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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer has yet to be determined. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have demonstrated substantial improvement in progression-free survival as monotherapy maintenance treatment in the frontline setting versus active surveillance. Furthermore, preclinical and early clinical studies have shown that PARP inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors have synergistic antitumor activity and may provide an additional therapeutic option for patients in this population. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: In women with newly diagnosed ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, we wish to assess the efficacy of frontline maintenance treatment with the PARP inhibitor rucaparib versus placebo following response to platinum-based chemotherapy (ATHENA-MONO), and to assess the combination of rucaparib plus nivolumab (a programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)-blocking monoclonal antibody) versus rucaparib alone (ATHENA-COMBO). STUDY HYPOTHESIS: (1) Maintenance therapy with rucaparib monotherapy may extend progression-free survival following standard treatment for ovarian cancer in the frontline setting. (2) The combination of nivolumab plus rucaparib may extend progression-free survival following standard treatment for ovarian cancer in the frontline setting compared with rucaparib alone. TRIAL DESIGN: ATHENA is an international, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial consisting of two independent comparisons (ATHENA-MONO and ATHENA-COMBO) in patients with newly diagnosed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Patients are randomized 4:4:1:1 to the following: oral rucaparib+ intravenous nivolumab (arm A); oral rucaparib + intravenous placebo (arm B); oral placebo+ intravenous nivolumab (arm C); and oral placebo + intravenous placebo (arm D). The starting dose of rucaparib is 600 mg orally twice a day and nivolumab 480 mg intravenously every 4 weeks. ATHENA-MONO compares arm B with arm D to evaluate rucaparib monotherapy versus placebo, and ATHENA-COMBO evaluates arm A versus arm B to investigate the effects of rucaparib and nivolumab in combination versus rucaparib monotherapy. ATHENA-MONO and ATHENA-COMBO share a common treatment arm (arm B) but each comparison is independently powered. MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients ≥18 years of age with newly diagnosed advanced, high-grade epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who have achieved a response after completion of cytoreductive surgery and initial platinum-based chemotherapy are enrolled. No other prior treatment for ovarian cancer, other than the frontline platinum regimen, is permitted. PRIMARY ENDPOINT: The primary endpoint is investigator-assessed progression-free survival by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. SAMPLE SIZE: Approximately 1000 patients have been enrolled and randomized. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: The trial completed accrual in 2020. While dependent on event rates, primary results of ATHENA-MONO are anticipated in early 2022 and results of ATHENA-COMBO are anticipated to mature at a later date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03522246).

