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2.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recurrent genomic alterations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have been associated with treatment outcomes; however, current preoperative predictive models do not include known genetic predictors. We aimed to explore the value of common somatic mutations in the preoperative prediction of metastatic disease among patients treated for localized ccRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining institutional review board approval, data of 254 patients with localized ccRCC treated between 2005 and 2015 who underwent genetic sequencing was collected. The mutation status of VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1 and KDM5C were evaluated in the nephrectomy tumor specimen, which served as a proxy for biopsy mutation status. The Raj et al. preoperative nomogram was used to predict the 12-year metastatic free probability (MFP). The study outcome was MFP; the relationship between MFP and mutation status was evaluated with Cox-regression models adjusting for the preoperative nomogram variables (age, gender, incidental presentation, lymphadenopathy, necrosis, and size). RESULTS: The study cohort included 188 males (74%) and 66 females (26%) with a median age of 58 years. VHL mutations were present in 152/254 patients (60%), PBRM1 in 91/254 (36%), SETD2 in 32/254 (13%), BAP1 in 19/254 (8%), and KDM5C in 19/254 (8%). Median follow-up for survivors was 8.1 years. Estimated 12-year MFP was 70% (95% CI: 63%-75%). On univariable analysis SETD2 (HR: 3.30), BAP1 (HR: 2.44) and PBRM1 (HR: 1.78) were significantly associated with a higher risk of metastases. After adjusting for known preoperative predictors in the existing nomogram, SETD2 mutations remained associated with a higher rate of metastases after nephrectomy (HR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.19-3.67, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: In the current exploratory analysis, SETD2 mutations were significant predictors of MFP among patients treated for localized ccRCC. Our findings support future studies evaluating genetic alterations in preoperative renal biopsy samples as potential predictors of treatment outcome.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5063, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417466

RESUMO

Depression is a common mental disorder. The standard medical treatment is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). All characterized SSRIs are competitive inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT). A non-competitive inhibitor may produce a more favorable therapeutic profile. Vilazodone is an antidepressant with limited information on its molecular interactions with SERT. Here we use molecular pharmacology and cryo-EM structural elucidation to characterize vilazodone binding to SERT. We find that it exhibits non-competitive inhibition of serotonin uptake and impedes dissociation of [3H]imipramine at low nanomolar concentrations. Our SERT structure with bound imipramine and vilazodone reveals a unique binding pocket for vilazodone, expanding the boundaries of the extracellular vestibule. Characterization of the binding site is substantiated with molecular dynamics simulations and systematic mutagenesis of interacting residues resulting in decreased vilazodone binding to the allosteric site. Our findings underline the versatility of SERT allosteric ligands and describe the unique binding characteristics of vilazodone.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/ultraestrutura
4.
Cancer ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic responses to cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are variable and difficult to anticipate. The authors aimed to determine the association of CN with modifiable International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk factors and oncological outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive patients with mRCC referred for potential CN (2009-2019) were reviewed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS); variables of interest included undergoing CN and the baseline number of modifiable IMDC risk factors (anemia, hypercalcemia, neutrophilia, thrombocytosis, and reduced performance status). For operative cases, the authors evaluated the effects of IMDC risk factor dynamics, measured 6 weeks and 6 months after CN, on OS and postoperative treatment disposition. RESULTS: Of 245 treatment-naive patients with mRCC referred for CN, 177 (72%) proceeded to surgery. The CN cases had fewer modifiable IMDC risk factors (P = .003), including none in 71 of 177 patients (40.1%); fewer metastases (P = .011); and higher proportions of clear cell histology (P = .012). In a multivariable analysis, surgical selection, number of IMDC risk factors, metastatic focality, and histology were associated with OS. Total risk factors changed for 53.8% and 57.2% of the patients from the preoperative period to 6 weeks and 6 months after CN, respectively. Adjusted for preoperative IMDC risk scores, an increase in IMDC risk factors at 6 weeks and 6 months was associated with adverse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.19; P = .007; HR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.74-3.65; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: IMDC risk factors are dynamic clinical variables that can improve after upfront CN in select patients, and this suggests a systemic benefit of cytoreduction, which may confer clinically meaningful prognostic implications.

