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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037108

RESUMO

Asbestos recently returned to the spotlight when Johnson & Johnson halted sales of baby powder due to lawsuits claiming that the talc in baby powder may have been contaminated with asbestos, which has been linked to the risk of ovarian cancer development. Although talc and asbestos have some structural similarities, only asbestos is considered causally associated with ovarian cancer by the WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer. While it is useful to understand the types and properties of asbestos and its oncologic biology, the history of its association with ovarian cancer is largely based on retrospective observational studies in women working in high asbestos exposure environments. In reviewing the literature, it is critical to understand the distinction between associative risk and causality, and to examine the strength of association in the context of how the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is made and how the disease should be distinguished from a similar appearing but unrelated neoplasm, malignant mesothelioma. Based on contextual misinterpretation of these factors, it is imperative to question the International Agency for Research on Cancer's assertion that asbestos has a clear causal inference to ovarian cancer. This has important clinical implications in the way patients are conceivably counseled and provides motivation to continue research to improve the understanding of the association between asbestos and ovarian cancer.

2.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 18(9): 550-556, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006584

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been rapidly integrated into clinical practice for women with ovarian cancer. Currently, PARP inhibitors are approved as frontline maintenance treatment for patients with and without BRCA-associated cancers, and they are listed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) as a treatment option for all high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers with or without bevacizumab. PARP inhibitors are also approved as maintenance treatment following a response to platinum-based therapy in the recurrent setting, irrespective of biomarker status. Additionally, PARP inhibitors are approved as third-line treatment and beyond in lieu of chemotherapy for patients with BRCA-associated cancers, and as fourth-line treatment and beyond for patients with platinum-sensitive homologous recombination-deficient tumors. They are also listed by the NCCN in combination with bevacizumab for the treatment of patients who have platinum-sensitive recurrent disease. The first part of this 2-part review focuses on the changing paradigm of frontline therapy options resulting from the recent approvals of PARP inhibitors; the second part considers the role of PARP inhibition in recurrent ovarian cancer.

3.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037105

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 50-70% of epithelial ovarian cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis. We conducted a phase Ib/II trial to examine the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, combined with topotecan in women with recurrent ovarian cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor positivity. METHODS: Patients with measurable recurrent or persistent cancer after treatment with a platinum containing regimen with positive epidermal growth factor receptor expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry, were eligible for the study. Initial treatment was 250 mg/day gefitinib (oral) and 2.0 mg/m2 topotecan (intravenous) on days 1, 8, and 15, on a 28 day cycle. Dose escalations were planned for topotecan (dose levels 1-3: 2, 3, and 4 mg/m2) until the maximum tolerated dose was reached. RESULTS: 19 patients received a total of 61 cycles. Median age was 59.8 years (range 42-76 years). Histologic types in treated patients included 74% serous (n=14), 11% mixed (n=2), 11% transitional (n=2), and 5% clear cell (n=1). For phase Ib, three patients were treated at dose level 1, three at dose level 2, and three at dose level 3 for topotecan. The maximum tolerated dose was 4.0 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, and 15) for topotecan and 250 mg (daily) for gefitinib. Therefore, dose level 3 was used for phase II. Among the 19 patients, 63.2% (n=12) had progressive disease, 15.8% (n=3) had stable disease, 10.5% (n=2) had a partial response, and 10.5% (n=2) were not evaluable. The most serious adverse events of any grade attributed to the therapy were anemia (89.4%), neutropenia (68.4%), abdominal pain (84%), constipation (78.9%), and diarrhea (78.9%). CONCLUSION: Although the drug combination was relatively well tolerated, this prospective phase Ib/II clinical trial did not show sufficient clinical activity of topotecan combined with gefitinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor positive recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancers.

4.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) found in common subtypes of endometrial cancer has been associated with advanced stage disease and a poor prognosis. The purpose of this phase 2 study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. METHODS: The study was an open-label phase 2 clinical trial conducted at two institutions. Patients with recurrent or progressive endometrial cancer of any histologic type with the exception of uterine sarcoma received cetuximab at an initial dose of 400 mg/m2 IV followed by weekly doses of 250 mg/m2. One cycle was considered 4 weeks of treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was clinical benefit response, defined as a complete or partial response or prolonged stable disease (>8 weeks) by RECIST 1.0 criteria. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were enrolled with a median age of 64 years (range 42-83). Of the 20 evaluable patients, three (15%) had clinical benefit response (one complete response, two stable disease). The patient with a clinical benefit response received a total of 27 cycles and the two patients with stable disease were taken off the study due to progression after four and six cycles, respectively. Of the 10 inevaluable patients, nine received ≤1 cycle due to clinical deterioration and one had an anaphylactic reaction. One patient had a grade 3 rash which resolved after a delay in treatment. No dose reduction was reported. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, single agent therapy with cetuximab was well tolerated and had a 15% clinical benefit response. Further studies are required to better identify patients who may respond to this treatment.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943548