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647981

RESUMO

Importance: A total of 1% to 3% of patients treated with a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor for high-grade ovarian cancer (HGOC) develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs), which are rare but often fatal conditions. Although the cause of these t-MNs is unknown, clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) variants can increase the risk of primary myeloid malignant neoplasms and are more frequent among patients with solid tumors. Objectives: To examine whether preexisting CHIP variants are associated with the development of t-MNs after rucaparib treatment and how these CHIP variants are affected by treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective genetic association study used peripheral blood cell (PBC) samples collected before rucaparib treatment from patients in the multicenter, single-arm ARIEL2 (Study of Rucaparib in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, Relapsed, High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer) (n = 491; between October 30, 2013, and August 9, 2016) and the multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind ARIEL3 (Study of Rucaparib as Switch Maintenance Following Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive, High-Grade Serous or Endometrioid Epithelial Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal or Fallopian Tube Cancer) (n = 561; between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016), which tested rucaparib as HGOC therapy in the treatment and maintenance settings, respectively. The follow-up data cutoff date was September 1, 2019. Of 1052 patients in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, PBC samples from 20 patients who developed t-MNs (cases) and 44 randomly selected patients who did not (controls) were analyzed for the presence of CHIP variants using targeted next-generation sequencing. Additional longitudinal analysis was performed on available ARIEL2 samples collected during treatment and at the end of treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enrichment analysis of preexisting variants in 10 predefined CHIP-associated genes in cases relative to controls; association with clinical correlates. Results: Among 1052 patients (mean [SE] age, 61.7 [0.3] years) enrolled and dosed in ARIEL2 and ARIEL3, 22 (2.1%) developed t-MNs. The t-MNs were associated with longer overall exposure to prior platinum therapies (13.2 vs 9.0 months in ARIEL2, P = .04; 12.4 vs 9.6 months in ARIEL3, P = .003). The presence of homologous recombination repair gene variants in the tumor, either germline or somatic, was associated with increased prevalence of t-MNs (15 [4.1%] of 369 patients with HGOC associated with an HRR gene variant vs 7 [1.0%] of 683 patients with wild-type HGOC, P = .002). The prevalence of preexisting CHIP variants in TP53 but not other CHIP-associated genes at a variant allele frequency of 1% or greater was significantly higher in PBCs from cases vs controls (9 [45.0%] of 20 cases vs 6 [13.6%] of 44 controls, P = .009). TP53 CHIP was associated with longer prior exposure to platinum (mean 14.0 months of 15 TP53 CHIP cases vs 11.1 months of 49 non-TP53 CHIP cases; P = .02). Longitudinal analysis showed that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants expanded in patients who developed t-MNs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this genetic association study suggest that preexisting TP53 CHIP variants may be associated with t-MNs after rucaparib treatment.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe molecular and clinical characteristics of patients with high-grade recurrent ovarian carcinoma (HGOC) who had long-term responses to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib. METHODS: This post hoc analysis pooled patients from Study 10 (NCT01482715; Parts 2A and 2B; n = 54) and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344; Parts 1 and 2; n = 491). Patients with investigator-assessed complete or partial response per RECIST were classified based on duration of response (DOR): long (≥1 year), intermediate (6 months to <1 year), or short (<6 months). Next-generation sequencing was used to detect deleterious mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors. RESULTS: Overall, 25.3% (138/545) of enrolled patients were responders. Of these, 27.5% (38/138) had long-term responses; 28.3% (39/138) were intermediate- and 34.8% (48/138) were short-term responders. Most of the long-term responders harbored a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation (71.1%, 27/38), and BRCA structural variants were most frequent among long-term responders (14.8%; 4/27). Responders with HGOC harboring a BRCA structural variant (n = 5) had significantly longer DOR than patients with other mutation types (n = 81; median not reached vs 0.62 years; HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.10-0.43; unadjusted p = 0.014). Among responders with BRCA wild-type HGOC, most long- and intermediate-term responders had high genome-wide LOH: 81.8% (9/11) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively, including 7 with deleterious RAD51C, RAD51D, or CDK12 mutations. CONCLUSION: Among patients who responded to rucaparib, a substantial proportion achieved responses lasting ≥1 year. These analyses demonstrate the relationship between DOR to PARP inhibitor treatment and molecular characteristics in HGOC, such as presence of reversion-resistant BRCA structural variants.

