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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2043: 45-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463901

RESUMO

ADAMTS are secreted metalloproteinases implicated in many key biological processes. The 19 different members of this family share an identical domain composition at the level of their amino-terminal portion, whereas the identity and number of the domains forming their carboxy-terminal half are divergent and define distinct ADAMTS subfamilies. Due to their large size, extensive glycosylation, the presence of specific domains, their tendency to form aggregates, their relatively low abundance in tissues and the presence of many disulfide bonds, ADAMTS are very hard to isolate, express, and purify, as either native or recombinant active enzymes. This chapter provides an overview of critical steps to take into account when obtaining these proteases for biochemical and functional investigation.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2043: 55-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463902

RESUMO

ADAMTS constitute a family of 19 secreted metalloproteinases involved in diverse physiopathological conditions. Most of their roles first emerged from analysis of spontaneous human and animal mutations or genetically engineered animals. However, the involved mechanisms and the full repertoire of their functions are still largely unrecognized, in part because they are difficult to produce and purify as recombinant active enzymes. Here we describe protocols, tips, and tricks specifically regarding ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 but still relevant for other ADAMTS.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7050, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728578

RESUMO

Propranolol, a widely used non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, was recently shown to display anticancer properties. Its potential to synergize with certain drugs has been also outlined. However, it is necessary to take into account all the properties of propranolol to select a drug that could be efficiently combined with. Propranolol was reported to block the late phase of autophagy. Hence, we hypothesized that in condition enhancing autophagy flux, cancer cells should be especially sensitive to propranolol. 2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor, is an anti-tumor agent having limited effect in monotherapy notably due to induction of pro-survival autophagy. Here, we report that treatment of cancer cells with propranolol in combination with the glycolysis inhibitor 2DG induced a massive accumulation of autophagosome due to autophagy blockade. The propranolol +2DG treatment efficiently prevents prostate cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, alters mitochondrial morphology, inhibits mitochondrial bioenergetics and aggravates ER stress in vitro and also suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Our study underlines for the first time the interest to take advantage of the ability of propranolol to inhibit autophagy to design new anti-cancer therapies.

4.
J Vasc Surg ; 67(2): 585-595.e3, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a challenging issue. Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression and are considered as valuable circulating biomarkers. Recently, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake detected by positron emission tomography (PET) in AAA was correlated with cellular and molecular alterations involved in wall instability and its potential rupture. Our study aimed at identifying circulating miRNAs correlated with a positive PET that could help discriminate patients at high risk of rupture. METHODS: The level of 372 miRNAs was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction array in plasma from 35 AAA patients displaying no FDG uptake (A0) and 22 patients with a positive PET uptake (A+). The modulated miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and measured in aneurysmal tissues from both groups of patients. RESULTS: Six circulating miRNAs were found significantly modulated in A+ vs A0 patients. They were significantly correlated not only between them but also with the intensity of FDG uptake. Two of them correlated also with the AAA diameter. These miRNAs displayed significant discriminating power between the A+ and A0 groups as determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Three downregulated circulating miRNAs (miR-99b-5p, miR-125b-5p, and miR-204-5p) were also significantly reduced in the aneurysmal tissue, specifically in the FDG-uptake site, compared with a negative zone in the same aneurysm and with A0 aneurysms. They were further significantly inversely correlated with the expression, at the positive uptake site, of some of their potential gene targets, most notably matrix metalloproteinase 13. CONCLUSIONS: Six miRNAs were identified as potential new circulating biomarkers of PET+ AAA. Three of these were similarly modulated in the metabolically active aneurysmal wall and might be directly involved in AAA instability.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Ruptura Aórtica/sangue , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico , Ruptura Aórtica/genética , Bélgica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 91(Pt B): 84-97, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433505

RESUMO

Alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing and alternative cleavage/polyadenylation (referred here as to alternative transcription and splicing) are main instruments to diversify the transcriptome from a limited set of genes. There is a good deal of evidence that chemotherapeutic drugs affect these processes, but the therapeutic incidence of these effects is poorly documented. The scope of this study is to review the impact of chemotherapy on alternative transcription and splicing and to discuss potential implications in cancer therapy. A literature survey identified >2200 events induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. The molecular pathways involved in these regulations are briefly discussed. The GO terms associated with the alternative transcripts are mainly related to cell cycle/division, mRNA processing, DNA repair, macromolecules catabolism and chromatin. A large fraction (43%) of transcripts are also related to the new hallmarks of cancer, mostly genetic instability and replicative immortality. Finally, we ask the question of the impact of alternative transcription and splicing on drug efficacy and of the possible curative benefit of combining chemotherapy and pharmaceutical regulation of this process.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Oncotarget ; 6(13): 11264-80, 2015 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834103