RESUMO

Here, We examined the role of EP-100 (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) ligand joined to a lytic peptide), improving the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. LHRH-R-positive murine ovarian cancer cells (ID8, IG10, IF5, and 2C12) were sensitive to EP-100 and were specifically killed at low micromolar levels through LHRH-R. EP-100 increased PD-L1 levels on murine ovarian cancer cells. In vivo syngeneic mouse models (ID8 and IG10) demonstrated that single-agent EP-100 reduced tumor volume, tumor weight, and ascites volume. The greatest reductions in tumor and ascites volume were observed with the combination of EP-100 with an anti-PD-L1 antibody. Immune profiling analysis showed that the population of CD8+ T cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages were significantly increased in tumor and ascitic fluid samples treated with anti-PD-L1, EP-100, and the combination. However, monocytic myeloid suppressor cells, B cells, and regulatory T cells were decreased in tumors treated with anti-PD-L1, EP-100, or the combination. In vitro cytokine arrays revealed that EP-100 induced IL1α, IL33, CCL20, VEGF, and LDLR secretion. Of these, we validated increasing IL33 levels following EP-100 treatment in vitro and in vivo; we determined the specific biological role of CD8+ T cell activation with IL33 gene silencing using siRNA and Cas9-CRISPR approaches. In addition, we found that CD8+ T cells expressed very low level of LHRH-R and were not affected by EP-100. Taken together, EP-100 treatment had a substantial antitumor efficacy, particularly in combination with an anti-PD-L1 antibody. These results warrant further clinical development of this combination. Keywords: EP-100, LHRH-R, PD-L1 antibody, Ovarian cancer.

7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(10): 1608-1618, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928926

RESUMO

The clinical development of poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) began with the treatment of ovarian cancer patients harboring BRCA1/2 mutations and continues to be expanded to other gynecological cancers. Furthermore, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis of endometrial and cervical cancers offered rationale that PARPi may be an option for treatment based on the molecular profiles of these cancer types. This review summarizes the current indications of PARPi, such as its role in the treatment and maintenance of recurrent ovarian cancer and for first-line maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer. We also outline new concepts for PARPi therapy in other gynecological cancers such as endometrial and cervical cancers based on recent clinical data. Finally, we present potential future directions to continue exploring the world of PARPi resistance and combining PARPi with other therapies.

8.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819112

RESUMO

The discovery of cancer-causing BRCA1/2 mutations and the emergence of genetic testing have brought precision in patient selection for poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) treatment. Interestingly, patients who are carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations have a higher risk for developing cancer, but respond better to DNA-damaging cytotoxic therapy, such as platinum-based chemotherapy. The distinctive biology of ovarian cancer involves high genomic instability consisting of gene amplification, gene deletion, oncogene hypomethylation, loss of heterozygosity, and tumor suppressor gene promoter hypermethylation in many of the DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including BRCA1/2. Several of these genetic abnormalities can impair high fidelity DNA damage repair increasing the therapeutic audience for PARPi's. This is especially important given the clinical development over the last decade of this group of agents and the dramatic increase in progression free survival among ovarian cancer patients who received PARPi, both in treatment or maintenance setting. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the role of BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer and present relevant clinical trials in which BRCA1/2 was investigated as biomarker for therapy. We also outline the role of homologous recombination (HR) deficiency as biomarker by presenting the recent clinical development and recent approvals PARPi for firstline maintenance in ovarian cancer.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 101-111, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 trial ARIEL3, maintenance treatment with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib provided clinical benefit versus placebo for patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluate the impact of age on the clinical utility of rucaparib in ARIEL3. METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian carcinoma with ≥2 prior platinum-based chemotherapies who responded to their last platinum-based therapy were enrolled in ARIEL3 and randomized 2:1 to rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Exploratory, post hoc analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), patient-centered outcomes (quality-adjusted PFS [QA-PFS] and quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity [Q-TWiST]), and safety were conducted in three age subgroups (<65 years, 65-74 years, and ≥75 years). RESULTS: Investigator-assessed PFS was significantly longer with rucaparib than placebo in patients aged <65 years (rucaparib n = 237 vs placebo n = 117; median, 11.1 vs 5.4 months; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.25-0.43]; P < 0.0001) and 65-74 years (n = 113 vs n = 64; median, 8.3 vs 5.3 months; HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.29-0.63]; P < 0.0001) and numerically longer in patients aged ≥75 years (n = 25 vs n = 8; median, 9.2 vs 5.5 months; HR 0.47 [95% CI 0.16-1.35]; P = 0.1593). QA-PFS and Q-TWiST were significantly longer with rucaparib than placebo across all age subgroups. Safety of rucaparib was generally similar across the age subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy, patient-centered outcomes, and safety of rucaparib were similar between age subgroups, indicating that all eligible women with recurrent ovarian cancer should be offered this therapeutic option, irrespective of age. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01968213.