4.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7162-7173, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of rucaparib maintenance treatment in ARIEL3 were evaluated in subgroups based on best response to most recent platinum-based chemotherapy and baseline disease. METHODS: Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either oral rucaparib at a dosage of 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Investigator-assessed PFS was assessed in prespecified, nested cohorts: BRCA-mutated, homologous recombination deficient (HRD; BRCA mutated or wild-type BRCA/high loss of heterozygosity), and the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. RESULTS: Median PFS for patients in the ITT population with a complete response to most recent platinum-based chemotherapy was 11.1 months in the rucaparib arm (126 patients) versus 5.6 months in the placebo arm (64 patients) (HR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.23-0.48]), and in patients with a partial response (249 vs. 125), it was 9.0 versus 5.3 months (HR, 0.38 [0.30-0.49]). In subgroups of the ITT population based on baseline disease, median PFS was 8.2 versus 5.3 months (HR, 0.40 [0.28-0.57]) in patients with measurable disease (141 rucaparib vs. 66 placebo), 10.4 versus 4.5 months (HR, 0.31 [0.20-0.48]) in those with nonmeasurable but evaluable disease (104 vs. 56), and 14.1 versus 7.3 months (HR, 0.35 [0.24-0.51]) in those with no residual disease (130 vs. 67). Across subgroups, significantly longer median PFS was observed with rucaparib versus placebo in the BRCA-mutated and HRD cohorts. Objective responses were reported in patients with measurable disease and in patients with nonmeasurable but evaluable baseline disease. Safety was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Rucaparib maintenance treatment provided clinically meaningful efficacy benefits across subgroups based on response to last platinum-based chemotherapy or baseline disease.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: On the basis of strong preclinical rationale, we sought to confirm recommended phase II dose (RP2D) for olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, combined with the AKT inhibitor capivasertib and assess molecular markers of response and resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a safety lead-in followed by expansion in endometrial, triple-negative breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. Olaparib 300 mg orally twice daily and capivasertib orally twice daily on a 4-day on 3-day off schedule was evaluated. Two dose levels (DL) of capivasertib were planned: 400 mg (DL1) and 320 mg (DL-1). Patients underwent biopsies at baseline and 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients were enrolled. Seven (18%) had germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The first 2 patients on DL1 experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of diarrhea and vomiting. No DLTs were observed on DL-1 (n = 6); therefore, DL1 was reexplored (n = 6) with no DLTs, confirming DL1 as RP2D. Most common treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were anemia (23.7%) and leukopenia (10.5%). Of 32 evaluable subjects, 6 (19%) had partial response (PR); PR rate was 44.4% in endometrial cancer. Seven (22%) additional patients had stable disease greater than 4 months. Tumor analysis demonstrated strong correlations between response and immune activity, cell-cycle alterations, and DNA damage response. Therapy resistance was associated with receptor tyrosine kinase and RAS-MAPK pathway activity, metabolism, and epigenetics. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of olaparib and capivasertib is associated to no serious adverse events and demonstrates durable activity in ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers, with promising responses in endometrial cancer. Importantly, tumor samples acquired pre- and on-therapy can help predict patient benefit.

6.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583979

RESUMO

CRM1 inhibitors have demonstrated antitumor effects in ovarian and other cancers; however, rational combinations are largely unexplored. We performed a high-throughput drug library screen to identify drugs that might combine well with selinexor in ovarian cancer. Next, we tested the combination of selinexor with the top hit from the drug screen in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we assessed for mechanisms underlying the identified synergy using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). The drug library screen assessing 688 drugs identified olaparib (a PARP inhibitor) as the most synergistic combination with selinexor. Synergy was further demonstrated by MTT assays. In the A2780luc ip1 mouse model, the combination of selinexor and olaparib yielded significantly lower tumor weight and fewer tumor nodules compared with the control group (P < 0.04 and P < 0.03). In the OVCAR5 mouse model, the combination yielded significantly fewer nodules (P = 0.006) and markedly lower tumor weight compared with the control group (P = 0.059). RPPA analysis indicated decreased expression of DNA damage repair proteins and increased expression of tumor suppressor proteins in the combination treatment group. Collectively, our preclinical findings indicate that combination with selinexor to expand the utility and efficacy of PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer warrants further exploration.

