma involve aspiration of aqueous humour (AH), providing a novel sample source for analysis. By analysing cell-free DNA present in the AH fluid of eyes affected with retinoblastoma, we have developed a screening test capable of detecting somatic RB1 mutations that is comparable to current tests on enucleated tumour tissue. The results obtained with fluid from enucleated eyes were concordant with tumour tissue in all 10 cases analysed. In addition, AH analysis from two patients undergoing intravitreal chemotherapy successfully identified somatic variants in both cases. Our findings suggest that AH fluid is a promising source of tumour-derived DNA in retinoblastoma for analysis.

10.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668521

RESUMO

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are a diverse group of conditions where the chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex can be atypical. The highly heterogeneous nature of this group of conditions often makes determining a genetic diagnosis challenging. Prior to next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genetic diagnostic tests were only available for a few of the many DSD associated genes, which consequently had to be tested sequentially. Genetic testing is key in establishing the diagnosis, allowing for personalised management of these patients. Pinpointing the molecular cause of a patient's DSD can significantly impact patient management by informing future development needs, altering management strategies and identifying correct inheritance pattern when counselling family members. We have developed a 30 gene NGS panel, designed to be used as a frontline test for all suspected cases of DSD (both 46,XX and 46,XY cases). We have confirmed a diagnosis in 25 of the 80 patients tested to date. Confirmed diagnoses were linked to mutations in AMH, AMHR2, AR, HSD17B3, HSD3B2, MAMLD1, NR5A1, SRD5A2 and WT1 which have resulted in changes to patient management. The minimum diagnostic yield for patients with 46,XY DSD is 25/73. In 34/80 patients only benign or likely benign variants were identified, and in 21/80 patients only variants of uncertain significance, (VOUS) were identified, resulting in a diagnosis not being confirmed in these individuals. Our data supports previous studies, that an NGS panel approach is a clinically useful and cost effective frontline test for patients with DSDs.

11.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 95, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that complex structural variants (cxSVs) contribute to human genomic variation and can cause Mendelian disease. We aimed to identify cxSVs relevant to Mendelian disease using short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS), resolve the precise variant configuration and investigate possible mechanisms of cxSV formation. METHODS: We performed short-read WGS and analysis of breakpoint junctions to identify cxSVs in a cohort of 1324 undiagnosed rare disease patients. Long-read WGS and gene expression analysis were used to resolve one case. RESULTS: We identified three pathogenic cxSVs: a de novo duplication-inversion-inversion-deletion affecting ARID1B, a de novo deletion-inversion-duplication affecting HNRNPU and a homozygous deletion-inversion-deletion affecting CEP78. Additionally, a de novo duplication-inversion-duplication overlapping CDKL5 was resolved by long-read WGS demonstrating the presence of both a disrupted and an intact copy of CDKL5 on the same allele, and gene expression analysis showed both parental alleles of CDKL5 were expressed. Breakpoint analysis in all the cxSVs revealed both microhomology and longer repetitive elements. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate that cxSVs cause Mendelian disease, and we recommend their consideration during clinical investigations. We show that resolution of breakpoints can be critical to interpret pathogenicity and present evidence of replication-based mechanisms in cxSV formation.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461124

RESUMO

The epithelial cell adhesion molecule gene (EPCAM, previously known as TACSTD1 or TROP1) encodes a membrane-bound protein that is localized to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells and is overexpressed in some tumors. Biallelic mutations in EPCAM cause congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), which is a rare chronic diarrheal disorder presenting in infancy. Monoallelic deletions of the 3' end of EPCAM that silence the downstream gene, MSH2, cause a form of Lynch syndrome, which is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with loss of DNA mismatch repair. Here, we report 13 novel EPCAM mutations from 17 CTE patients from two separate centers, review EPCAM mutations associated with CTE and Lynch syndrome, and structurally model pathogenic missense mutations. Statistical analyses indicate that the c.499dupC (previously reported as c.498insC) frameshift mutation was associated with more severe treatment regimens and greater mortality in CTE, whereas the c.556-14A>G and c.491+1G>A splice site mutations were not correlated with treatments or outcomes significantly different than random simulation. These findings suggest that genotype-phenotype correlations may be useful in contributing to management decisions of CTE patients. Depending on the type and nature of EPCAM mutation, one of two unrelated diseases may occur, CTE or Lynch syndrome.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