10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of complex atypical hyperplasia and early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer is increasing, in part owing to the epidemic of obesity, which is a risk factor tightly linked to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The standard upfront treatment for complex atypical hyperplasia and early-stage endometrial cancer is hysterectomy. However, nonsurgical treatment of early-stage endometrial neoplasia may be necessary owing to medical comorbidities precluding surgery or desired future fertility. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device to treat complex atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: A single-institution, single-arm, phase II study of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (52 mg levonorgestrel, Mirena) was conducted in patients with complex atypical hyperplasia or grade 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer. The primary endpoint was pathologic response rate at 12 months, including complete or partial response. Quality of life and toxicity were assessed. Molecular analyses for proliferation markers, hormone-regulated genes, and wingless-related integration site pathway activation were performed at baseline and 3 months. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients were treated (21 endometrial cancer, 36 complex atypical hyperplasia). The median age was 48.0 years, and the median body mass index was 45.5 kg/m2. Of the 47 evaluable patients, 12-month response rate was 83% (90% credible interval, 72.7-90.3)-37 were complete responders (8 endometrial cancer; 29 complex atypical hyperplasia), 2 were partial responders (2 endometrial cancer), 3 had stable disease (2 endometrial cancer; 1 complex atypical hyperplasia), and 5 had progressive disease (3 endometrial cancer; 2 complex atypical hyperplasia). After stratification for histology, the response rate was 90.6% for complex atypical hyperplasia and 66.7% for grade 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer. Notably, 4 patients (9.5%) experienced relapse after the initial response. Adverse events were mild, primarily irregular bleeding and cramping. Quality of life was not negatively affected. At 3 months, exogenous progesterone effect was present in 96.9% of responders (31 of 32) vs 25% of nonresponders (2 of 8) (P=.001). Nonresponders had higher baseline proliferation (Ki67) and lower dickkopf homolog 3 gene expression than responders (P=.023 and P=.030). Nonresponders had significantly different changes in secreted frizzled-related protein 1, frizzled class receptor 8, and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 compared with responders. CONCLUSION: The levonorgestrel intrauterine device has a substantial activity in complex atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer, with a modest proportion demonstrating upfront progesterone resistance. Potential biomarkers were identified that may correlate with resistance to therapy; further exploration is warranted.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001164, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSOCs) have historically low chemotherapy responses. Alterations affecting the MAPK pathway, most commonly KRAS/BRAF, are present in 30%-60% of LGSOCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate binimetinib, a potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with demonstrated activity across multiple cancers, in LGSOC. METHODS: This was a 2:1 randomized study of binimetinib (45 mg twice daily) versus physician's choice chemotherapy (PCC). Eligible patients had recurrent measurable LGSOC after ≥ 1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy but ≤ 3 prior chemotherapy lines. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent central review (BICR); additional assessments included overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), clinical-benefit rate, biomarkers, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were randomly assigned to an arm of the study at the time of interim analysis (January 20, 2016). Median PFS by BICR was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.3 to 11.3) for binimetinib and 10.6 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 14.5) for PCC (hazard ratio,1.21; 95%CI, 0.79 to 1.86), resulting in early study closure according to a prespecified futility boundary after 341 patients had enrolled. Secondary efficacy end points were similar in the two groups: ORR 16% (complete response [CR]/partial responses[PRs], 32) versus 13% (CR/PRs, 13); median DOR, 8.1 months (range, 0.03 to ≥ 12.0 months) versus 6.7 months (0.03 to ≥ 9.7 months); and median OS, 25.3 versus 20.8 months for binimetinib and PCC, respectively. Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of binimetinib; the most common grade ≥ 3 event was increased blood creatine kinase level (26%). Post hoc analysis suggests a possible association between KRAS mutation and response to binimetinib. Results from an updated analysis (n = 341; January 2019) were consistent. CONCLUSION: Although the MEK Inhibitor in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Study did not meet its primary end point, binimetinib showed activity in LGSOC across the efficacy end points evaluated. A higher response to chemotherapy than expected was observed and KRAS mutation might predict response to binimetinib.