7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(10): 1317-1325, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the ConCerv Trial was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of conservative surgery in women with early-stage, low-risk cervical cancer. METHODS: From April 2010 to March 2019, a prospective, single-arm, multicenter study evaluated conservative surgery in participants from 16 sites in nine countries. Eligibility criteria included: (1) FIGO 2009 stage IA2-IB1 cervical carcinoma; (2) squamous cell (any grade) or adenocarcinoma (grade 1 or 2 only) histology; (3) tumor size <2 cm; (4) no lymphovascular space invasion; (5) depth of invasion <10 mm; (6) negative imaging for metastatic disease; and (7) negative conization margins. Cervical conization was performed to determine eligibility, with one repeat cone permitted. Eligible women desiring fertility preservation underwent a second surgery with pelvic lymph node assessment, consisting of sentinel lymph node biopsy and/or full pelvic lymph node dissection. Those not desiring fertility preservation underwent simple hysterectomy with lymph node assessment. Women who had undergone an 'inadvertent' simple hysterectomy with an unexpected post-operative diagnosis of cancer were also eligible if they met the above inclusion criteria and underwent a second surgery with pelvic lymph node dissection only. RESULTS: 100 evaluable patients were enrolled. Median age at surgery was 38 years (range 23-67). Stage was IA2 (33%) and IB1 (67%). Surgery included conization followed by lymph node assessment in 44 women, conization followed by simple hysterectomy with lymph node assessment in 40 women, and inadvertent simple hysterectomy followed by lymph node dissection in 16 women. Positive lymph nodes were noted in 5 patients (5%). Residual disease in the post-conization hysterectomy specimen was noted in 1/40 patients-that is, an immediate failure rate of 2.5%. Median follow-up was 36.3 months (range 0.0-68.3). Three patients developed recurrent disease within 2 years of surgery-that is, a cumulative incidence of 3.5% (95% CI 0.9% to 9.0%). DISCUSSION: Our prospective data show that select patients with early-stage, low-risk cervical carcinoma may be offered conservative surgery.

8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: GAS6 and AXL are expressed in high-grade serous ovarian cancer but not in normal ovarian tissue. AVB-500, a novel high affinity Fc-sAXL fusion protein, binds GAS6 preventing AXL signaling. This Phase 1b study (NCT03639246) evaluated safety, efficacy, and exploratory predictive markers of AVB-500 combined with paclitaxel (PAC) or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), and used a model informed drug development (MIDD) approach for identification of the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). METHODS: Eligible patients received AVB-500 at 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg IV q2wk combined with PAC (n = 23) or PLD (n = 30). Patients were treated until progression or unacceptable toxicity. All were followed for survival. RESULTS: No dose limiting toxicities were observed and serum GAS6 was completely suppressed across the three dose levels evaluated. AVB-500 + PAC yielded better clinical activity than AVB-500 + PLD with an ORR of 34.8% (8/23, 2 complete responses) and median DoR, PFS, and OS of 7.0, 3.1, and 10.3 months, respectively. Subgroup analyses showed AVB-500 + PAC patients who had no prior bevacizumab or whose AVB-500 trough levels were >13.8 mg/L exhibited the best clinical response. The ORR and median PFS and OS in patients with these characteristics were ≥50%, ≥7.5 months, and ≥19 months, respectively. Given AVB-500 nor the combination with chemotherapy was expected to cause DLTs, the RP2D of AVB-500 was 15 mg/kg identified using an MIDD approach. CONCLUSION: AVB-500 was well-tolerated in combination with PAC or PLD and contributed to the clinical activity of PAC in PROC patients. Subgroup analyses identified a population of PROC patients who may benefit the most from AVB-500 treatment, which will be further assessed in an ongoing Phase 3 PROC trial.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 163(1): 181-190, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our pilot clinical study of EphA2 inhibitor (dasatinib) plus paclitaxel and carboplatin showed interesting clinical activity in endometrial cancer with manageable toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms of dasatinib resistance in uterine cancer are unknown. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying resistance to EphA2 inhibitors in uterine cancer and examined the anti-tumor activity of EphA2 inhibitors alone and in combination with a MEK inhibitor. METHODS: We evaluated the antitumor activity of EphA2 inhibitors plus a MEK inhibitor using in vitro and in vivo orthotopic models of uterine cancer. RESULTS: EphA2 inhibitor induced MAPK in dasatinib-resistant uterine cancer cells (HEC-1A and Ishikawa) and BRAF/CRAF heterodimerization in HEC-1A cells. EphA2 inhibitor and trametinib significantly increased apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to EphA2 inhibitors compared with controls (p < 0.01). An in vivo study with the orthotopic HEC-1A model showed significantly greater antitumor response to combination treatment compared with dasatinib alone (p < 0.01). Combination treatment increased EphrinA1 and BIM along with decreased pMAPK, Jagged 1, and c-MYC expression in dasatinib-resistant cells. In addition, Spearman analysis using the TCGA data revealed that upregulation of EphA2 was significantly correlated with JAG1, MYC, NOTCH1, NOTCH3 and HES1 expression (p < 0.001, r = 0.25-0.43). Specifically, MAP3K15 and the NOTCH family genes were significantly related to poor clinical outcome in patients with uterine cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the MAPK pathway is activated in dasatinib-resistant uterine cancer cells and that EphrinA1-mediated MEK inhibition overcomes dasatinib resistance. Dual targeting of both EphA2 and MEK, combined with chemotherapy, should be considered for future clinical development.