RESUMO

Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Lipogênese , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/genética , Fosforilação , Propranolol/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
7.
Mol Med ; 20: 697-706, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517227

RESUMO

Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in aging populations. Uptake of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) detected by positron emission tomography (PET) is observed in the wall of 12% of AAA (A+), with most of them being symptomatic. We previously showed that the metabolically active areas displayed adventitial inflammation, medial degeneration and molecular alterations prefacing wall rupture. The aim of this study was to identify new factors predictive of rupture. Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the media and adventitia layers from three types of samples: AAA with-out FDG uptake (A0) and with FDG uptake (A+), both at the positive spot (A+(Pos)) and at a paired distant negative site (A+(Neg)) of the same aneurysm. Follow-up studies included reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A large number of genes, including matrix metalloproteinases, collagens and cytokines as well as genes involved in osteochondral development, were differentially expressed in the A+(Pos) compared with A+(Neg). Moreover, a series of genes (notably CCL18) was differentially expressed both in the A+(Neg) and A+(Pos) compared with the A0. A significant increase of CCL18 was also found at the protein level in the aortic wall and in peripheral blood of A+ patients compared with A0. In conclusion, new factors, including CCL18, involved in the progression of AAA and, potentially, in their rupture were identified by a genome-wide analysis of PET-positive and -negative human aortic tissue samples. Further work is needed to study their role in AAA destabilization and weakening.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Quimiocinas CC/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CC/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Risco , Transcriptoma
8.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 65: 137-46, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24157418

RESUMO

Mature heart valves are complex structures consisting of three highly organized extracellular matrix layers primarily composed of collagens, proteoglycans and elastin. Collectively, these diverse matrix components provide all the necessary biomechanical properties for valve function throughout life. In contrast to healthy valves, myxomatous valve disease is the most common cause of mitral valve prolapse in the human population and is characterized by an abnormal abundance of proteoglycans within the valve tri-laminar structure. Despite the clinical significance, the etiology of this phenotype is not known. Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that we previously showed to be required for establishing heart valve structure during remodeling stages of valvulogenesis. In this study, we report that remodeling heart valves from Scx null mice express decreased levels of proteoglycans, particularly chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), while overexpression in embryonic avian valve precursor cells and adult porcine valve interstitial cells increases CSPGs. Using these systems we further identify that Scx is positively regulated by canonical Tgfß2 signaling during this process and this is attenuated by MAPK activity. Finally, we show that Scx is increased in myxomatous valves from human patients and mouse models, and overexpression in human mitral valve interstitial cells modestly increases proteoglycan expression consistent with myxomatous mitral valve phenotypes. Together, these studies identify an important role for Scx in regulating proteoglycans in embryonic and mature valve cells and suggest that imbalanced regulation could influence myxomatous pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Valvas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Valvas Cardíacas/embriologia , Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Valva Mitral/embriologia , Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Valva Mitral/patologia , Células NIH 3T3 , Sus scrofa
9.
J Nucl Med ; 54(10): 1740-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24009278

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) leads to a significant morbidity and mortality in aging populations, and its prediction would be most beneficial to public health. Spots positive for uptake of (18)F-FDG detected by PET are found in 12% of AAA patients (PET+), who are most often symptomatic and at high rupture risk. Comparing the (18)F-FDG-positive site with a negative site from the same aneurysm and with samples collected from AAA patients with no (18)F-FDG uptake should allow the discrimination of biologic alterations that would help in identifying markers predictive of rupture. METHODS: Biopsies of the AAA wall were obtained from patients with no (18)F-FDG uptake (PET0, n = 10) and from PET+ patients (n = 8), both at the site positive for uptake and at a distant negative site of the aneurysmal wall. Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and zymography. RESULTS: The sites of the aneurysmal wall with a positive (18)F-FDG uptake were characterized by a strikingly increased number of adventitial inflammatory cells, highly proliferative, and by a drastic reduction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media as compared with their negative counterpart and with the PET0 wall. The expression of a series of genes involved in the maintenance and remodeling of the wall was significantly modified in the negative sites of PET+, compared with the PET0 wall, suggesting a systemic alteration of the aneurysmal wall. Furthermore, a striking increase of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), notably the MMP1 and MMP13 collagenases, was observed in the positive sites, mainly in the adventitia. Moreover, PET+ patients were characterized by a higher circulating C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: Positive (18)F-FDG uptake in the aneurysmal wall is associated with an active inflammatory process characterized by a dense infiltrate of proliferating leukocytes in the adventitia and an increased circulating C-reactive protein. Moreover, a loss of SMC in the media and alterations of the expression of genes involved in the remodeling of adventitia and collagen degradation potentially participate in the weakening of the aneurysmal wall preceding rupture.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Ruptura Aórtica/metabolismo , Ruptura Aórtica/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/imunologia , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/imunologia , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Prognóstico
10.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e69687, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23936078