5.
BJU Int ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intraoperative anaesthetic parameters, primarily intraoperative hypotension, and postoperative renal function in patients undergoing nephrectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from 3240 consecutive patients who underwent nephrectomy between 2010 and 2018. Anaesthetic parameters evaluated included duration of hypotension, tachycardia, hypothermia, volatile anaesthetic use and mean arterial pressure in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Outcomes included acute kidney injury (AKI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within the first year after nephrectomy. Associations between anaesthetic parameters and outcomes were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and generalised estimating equation, respectively, adjusted for predictors of renal function after nephrectomy. RESULTS: Before nephrectomy, 677 (21%) patients had moderate-severe chronic kidney disease. A quarter of patients (n = 809) had postoperative AKI and 35% (n = 746) had Stage ≥3 chronic kidney disease 12-months after surgery. Only 12% of patients (n = 386) had >5 min of intraoperative hypotension. While not statistically significant, longer duration of intraoperative hypotension was associated with slightly higher rates of AKI (odds ratio [OR] per 10-min 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98, 1.32). Prolonged hypothermia was associated with increased rate of AKI (OR per 10-min 1.02, 95% CI 1.00, 1.04), and decreased eGFR (change in eGFR per 10-min -0.19, 95% CI -0.27, -0.12); however, these results have limited clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Under current practice, intraoperative anaesthetic parameters are tightly maintained, restricting the significance of their effect on postoperative renal function. Future studies should evaluate whether haemodynamic parameters during the early postoperative period, when they are monitored less frequently, are associated with renal functional outcome.

6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) is a nonsurgical tumor ablation approach used to treat early-stage prostate cancer and may also be effective for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) based on preclinical data. Toward increasing response rates to VTP, we evaluated its efficacy in combination with concurrent PD-1 inhibitor/OX40 agonist immunotherapy in a urothelial tumor-bearing model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In mice allografted with MB-49 UTUC cells, we compared the effects of combined VTP with PD-1 inhibitor/OX40 agonist with those of the component treatments on tumor growth, survival, lung metastasis, and antitumor immune responses. RESULTS: The combination of VTP with both PD-1 inhibitor and OX40 agonist inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival to a greater degree than VTP with either immunotherapeutic individually. These effects result from increased tumor infiltration and intratumoral proliferation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, depletion of Treg cells, and suppression of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that VTP synergizes with PD-1 blockade and OX40 agonist to promote strong antitumor immune responses, yielding therapeutic efficacy in an animal model of urothelial cancer.


Assuntos
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/agonistas , Receptores OX40/agonistas , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urológicas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
7.
Urology ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the safety and efficacy of partial nephrectomy (PN) in comparison to radical nephrectomy (RN) for surgically managed renal hilar tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed institutional records of patients with a small (<5 cm) solitary renal (hilar or non-hilar) mass who underwent PN or RN between 2008 and 2018. Hilar tumors were defined as those at medial position, abutting the renal vessels. Recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of 1,951 eligible patients, 399 had hilar tumors (292 scheduled for PN, 107 RN) and 1,552 had non-hilar tumors (scheduled for PN). We found no significant differences in survival measures between hilar and non-hilar tumors in patients selected for PN. Patients scheduled for PN for hilar tumors had higher rates of ≥grade II postoperative surgical complications compared to patients scheduled to receive PN for non-hilar tumors (13% vs 8.6%; log-rank P = .018) and non-statistically significantly elevated rates of ≥grade II complications compared to patients scheduled for RN for hilar tumors (13% vs 6.5%; difference 6%, 95% CI 0.4%, 13%; log-rank P = .07). CONCLUSION: PN for hilar and non-hilar renal masses (<5cm) experience comparable oncologic outcomes though increased risk of complications for hilar masses. PN for hilar tumors was associated with better renal function and overall survival with non-statistically elevated risk of grade II or higher complications than RN. A renal tumor located at the hilum should not be a contra-indication for performing PN.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100863, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118233