10.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109549, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407412

RESUMO

Despite wide use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for many solid cancers, most individuals become resistant to this therapy, leading to disease progression. Therefore, new biomarkers and strategies for blocking adaptive resistance of cancer to anti-VEGF therapy are needed. As described here, we demonstrate that cancer-derived small extracellular vesicles package increasing quantities of VEGF and other factors in response to anti-VEGF therapy. The packaging process of VEGF into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) is mediated by the tetraspanin CD63. Furthermore, small EV-VEGF (eVEGF) is not accessible to anti-VEGF antibodies and can trigger intracrine VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. eVEGF promotes angiogenesis and enhances tumor growth despite bevacizumab treatment. These data demonstrate a mechanism where VEGF is partitioned into small EVs and promotes tumor angiogenesis and progression. These findings have clinical implications for biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer.

11.
Future Oncol ; 17(26): 3433-3443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409858

RESUMO

Balstilimab (anti-programmed death 1) and zalifrelimab (anti-CTLA-4) are two new checkpoint inhibitors that have emerged as promising investigational agents for the treatment of cervical cancer, particularly in the setting of previously-treated, recurrent/metastatic disease. Here we describe the rationale and design of RaPiDS (NCT03894215), a two-arm Phase II study evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of balstilimab administered alone or in combination with zalifrelimab in patients with advanced cervical cancer who progressed after first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. The primary end point is objective response rate, and key secondary objectives include safety, duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life outcomes.

14.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 949-958, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103386

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In ARIEL3 (NCT01968213), the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo regardless of biomarker status when used as maintenance treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of the current analyses was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rucaparib in subgroups based on progression-free interval following penultimate platinum, number of prior chemotherapies, and prior use of bevacizumab. METHODS: Patients were randomized 2:1 to rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Within subgroups, progression-free survival was assessed in prespecified, nested cohorts: BRCA-mutant, homologous recombination deficient (BRCA-mutant or wild-type BRCA/high genomic loss of heterozygosity), and the intent-to-treat population. RESULTS: In the intent-to-treat population, median investigator-assessed progression-free survival was 8.2 months with rucaparib versus 4.1 months with placebo (n=151 vs n=76; HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.46, p<0.0001) for patients with progression-free interval 6 to ≤12 months, and 13.6 versus 5.6 months (n=224 vs n=113; HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.52, p<0.0001) for those with progression-free interval >12 months. Median progression-free survival was 10.4 versus 5.4 months (n=231 vs n=124; HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.54, p<0.0001) for patients who had received two prior chemotherapies, and 11.1 versus 5.3 months (n=144 vs n=65; HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.41, p<0.0001) for those who had received ≥3 prior chemotherapies. Median progression-free survival was 10.3 versus 5.4 months (n=83 vs n=43; HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.68, p=0.0004) for patients who had received prior bevacizumab, and 10.9 versus 5.4 months (n=292 vs n=146; HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.45, p<0.0001) for those who had not. Across subgroups, median progression-free survival was also significantly longer with rucaparib versus placebo in the BRCA-mutant and homologous recombination deficient cohorts. Safety was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Rucaparib maintenance treatment significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo irrespective of progression-free interval following penultimate platinum, number of lines of prior chemotherapy, and previous use of bevacizumab.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(2): 375-381, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the phase 3 VELIA/GOG-3005 trial, veliparib added to carboplatin-paclitaxel and continued as maintenance improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to carboplatin-paclitaxel alone in patients with newly diagnosed ovarian carcinoma. Primary analysis of PFS was by investigator (INV) assessment, with a supplemental analysis of PFS by blinded independent central review (BICR). METHODS: Patients received veliparib or placebo with carboplatin-paclitaxel (6 cycles) and as maintenance (30 additional cycles). The primary analysis compared PFS in the veliparib-throughout arm to the carboplatin-paclitaxel only arm in the BRCA mutation (BRCAm), homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), and intention-to-treat (ITT) populations. Exploratory analyses of PFS in BRCA wildtype (BRCAwt), homologous recombination proficient (HRP), and HRD + BRCAwt populations were also performed. PFS per BICR and overall concordance rates between INV and BICR assessments were analyzed. RESULTS: Hazard ratios for PFS by INV and BICR were consistent in each of the primary analysis and exploratory populations. In the ITT population, median PFS per INV was 23.5 months in the veliparib-throughout arm versus 17.3 months in the control arm (hazard ratio [HR] 0.683, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.562-0.831; P < 0.001). Median PFS by BICR was 29.3 months versus 19.2 months (HR 0.687, 95% CI 0.504-0.806). In the ITT population, the overall concordance rates between INV and BICR were 78% and 75% for the veliparib-throughout and control arms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hazard ratios for PFS per BICR and per INV were consistent, with no suggestion of investigator bias. These findings support the reliability of PFS by INV in ovarian cancer trials.