12.
Drugs ; 80(15): 1525-1535, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852746

RESUMO

The use of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the front-line management of advanced ovarian cancer has recently emerged as an exciting strategy with the potential to improve outcomes for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. In this article, we review the results of four recently published Phase III randomised controlled trials evaluating the use of PARP inhibitors in the primary treatment of ovarian cancer (SOLO1, PRIMA, PAOLA-1, and VELIA). Collectively, the studies suggest that PARP maintenance in the upfront setting is most beneficial among patients with BRCA-associated ovarian cancers (hazard ratios range from 0.31 to 0.44), followed by patients with tumours that harbour homologous recombination deficiencies (hazard ratios range from 0.33 to 0.57). All three studies that included an all-comer population were able to demonstrate benefit of PARP inhibitors, regardless of biomarker status. The FDA has approved olaparib for front-line maintenance therapy among patients with BRCA-associated ovarian cancers, and niraparib for all patients, regardless of biomarker status. In determining which patients should be offered front-line maintenance PARP inhibitors, and which agent to use, there are multiple factors to consider, including FDA indication, dosing preference, toxicity, risks versus benefits for each patient population, and cost. There are ongoing studies further exploring the front-line use of PARP inhibitors, including the potential downstream effects of PARP-inhibitor resistance in the recurrent setting, combining PARP-inhibitors with other anti-angiogenic drugs, immunotherapeutic agents, and inhibitors of pathways implicated in PARP inhibitor resistance.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(30): 3494-3505, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate quality-adjusted progression-free survival (QA-PFS) and quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) in a post hoc exploratory analysis of the phase III ARIEL3 study of rucaparib maintenance treatment versus placebo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian carcinoma were randomly assigned to rucaparib (600 mg twice per day) or placebo. QA-PFS was calculated as progression-free survival function × the 3-level version of the EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) index score function. Q-TWiST analyses were performed defining TOX as the mean duration in which a patient experienced grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) or the mean duration in which a patient experienced grade ≥ 2 TEAEs of nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and asthenia. Q-TWiST was calculated as µTOX × TOX + TWiST, with µTOX calculated using EQ-5D-3L data. RESULTS: The visit cutoff was Apr 15, 2017. Mean QA-PFS was significantly longer with rucaparib versus placebo in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (375 randomly assigned to rucaparib v 189 randomly assigned to placebo; difference, 6.28 months [95% CI, 4.85 to 7.47 months]); BRCA-mutant cohort (130 rucaparib v 66 placebo; 9.37 months [95% CI, 6.65 to 11.85 months]); homologous recombination deficient (HRD) cohort (236 rucaparib v 118 placebo; 7.93 months [95% CI, 5.93 to 9.53 months]); and BRCA wild-type/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) low patient subgroup (107 rucaparib v 54 placebo; 2.71 months [95% CI, 0.31 to 4.44 months]). With TOX defined using grade ≥ 3 TEAEs, the difference in mean Q-TWiST (rucaparib v placebo) was 6.88 months (95% CI, 5.71 to 8.23 months), 9.73 months (95% CI, 7.10 to 11.94 months), 8.11 months (95% CI, 6.36 to 9.49 months), and 3.35 months (95% CI, 1.66 to 5.40 months) in the ITT population, BRCA-mutant cohort, HRD cohort, and BRCA wild-type/LOH low patient subgroup, respectively. Q-TWiST with TOX defined using select grade ≥ 2 TEAEs also consistently favored rucaparib. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in QA-PFS and Q-TWiST confirm the benefit of rucaparib versus placebo in all predefined cohorts.