RESUMO

Temperature variations in cells, tissues and organs may occur in a number of circumstances. We report here that reducing temperature of cells in culture to 25°C for 5 days followed by a rewarming to 37°C affects cell biology and induces a cellular stress response. Cell proliferation was almost arrested during mild hypothermia and not restored upon returning to 37°C. The expression of cold shock genes, CIRBP and RBM3, was increased at 25°C and returned to basal level upon rewarming while that of heat shock protein HSP70 was inversely regulated. An activation of pro-apoptotic pathways was evidenced by FACS analysis and increased Bax/Bcl2 and BclX(S/L) ratios. Concomitant increased expression of the autophagosome-associated protein LC3II and AKT phosphorylation suggested a simultaneous activation of autophagy and pro-survival pathways. However, a large proportion of cells were dying 24 hours after rewarming. The occurrence of DNA damage was evidenced by the increased phosphorylation of p53 and H2AX, a hallmark of DNA breaks. The latter process, as well as apoptosis, was strongly reduced by the radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, indicating a causal relationship between ROS, DNA damage and cell death during mild cold shock and rewarming. These data bring new insights into the potential deleterious effects of mild hypothermia and rewarming used in various research and therapeutical fields.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reaquecimento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
11.
Aorta (Stamford) ; 1(2): 123-5, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26798684

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a risk factor for several cardiovascular disorders such as intracranial aneurysm or aortic dissection, preferentially occurring at the thoracic or abdominal level. A 47-year-old man suffering from ADPKD had renal transplantation. Sixteen hours after surgery, he presented with left leg pain. Clinical and ultrasound examination revealed thrombosis of the external left iliac artery. Therefore, we decided to perform intra-arterial angiography to evaluate the possibility of an endovascular treatment. Aorto-femorography showed an obstruction of the external left iliac artery that was found during emergency surgery, consecutive to a dissection, which occurred following the surgery for kidney transplantation. The resected segment of the dissected vessel was analyzed by histology. Collagen fibers organization and density in the adventitia and smooth muscle cells density in the media were similar in the dissected and a normal artery from a healthy donor. By contrast, an almost complete disappearance and fragmentation of elastic lamellae were observed in the media of the dissected artery, most likely responsible for the weakening of the arterial wall and its dissection. Association between ADPKD and single dissection of the iliac artery has been rarely reported. Relationship between inactivation of polycystin/PKD genes and elastic fibers degradation through elevated TGFß signaling and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) elastolytic activity, as recently reported in ADPKD, would be worth investigating.

12.
Commun Integr Biol ; 5(1): 99-101, 2012 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22482023

RESUMO

The small GTPases of the Rho family are key signaling molecules regulating a plethora of biological pathways. They can exert diverse, sometimes opposite, contributions to specific cellular processes explaining why their regulation and their crosstalk must be finely tuned. Several mechanisms driving crosstalk between Rho GTPases have been described in the literature. They implicate proteins regulating their activity or common downstream effectors. Among the proteins regulating Rho GTPases cycling, RhoGDIs were viewed until very recently as passive inhibitors. Here, we will focus on recent data supporting a role for RhoGDIalpha in the crosstalk between RhoGTPases and present our results suggesting that "preferential" RhoGDIalpha-mediated crosstalk takes place between closely related Rho GTPases.

13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 93(3): 480-9, 2012 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22180604

RESUMO

AIMS: Although an excessive extracellular matrix remodelling has been well described in myxomatous mitral valve (MMV), the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Our goal was to identify dysregulated genes in human MMV and then to evaluate their functional role in the progression of the disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dysregulated genes were investigated by transcriptomic, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of the P2 segment collected from human idiopathic MMV during valvuloplasty (n = 23) and from healthy control valves (n = 17). The most striking results showed a decreased expression of two families of genes: the metallothioneins-1 and -2 (MT1/2) and members of the ADAMTS. The mechanistic consequences of the reduced level of MT1/2 were evaluated by silencing their expression in normal valvular interstitial cells (VICs) cultures. The knock-down of MT1/2 resulted in the up-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-ß2). Most importantly, TGF-ß2 was also found significantly increased in MMV tissues. The activation of VICs in vitro by TGF-ß2 induced a down-regulation of ADAMTS-1 and an accumulation of versican as observed in human MMV. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrate for the first time that MMV are characterized by reduced levels of MT1/2 accompanied by an up-regulation of TGF-ß2. In turn, increased TGF-ß2 signalling induces down-regulation of aggrecanases and up-regulation of versican, two co-operating processes that potentially participate in the development of the pathology.