16.
Cancer Med ; 10(11): 3565-3574, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As with other alkylating agents, cardiac dysfunction can occur with trabectedin therapy for advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) or recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) where treatment options for advanced disease are still limited. Cardiac safety for trabectedin monotherapy (T) for STS or in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (T+PLD) for ROC was evaluated in this retrospective postmarketing regulatory commitment. METHODS: Patient data for multiple cardiac-related treatment-emergent adverse events (cTEAEs) were evaluated in pooled analyses of ten phase 2 trials, one phase 3 trial in STS (n = 982), and two phase 3 trials in ROC (n = 1231). RESULTS: Multivariate analyses on pooled trabectedin data revealed that cardiovascular medical history (risk ratio [RR (95% CI)]: 1.90 [1.24-2.91]; p = 0.003) and age ≥65 years (RR [95% CI]: 1.78 [1.12-2.83]; p = 0.014) were associated with increased risk for cTEAEs. Multivariate analyses showed increased risk of experiencing cTEAEs with T+PLD compared to PLD monotherapy (RR [95% CI]: 2.70 [1.75-4.17]; p < 0.0001) and with history of prior cardiac medication (RR [95% CI]: 1.88 [1.16-3.05]; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with STS or ROC who still have limited treatment options, trabectedin may be initiated after carefully considering benefit versus risk. Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01343277; NCT00113607; NCT01846611.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2487, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941784