14.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 18(6): 332-343, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female genital tract. Despite improvements in management and treatment, survival remains low in patients with extensive disease at presentation, which usually leads to eventual recurrence. Treatment of recurrence remains challenging. Although the use of secondary cytoreduction to treat recurrent disease has become widespread, its utility remains unproven. METHODS: This systematic review examines all the relevant electronic literature. An electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases from January 1980 through December 2019. RESULTS: Several relevant retrospective studies have been published, and these unanimously suggest that secondary cytoreduction is associated with an increase in progression-free and overall survival after relapse. Despite sound statistical methods, these studies are unfortunately limited by significant confounding inherent to the retrospective approach and by selection bias, given that healthier patients with less disease have historically been selected for surgery. Data from clinical trials are currently evolving. Early data from DESKTOP III demonstrate improved progression-free survival with secondary cytoreduction, whereas GOG-0213 found no difference in progression-free or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary cytoreduction remains a viable treatment option for select patients for now, but this is entirely dependent on the highly anticipated overall survival results of DESKTOP III and SOC 1.

15.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(8): 1258-1259, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675255
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 79-87, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between tumor size and response to combined anti-vascular targeted therapy using the anti-angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab, and the tubulin-binding vascular disrupting agent, fosbretabulin. METHODS: An exploratory, post-hoc analysis of the randomized phase II trial, Gynecologic Oncology Group-0186I, was performed. One hundred and seven patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma, treated with up to 3 prior regimens, were randomized to bevacizumab 15 mg/kg body weight with or without intravenous fosbretabulin 60 mg/m2 body surface area every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary analysis favored the combination (HR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-1.00; p = .049) [Monk BJ, et al. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2279-86]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the treatment effect in various subpopulations. RESULTS: With extended follow-up, the median PFS for bevacizumab plus fosbretabulin was 7.6  months as compared to 4.8  months with bevacizumab alone (HR 0.74; 90% CI, 0.54-1.02). Overall survival was similar in the experimental and control arms (25.2 vs 24.4 mos, respectively, HR 0.85; 90% CI, 0.59-1.22; p = .461). Eighty-one patients had measurable disease and median tumor size was 5.7  cm. In the ≤5.7  cm subgroup, the HR for progression or death was 0.77 (90% CI 0.45-1.31). Patients with tumors >5.7  cm (n = 40) had a HR for progression or death of 0.55; 90% CI, 0.32-0.96; p = .075). CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant survival benefit was observed, the trend showing a reduced HR for progression or death with increasing tumor size when fosbretabulin is added to bevacizumab compared to bevacizumab alone warrants further study.

17.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(9): 1450-1454, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have supported the practice of offering minimally invasive interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for well-selected patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. However, there are no prospective randomized data comparing the oncologic efficacy of minimally invasive and open interval debulking surgery in epithelial ovarian cancer. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to examine whether minimally invasive surgery is non-inferior to laparotomy in terms of disease-free survival in women with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer that responded to three or four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. STUDY HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that in patients who had a complete or partial response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive interval debulking surgery is not inferior to laparotomy. TRIAL DESIGN: The Laparoscopic cytoreduction After Neoadjuvant ChEmotherapy (LANCE) trial is an international, prospective, randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority phase III trial to compare minimally invasive surgery vs laparotomy in women with advanced stage high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer that had a complete or partial response to three or four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and normalization of CA-125. The first 100 participants will be enrolled into a pilot lead-in to determine feasibility. The study will be considered feasible and will continue to Phase III under the following conditions: the accrual rate reaches at least 80% of the target rate after all pilot sites are open; the crossover rate in the minimally invasive group is less than 25%; and the difference of complete gross resection between the minimally invasive and open group is less than 20%. If the study is determined to be feasible, all remaining participants will be enrolled into the Phase III stage. MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients with stage IIIC or IV high-grade epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinoma who had a complete or partial response to three or four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on imaging and normalization of CA-125 will be enrolled. Patients with evidence of tumor not amenable to minimally invasive resection on pre-operative imaging will be excluded. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: The primary endpoint is non-inferiority of disease-free survival in minimally invasive vs laparotomic interval debulking surgery. SAMPLE SIZE: To demonstrate non-inferiority with a margin of 33% in the hazard ratio (HR=1.33), 549 patients will be randomized.