15.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 384-394, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. 876 patients (401 previously reported) had a germline mutation in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD (n=673/43/160). Tumour risks were correlated with in silico structural prediction analyses. RESULTS: Tumour risks analysis provided novel penetrance estimates and genotype-phenotype correlations. In addition to tumour type susceptibility differences for individual genes, we confirmed that the SDHD:p.Pro81Leu mutation has a distinct phenotype and identified increased age-related tumour risks with highly destabilising SDHB missense mutations. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the penetrance (cumulative risk of clinically apparent tumours) in SDHB and (paternally inherited) SDHD mutation-positive non-probands (n=371/67 with detailed clinical information) by age 60 years was 21.8% (95% CI 15.2% to 27.9%) and 43.2% (95% CI 25.4% to 56.7%), respectively. Risk of malignant disease at age 60 years in non-proband SDHB mutation carriers was 4.2%(95% CI 1.1% to 7.2%). With retrospective cohort analysis to adjust for ascertainment, cumulative tumour risks for SDHB mutation carriers at ages 60 years and 80 years were 23.9% (95% CI 20.9% to 27.4%) and 30.6% (95% CI 26.8% to 34.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall risks of clinically apparent tumours for SDHB mutation carriers are substantially lower than initially estimated and will improve counselling of affected families. Specific genotype-tumour risk associations provides a basis for novel investigative strategies into succinate dehydrogenase-related mechanisms of tumourigenesis and the development of personalised management for SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers.

16.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 14(4): 229-249, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377879

RESUMO

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), a human genomic imprinting disorder, is characterized by phenotypic variability that might include overgrowth, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycaemia, lateralized overgrowth and predisposition to embryonal tumours. Delineation of the molecular defects within the imprinted 11p15.5 region can predict familial recurrence risks and the risk (and type) of embryonal tumour. Despite recent advances in knowledge, there is marked heterogeneity in clinical diagnostic criteria and care. As detailed in this Consensus Statement, an international consensus group agreed upon 72 recommendations for the clinical and molecular diagnosis and management of BWS, including comprehensive protocols for the molecular investigation, care and treatment of patients from the prenatal period to adulthood. The consensus recommendations apply to patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann spectrum (BWSp), covering classical BWS without a molecular diagnosis and BWS-related phenotypes with an 11p15.5 molecular anomaly. Although the consensus group recommends a tumour surveillance programme targeted by molecular subgroups, surveillance might differ according to the local health-care system (for example, in the United States), and the results of targeted and universal surveillance should be evaluated prospectively. International collaboration, including a prospective audit of the results of implementing these consensus recommendations, is required to expand the evidence base for the design of optimum care pathways.

17.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Termodinâmica
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 9(10): 1379-1397, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754744

RESUMO

Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic form of isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency caused by mutations in > 30 genes. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is the most frequently mutated gene in CHH and is implicated in GnRH neuron development and maintenance. We note that a CHH FGFR1 mutation (p.L342S) decreases signaling of the metabolic regulator FGF21 by impairing the association of FGFR1 with ß-Klotho (KLB), the obligate co-receptor for FGF21. We thus hypothesized that the metabolic FGF21/KLB/FGFR1 pathway is involved in CHH Genetic screening of 334 CHH patients identified seven heterozygous loss-of-function KLB mutations in 13 patients (4%). Most patients with KLB mutations (9/13) exhibited metabolic defects. In mice, lack of Klb led to delayed puberty, altered estrous cyclicity, and subfertility due to a hypothalamic defect associated with inability of GnRH neurons to release GnRH in response to FGF21. Peripheral FGF21 administration could indeed reach GnRH neurons through circumventricular organs in the hypothalamus. We conclude that FGF21/KLB/FGFR1 signaling plays an essential role in GnRH biology, potentially linking metabolism with reproduction.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Kallmann/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cercopithecus aethiops , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(5): 725-736, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475857

RESUMO

To explore the genetic architecture of human overgrowth syndromes and human growth control, we performed experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 710 individuals with overgrowth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) and intellectual disability (OGID). We identified a causal mutation in 1 of 14 genes in 50% (353/710). This includes HIST1H1E, encoding histone H1.4, which has not been associated with a developmental disorder previously. The pathogenic HIST1H1E mutations are predicted to result in a product that is less effective in neutralizing negatively charged linker DNA because it has a reduced net charge, and in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions because key residues are truncated. Functional network analyses demonstrated that epigenetic regulation is a prominent biological process dysregulated in individuals with OGID. Mutations in six epigenetic regulation genes-NSD1, EZH2, DNMT3A, CHD8, HIST1H1E, and EED-accounted for 44% of individuals (311/710). There was significant overlap between the 14 genes involved in OGID and 611 genes in regions identified in GWASs to be associated with height (p = 6.84 × 10-8), suggesting that a common variation impacting function of genes involved in OGID influences height at a population level. Increased cellular growth is a hallmark of cancer and there was striking overlap between the genes involved in OGID and 260 somatically mutated cancer driver genes (p = 1.75 × 10-14). However, the mutation spectra of genes involved in OGID and cancer differ, suggesting complex genotype-phenotype relationships. These data reveal insights into the genetic control of human growth and demonstrate that exome sequencing in OGID has a high diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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