RESUMO

ARIEL2 (NCT01891344) is a single-arm, open-label phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) rucaparib in relapsed high-grade ovarian carcinoma. In this post hoc exploratory biomarker analysis of pre- and post-platinum ARIEL2 samples, RAD51C and RAD51D mutations and high-level BRCA1 promoter methylation predict response to rucaparib, similar to BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1 methylation loss may be a major cross-resistance mechanism to platinum and PARPi. Genomic scars associated with homologous recombination deficiency are irreversible, persisting even as platinum resistance develops, and therefore are predictive of rucaparib response only in platinum-sensitive disease. The RAS, AKT, and cell cycle pathways may be additional modulators of PARPi sensitivity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
18.
Oncology ; 99(7): 444-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient-reported outcome (PRO) usage in phase I oncology clinical trials, including types of PRO measures and changes over time. METHODS: We analyzed ClinicalTrials.gov records of phase I oncology clinical trials completed by December 2019. RESULTS: Of all eligible trials, 2.3% (129/5,515) reported ≥1 PRO, totaling 181 instances of PRO usage. PRO usage increased over time, from 0.6% (trials initiated before 2000) to 3.4% (trials starting between 2015 and 2019). The most common PRO measures were unspecified (29%), tumor-specific (24%), and generic cancer (19%). CONCLUSION: Although uncommon in phase I oncology clinical trials, PRO usage is increasing over time. PRO measures were often unspecified on ClinicalTrials.gov, suggesting that more precise reporting and standardization are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor do Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(1): 65-71, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the factors associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and the ability to undergo interval tumor reductive surgery (iTRS) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review from April 2013 to March 2019 of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer triaged to NACT based on our standard triage algorithm. Clinicopathologic and treatment data were analyzed for factors associated with response to NACT, outcomes at iTRS, and their impact on progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: 562 patients met inclusion criteria and triaged to NACT following laparoscopy (n = 132) or without laparoscopy (n = 430). 413 patients underwent iTRS (74%). Factors that correlated with a patient reaching iTRS included increasing age (p < 0.001), higher Charlson comorbidity index (p < 0.001), ECOG status 2 or 3 (<0.001), and laparoscopic assessment (<0.001). Patients with CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS had higher rates of complete gross resection (88% vs. 65%, p < 0.001) and improved PFS (16.8 vs. 12.7 months, p < 0.001). Patients receiving dose-dense paclitaxel (76% vs. 60%, p = 0.004) and CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS (85% vs. 66%, p < 0.001) had higher rates of complete radiographic response. On multivariate analysis, germline BRCA 1/2 mutation (p = 0.001), iTRS vs. no surgery (R0, p < 0.001; ≤1 cm, p < 0.001; >1 cm, p < 0.001), dose-dense chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL at iTRS (p = 0.001) were independent significant factors affecting PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Normalization of CA-125 at the time of iTRS following NACT may serve as a surrogate marker for prognosis in this high-risk population. Our NACT cohort experienced improved response rates and PFS with dose-dense therapy compared to conventional dosing.

20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 609-619, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few effective second-line treatments exist for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin, a tissue factor-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in this patient population. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was done across 35 academic centres, hospitals, and community practices in Europe and the USA. The study included patients aged 18 years or older who had recurrent or metastatic squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cervical cancer; disease progression on or after doublet chemotherapy with bevacizumab (if eligible by local standards); who had received two or fewer previous systemic regimens for recurrent or metastatic disease; had measurable disease based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1); and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 2·0 mg/kg (up to a maximum of 200 mg) tisotumab vedotin intravenously once every 3 weeks until disease progression (determined by the independent review committee) or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate based on RECIST (version 1.1), as assessed by the independent review committee. Activity and safety analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of the drug. This study is ongoing with recruitment completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03438396. FINDINGS: 102 patients were enrolled between June 12, 2018, and April 11, 2019; 101 patients received at least one dose of tisotumab vedotin. Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 10·0 months (IQR 6·1-13·0). The confirmed objective response rate was 24% (95% CI 16-33), with seven (7%) complete responses and 17 (17%) partial responses. The most common treatment-related adverse events included alopecia (38 [38%] of 101 patients), epistaxis (30 [30%]), nausea (27 [27%]), conjunctivitis (26 [26%]), fatigue (26 [26%]), and dry eye (23 [23%]). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were reported in 28 (28%) patients and included neutropenia (three [3%] patients), fatigue (two [2%]), ulcerative keratitis (two [2%]), and peripheral neuropathies (two [2%] each with sensory, motor, sensorimotor, and neuropathy peripheral). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13 (13%) patients, the most common of which included peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy (two [2%] patients) and pyrexia (two [2%]). One death due to septic shock was considered by the investigator to be related to therapy. Three deaths unrelated to treatment were reported, including one case of ileus and two unknown causes. INTERPRETATION: Tisotumab vedotin showed clinically meaningful and durable antitumour activity with a manageable and tolerable safety profile in women with previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Given the poor prognosis for this patient population and the low activity of current therapies in this setting, tisotumab vedotin, if approved, would represent a new treatment for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. FUNDING: Genmab, Seagen, Gynaecologic Oncology Group, and European Network of Gynaecological Oncological Trial Groups.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Tromboplastina/análise , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
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