RESUMO

The serotonin transporter (SERT) shapes serotonergic neurotransmission by retrieving its eponymous substrate from the synaptic cleft. Ligands that discriminate between SERT and its close relative, the dopamine transporter DAT, differ in their association rate constant rather than their dissociation rate. The structural basis for this phenomenon is not known. Here we examined the hypothesis that the extracellular loops 2 (EL2) and 4 (EL4) limit access to the ligand-binding site of SERT. We employed an antibody directed against EL4 (residues 388-400) and the antibody fragments 8B6 scFv (directed against EL2 and EL4) and 15B8 Fab (directed against EL2) and analyzed their effects on the transport cycle of and inhibitor binding to SERT. Electrophysiological recordings showed that the EL4 antibody and 8B6 scFv impeded the initial substrate-induced transition from the outward to the inward-facing conformation but not the forward cycling mode of SERT. In contrast, binding of radiolabeled inhibitors to SERT was enhanced by either EL4- or EL2-directed antibodies. We confirmed this observation by determining the association and dissociation rate of the DAT-selective inhibitor methylphenidate via electrophysiological recordings; occupancy of EL2 with 15B8 Fab enhanced the affinity of SERT for methylphenidate by accelerating its binding. Based on these observations, we conclude that (i) EL4 undergoes a major movement during the transition from the outward to the inward-facing state, and (ii) EL2 and EL4 limit access of inhibitors to the binding of SERT, thus acting as a selectivity filter. This insight has repercussions for drug development.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/ultraestrutura , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Serotonina/química , Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/química
9.
Cancer Cell ; 39(6): 793-809.e8, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129823

RESUMO

Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is one of the common urothelial cancers. Its molecular pathogenesis, however, is poorly understood, with no useful biomarkers available for accurate diagnosis and molecular classification. Through an integrated genetic study involving 199 UTUC samples, we delineate the landscape of genetic alterations in UTUC enabling genetic/molecular classification. According to the mutational status of TP53, MDM2, RAS, and FGFR3, UTUC is classified into five subtypes having discrete profiles of gene expression, tumor location/histology, and clinical outcome, which is largely recapitulated in an independent UTUC cohort. Sequencing of urine sediment-derived DNA has a high diagnostic value for UTUC with 82.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results provide a solid basis for better diagnosis and management of UTUC.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4842, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649388

RESUMO

Locally advanced urothelial cancer has high recurrence and progression rates following surgical treatment. This highlights the need to develop neoadjuvant strategies that are both effective and well-tolerated. We hypothesized that neoadjuvant sub-ablative vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (sbVTP), through its immunotherapeutic mechanism, would improve survival and reduce recurrence and progression in a murine model of urothelial cancer. After urothelial tumor implantation and 17 days before surgical resection, mice received neoadjuvant sbVTP (WST11; Tookad Soluble, Steba Biotech, France). Local and systemic response and survival served as measures of therapeutic efficacy, while immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry elucidated the immunotherapeutic mechanism. Data analysis included two-sided Kaplan-Meier, Mann-Whitney, and Fischer exact tests. Tumor volume was significantly smaller in sbVTP-treated animals than in controls (135 mm3 vs. 1222 mm3, P < 0.0001) on the day of surgery. Systemic progression was significantly lower in sbVTP-treated animals (l7% vs. 30%, P < 0.01). Both median progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly greater among animals that received sbVTP and surgery than among animals that received surgery alone (P < 0.05). Neoadjuvant-treated animals also demonstrated significantly lower local recurrence. Neoadjuvant sbVTP was associated with increased early antigen-presenting cells, and subsequent improvements in long-term memory and increases in effector and active T-cells in the spleen, lungs, and blood. In summary, neoadjuvant sbVTP delayed local and systemic progression, prolonged progression-free and overall survival, and reduced local recurrence, thereby demonstrating therapeutic efficacy through an immune-mediated response. These findings strongly support its evaluation in clinical trials.