18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(2): 460-466, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uterine carcinosarcomas (UCS) represent a rare but aggressive subset of endometrial cancers, comprising <5% of uterine malignancies. To date, limited prospective trials exist from which evidence-based management of this rare malignancy can be developed. METHODS: The American Radium Society Appropriate Use Criteria presented in this manuscript are evidence-based guidelines developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel for management of women with UCS. An extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals was performed. A well-established methodology (modified Delphi) was used to rate the appropriate use of imaging and treatment procedures for the management of UCS. These guidelines are intended for the use of all practitioners who desire information about the management of UCS. RESULTS: The majority of patients with UCS will present with advanced extra uterine disease, with 10% presenting with metastatic disease. They have worse survival outcomes when compared to uterine high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas. The primary treatment for non-metastatic UCS is complete surgical staging with total hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy and lymph node staging. Patients with UCS appear to benefit from adjuvant multimodality therapy to reduce the chance of tumor recurrence with the potential to improve overall survival. CONCLUSION: Women diagnosed with uterine UCS should undergo complete surgical staging. Adjuvant multimodality therapies should be considered in the treatment of both early- and advanced stage patients. Long-term surveillance is indicated as many of these women may recur. Prospective clinical studies of women with UCS are necessary for optimal management.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(6): 851-860, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 LACC trial and a subsequent population-level review, minimally invasive radical hysterectomy was shown to be associated with worse disease-free survival and higher recurrence rates than was open radical hysterectomy in patients with early stage cervical cancer. Here, we report the results of a secondary endpoint, quality of life, of the LACC trial. METHODS: The LACC trial was a randomised, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done in 33 centres worldwide. Eligible participants were women aged 18 years or older with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA1 with lymphovascular space invasion, IA2, or IB1 adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, who were scheduled to have a type 2 or 3 radical hysterectomy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive open or minimally invasive radical hysterectomy. Randomisation was done centrally using a computerised minimisation program, stratified by centre, disease stage according to FIGO guidelines, and age. Neither participants nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint of the LACC trial was disease-free survival at 4·5 years, and quality of life was a secondary endpoint. Eligible patients completed validated quality-of-life and symptom assessments (12-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervical [FACT-Cx], EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D], and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory [MDASI]) before surgery and at 1 and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months after surgery (FACT-Cx was also completed at additional timepoints up to 54 months after surgery). Differences in quality of life over time between treatment groups were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who had surgery and completed at least one baseline (pretreatment) and one follow-up (at any timepoint after surgery) questionnaire, using generalised estimating equations. The LACC trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00614211. FINDINGS: Between Jan 31, 2008, and June 22, 2017, 631 patients were enrolled; 312 assigned to the open surgery group and 319 assigned to the minimally invasive surgery group. 496 (79%) of 631 patients had surgery completed at least one baseline and one follow-up quality-of-life survey and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (244 [78%] of 312 patients in the open surgery group and 252 [79%] of 319 participants in the minimally invasive surgery group). Median follow-up was 3·0 years (IQR 1·7-4·5). At baseline, no differences in the mean FACT-Cx total score were identified between the open surgery (129·3 [SD 18·8]) and minimally invasive surgery groups (129·8 [19·8]). No differences in mean FACT-Cx total scores were identified between the groups 6 weeks after surgery (128·7 [SD 19·9] in the open surgery group vs 130·0 [19·8] in the minimally invasive surgery group) or 3 months after surgery (132·0 [21·7] vs 133·0 [22·1]). INTERPRETATION: Since recurrence rates are higher and disease-free survival is lower for minimally invasive radical hysterectomy than for open surgery, and postoperative quality of life is similar between the treatment groups, gynaecological oncologists should recommend open radical hysterectomy for patients with early stage cervical cancer. FUNDING: MD Anderson Cancer Center and Medtronic.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Histerectomia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/psicologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499298

RESUMO

XPO1 inhibitors have shown promise in cancer treatment, but mechanisms of resistance to these drugs are not well understood. In this study, we established selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE)-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines from in vivo mouse tumors and determined the mechanisms of adaptive XPO1 inhibitor resistance using protein and genomic arrays. Pathway analyses revealed upregulation of the NRG1/ERBB3 pathway in SINE-resistant cells. Depletion of ERBB3 using siRNAs restored the antitumor effect of SINE in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, exogenous NRG1 decreased the antitumor effect of SINE in ovarian cancer cell lines with high ERBB3 expression, but not in those with low expression. These results suggest that NRG1 and ERBB3 expression is a potential biomarker of response to SINE treatment. The antitumor effect of SINE was reduced by exogenous NRG1 in an ERBB3-dependent manner. These findings suggest that NRG1 and ERBB3 are effective biomarkers that should be evaluated in future clinical trials and are relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of SINE-resistant cancers.

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