11.
World J Urol ; 39(9): 3359-3365, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) benefits a subset of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), however proper patient selection remains complex and controversial. We aim to characterize urologists' reasons for not undertaking a CN at a quaternary cancer center. METHODS: Consecutive patients with mRCC referred to MSKCC urologists for consideration of CN between 2009 and 2019 were included. Baseline clinicopathologic characteristics were used to compare patients selected or rejected for CN. The reasons cited for not operating and the alternative management strategies recommended were extrapolated. Using an iterative thematic analysis, a framework of reasons for rejecting CN was designed. Kaplan-Meier estimates tested for associations between the reasons for not undertaking a CN and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 297 patients with biopsy-proven mRCC, 217 (73%) underwent CN and 80 (27%) did not. Median follow-up of patients alive at data cut-off was 27.3 months. Non-operative patients were older (p = 0.014), had more sites of metastases (p = 0.008), harbored non-clear cell histology (p = 0.014) and reduced performance status (p < 0.001). The framework comprised seven distinct themes for recommending non-operative management: two patient-fitness considerations and five oncological considerations. These considerations were associated with OS; four of the oncological factors conferred a median OS of less than 12 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We developed a framework of criteria by which patients were deemed unsuitable candidates for CN. These new insights provide a novel perspective on surgical selection, could potentially be applicable to other malignancies and possibly have prognostic implications.

12.
Urology ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of photoselective vaporization of the prostate in alleviating refractory lower urinary tract symptoms in prostate cancer patients who are managed with active surveillance and to explore the association of this procedure with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and cancer progression rates. METHODS: Between 2008-2018, active surveillance patients who had refractory symptoms and needed surgery were studied. Perioperative functional variables were collected and analyzed. Disease progression was defined as an upgrade or upstage on surveillance biopsies or multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging. Mean postop scores were estimated using locally-weighted methods. The risk of progression was reported using Kaplan-Meier's method. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were included in the study. The median age was 68 years and the median surveillance time before surgery was 4 years. At 12 months, there were substantial improvements in the mean International Prostate Symptom Score (18-5.9), maximum flow rate (6.8-14 mL/s), postvoid residual (240-73mL), PSA (8.1-5.2 ng/mL), and prostate volume (85-57mL). At 30-days, only 2 patients with grade-III complications. Late consequences included tissue regrowth in 4 and urethral stricture (requiring a single dilation) in 3 patients. PSA levels decreased by 36% at 12 months postoperatively. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 7 men progressed and received radical treatment. At 3 years, the probability of remaining on surveillance was 93% (95% CI 87%- 100%). CONCLUSION: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate offers substantial relief of symptoms in active surveillance patients with refractory symptoms, without adverse effects on disease progression rates.

13.
Urol Oncol ; 39(8): 495.e17-495.e24, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvage partial gland ablation (sPGA) has been proposed to treat some localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer. The role of prostate biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to identify patients eligible for sPGA is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of MRI and prostate biopsy characteristics to identify an index lesion suitable for sPGA and validate this selection using detailed tumor maps created from whole-mount slides from salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) specimens. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men who underwent sRP for recurrent prostate cancer following primary radiotherapy with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy between 2000 and 2014 at a single high-volume cancer center were eligible. Those with tumor maps, MRI and biopsy data were included in analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary outcome was the ability of clinicopathologic and imaging criteria to identify patients who may be eligible for sPGA based on detailed tumor map from whole-mount sRP slides. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 216 men who underwent sRP following whole gland radiotherapy, tumor maps, MRI, and biopsy data were available for 77. Of these, 15 (19%) were determined to be eligible for sPGA based on biopsy-proven unilateral disease in contiguous sextant segments, a dominant lesion on MRI concordant with biopsy location or no focal region of interest, and no imaging evidence of extraprostatic disease. Review of tumor maps identified 6 additional men who would have met criteria for sPGA, resulting in sensitivity of 71% (95% C.I. 48%-89%) and specificity of 100% (lower bound of 95% C.I. 94%). None of the 15 men who met the criteria for sPGA on clinical data were identified incorrectly on tumor maps to require full gland surgery (upper bound of 95% C.I. 22%). Median tumor volume of the index lesion was 0.4 cc and recurrent cancer was noted in the apex, mid-gland, and base in 81%, 100%, and 29% of men. CONCLUSIONS: In men with recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy, biopsy findings and MRI can be used to select index lesions potentially amenable for sPGA and can guide patient evaluation for inclusion in clinical trials of sPGA following radiation failure. Larger, prospective studies are required to evaluate both the role of MRI and clinical criteria in guiding focal salvage therapy and the effectiveness of this modality for radiorecurrent prostate cancer.

14.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(2): 472-478, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the efficacy of focal therapy for prostate cancer is limited by current approaches and may be improved with biological imaging techniques. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether positron emission tomography/computed tomography with gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA PET/CT) can be used to predict relapse after vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1×106 LNCaP cells were grafted subcutaneously in the flanks of 6-8-wk-old SCID mice. Of 24 mice with measurable tumors 6 wk after tumor implantation, 20 were treated with VTP (150mW/cm2) to ablate the tumors. Blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were assessed, and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images were performed 1 d before VTP and 1 and 4 wk after. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Local tumor relapse was evaluated by histology, and tumors were analyzed by prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and PSA immunohistochemistry. T tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine significance. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Four weeks after VTP, 11 (65%) mice had complete responses and six (35%) had tumor relapses confirmed by histology (hematoxylin and eosin, and PSMA immunohistochemistry). All mice with local relapse had positive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings 4 wk after VTP; all complete responders did not. One week after VTP, the relapse detection sensitivity of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 75%, whereas the sensitivity of PSA was only 33%. Compared with controls, relapsed tumors had a three-fold reduction in the number of cells with strong PSA staining by immunohistochemistry (1.5% vs 4.5%; p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In a preclinical prostate cancer model, we show that 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT can identify and predict relapse earlier than blood PSA level. These findings support further testing in clinical trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen may be used to follow and evaluate treatment outcomes in men who receive focal therapy for prostate cancer.

15.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(2): 381-389, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TCEB1-mutant renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare variant of RCC with clear-cell features. Owing to its unique morphological and molecular features it has recently been proposed as a separate entity. Initial series suggested an indolent, early-stage phenotype. Here we expand our clinical cohort and describe a more detailed genomic analysis looking for potential drivers of aggressiveness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified five new cases in our institutional sequencing cohort, four of whom were found to have high-stage disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV). Twelve previously reported cases were pooled for comparison purposes (Sato, The Cancer Genome Atlas, TRACERx Renal). OUTCOME MEASURES AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used our previously validated pipeline to analyze somatic mutations and copy number alterations (CNAs) in seven tumor samples with available data and estimated the number of cancer cells bearing each somatic mutation. The oncogenic potential of mutations was assessed using OncoKB and two other algorithms. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate differences in genomic markers between stage groups. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All tumors showed biallelic inactivation of the TCEB1 gene according to a combination of somatic mutation and CNA analyses. Mutations were always found in residues involved in hydrophobic interactions with VHL. We found that high-stage tumors had additional oncogenic mutations (median 1, interquartile range [IQR] 1-1 vs 2, IQR 2-2; median difference 1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1-1; p= 0.002) and showed whole-genome doubling events. They also seemed to have a higher burden of somatic CNAs (median fraction CNA genome 0.10, IQR 0.10-0.15 vs 0.63, IQR 0.58-0.68), however, this finding did not reach statistical significance (median difference 0.49, 95% CI 0.33-0.63; p=0.052). CONCLUSIONS: TCEB1-mutant RCC can show variable behavior ranging from very indolent to aggressive. Specific molecular events leading to high genomic instability seem to be associated with aggressiveness. This study expands the clinical spectrum of TCEB1-mutant RCC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We present four cases of aggressive TCEB1-mutant renal cell carcinoma, a rare type of kidney cancer. In-depth analysis of the genomes of these tumors revealed certain abnormalities that might explain this aggressive behavior.

16.
Eur Urol ; 79(4): 468-477, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently described tumor entity. Several questions remain about its epidemiology, molecular features, and clinical behavior. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate clinicopathologic and molecular features of CCPRCC, and compare it with more common kidney cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 89 CCPRCC patients and compared their clinicopathologic features with 1120 localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and 129 type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Nonparametric statistical testing was used to compare relevant features between tumor types. Overall, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and metastasis-free survival estimates were calculated from initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with ipsilateral multifocal disease were explored further. A subset of CCPRCC tumors underwent genomic analysis and were compared with other RCC subtypes. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A higher proportion of female (45% vs 32%) and African-American (19% vs 3%) patients were observed in the CCPRCC cohort than in the ccRCC and pRCC cohorts. CCPRCC tumors also had increased odds of presenting with additional ipsilateral masses (odds ratio [OR]: 4.41 [confidence interval {CI}: 2.34, 8.15], p < 0.001) and bilateral disease (OR: 4.80 [CI: 2.40, 9.59], p < 0.001) compared with ccRCC tumors. On molecular analysis, CCPRCC tumors showed fewer somatic aberrations and a greater degree of mitochondrial DNA depletion. In multifocal CCPRCC tumors, histologic concordance among the different renal cell carcinoma masses was estimated at 44% (7/16), and none of the individuals presenting exclusively with CCPRCC tumors developed metastatic disease after 5 yr. In contrast, multifocal tumors with CCPRCC and other nonconcordant histologies were more likely to experience adverse outcomes (CSS, log rank p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: CCPRCC is characterized by distinct molecular and epidemiologic features that could be used to refine current diagnostic approaches. Although their clinical course is generally indolent, multifocal CCPRCC tumors represent a unique diagnostic challenge. In this context, single-mass biopsies could miss concomitant aggressive disease, with a potential negative impact on patient outcomes. Furthermore, high discordance rates in multifocal CCPRCC tumors have important clinical implications in management. PATIENT SUMMARY: We explored the molecular and clinical features of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) relative to other kidney cancer subtypes. While CCPRCC generally conveys a good prognosis, additional caution should be taken when it is diagnosed using biopsy if multiple kidney masses are present.

17.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(2): 167-175, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358149

RESUMO

Close to 74,000 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are diagnosed each year in the United States. The past 2 decades have shown great developments in surgical techniques, targeted therapy and immunotherapy agents, and longer complete response rates. However, without a global cure, there is still room for further advancement in improving patient care in this space. To address some of the gaps restricting this progress, the Kidney Cancer Association brought together a group of 27 specialists across the areas of clinical care, research, industry, and advocacy at the inaugural "Think Tank: Coalition for a Cure" session. Topics addressed included screening, imaging, rarer RCC subtypes, combination drug therapy options, and patient response. This commentary summarizes the discussion of these topics and their respective clinical challenges, along with a proposal of projects for collaboration in overcoming those needs and making a greater impact on care for patients with RCC moving forward.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Estados Unidos
18.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228126

RESUMO

With improved understanding of cancer biology and technical advancements in non-invasive management of urological malignancies, there is renewed interest in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a means of focal cancer treatment. The application of PDT has also broadened as a result of development of better-tolerated and more effective photosensitizers. Vascular-targeted PDT (VTP) using padeliporfin, which is a water-soluble chlorophyll derivative, allows for tumor-specific cytotoxicity and has demonstrated efficacy in the management of urologic malignancies. Herein, we describe the evolution of photodynamic therapy in urologic oncology and the role of VTP in emerging treatment paradigms.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Neoplasias Urológicas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Urol Oncol ; 38(11): 853.e1-853.e7, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preoperative models, based on patient and tumor characteristics, predict risk for adverse outcomes after nephrectomy. Changes in renal tumor characteristics over the last decades, warrant further evaluation using contemporary cohorts. We aimed to validate a previously published preoperative nomogram predicting 12-year metastasis-free probability after nephrectomy for localized renal tumors in a contemporary cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After obtaining institutional review board approval, data of 1,760 patients who underwent nephrectomy for a localized renal mass between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. Preoperative images were evaluated for the presence of tumor necrosis, lymphadenopathy, and tumor size. The study outcome was metastatic-free probability. Model discrimination was assessed with Gönen and Heller's concordance probability estimate, and calibration was evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort included 1,102 male and 658 female patients with a median age of 60 years. Most patients presented incidentally (84%). On imaging, 3% had evidence of lymphadenopathy, 55% had necrosis and median tumor diameter was 3.7 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.5, 5.5). Median follow-up in non-metastatic patients was 7.7 years (IQR: 5.3, 9.7). Estimated 12-year metastatic-free probability was 88% (86%-90%). The model showed strong discrimination (concordance probability estimate [CPE]: 0.77), and fair calibration. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed strong discrimination at all-time points and the area under the curve (AUC) for year 12 was 0.83 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.78-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: We validated the preoperative nomogram of 12-year metastasis-free probability in a contemporary cohort despite different tumor characteristics. Future studies should evaluate the role of preoperative risk stratification in patient selection for neoadjuvant treatment.

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