Assuntos
Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Proteínas ADAM/genética , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS1 , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metalotioneína/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Versicanas/metabolismo
14.
Mol Biol Cell ; 22(17): 3263-75, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21757538

RESUMO

RhoGTPases are key signaling molecules regulating main cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, survival, and gene expression through interactions with various effectors. Within the RhoA-related subclass, RhoA and RhoC contribute to several steps of tumor growth, and the regulation of their expression affects cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate their respective contributions to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by using models of reduced or forced expression. The silencing of RhoC, but not of RhoA, increased the expression of genes encoding tumor suppressors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1), and decreased migration and the anchorage-independent growth in vitro. In vivo, RhoC small interfering RNA (siRhoC) impaired tumor growth. Of interest, the simultaneous knockdown of RhoC and NAG-1 repressed most of the siRhoC-related effects, demonstrating the central role of NAG-1. In addition of being induced by RhoC silencing, NAG-1 was also largely up-regulated in cells overexpressing RhoA. The silencing of RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDIα) and the overexpression of a RhoA mutant unable to bind RhoGDIα suggested that the effect of RhoC silencing is indirect and results from the up-regulation of the RhoA level through competition for RhoGDIα. This study demonstrates the dynamic balance inside the RhoGTPase network and illustrates its biological relevance in cancer progression.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Inibidores de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Inibidor alfa de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho-Específico , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína de Ligação a GTP rhoC
15.
Curr Pharm Des ; 16(35): 3864-76, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21158727

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, genes consist in coding sequences (exons) interspersed with non-coding ones (introns). The regulation of alternative inclusion/exclusion of exons, or part of exons, during the maturation of the pre-mRNA into mRNA (alternative splicing) allows a dramatic increase of the protein versus the gene repertoire. In a number of cases, alternative splicing decision generates proteins with distinct, sometimes opposite, functions from a given gene. Angiogenesis is the process of vascularisation in physiological conditions and a series of pathologies, including cancer where it favours tumour progression and dissemination of metastasis. In this issue, we discuss some key examples showing how alternative splicing may induce a switch from anti-angiogenic to pro-angiogenic functions and reciprocally. For some of these splicing events, the molecular mechanisms that trigger alternative splicing toward one or the other direction start to be elucidated. The emergence of strategies enabling to regulate alternative splicing opens new routes for anti-angiogenic therapies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Neovascularização Patológica , Éxons , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
J Cell Biol ; 179(6): 1261-73, 2007 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18086921

RESUMO

Ultraviolet B and genotoxic drugs induce the expression of a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) splice variant (VEGF111) encoded by exons 1-4 and 8 in many cultured cells. Although not detected in a series of normal human and mouse tissue, VEGF111 expression is induced in MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice upon treatment by camptothecin. The skipping of exons that contain proteolytic cleavage sites and extracellular matrix-binding domains makes VEGF111 diffusible and resistant to proteolysis. Recombinant VEGF111 activates VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and porcine aortic endothelial cells expressing VEGF-R2. The mitogenic and chemotactic activity and VEGF111's ability to promote vascular network formation during embyonic stem cell differentiation are similar to those of VEGF121 and 165. Tumors in nude mice formed by HEK293 cells expressing VEGF111 develop a more widespread network of numerous small vessels in the peritumoral tissue than those expressing other isoforms. Its potent angiogenic activity and remarkable resistance to proteolysis makes VEGF111 a potential adverse factor during chemotherapy but a beneficial therapeutic tool for ischemic diseases.


Assuntos
Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Glicosilação , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
17.
Development ; 133(8): 1587-96, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16556917

RESUMO

Mutations in ADAMTS2, a procollagen amino-propeptidase, cause severe skin fragility, designated as dermatosparaxis in animals, and a subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (dermatosparactic type or VIIC) in humans. Not all collagen-rich tissues are affected to the same degree, which suggests compensation by the ADAMTS2 homologs ADAMTS3 and ADAMTS14. In situ hybridization of Adamts2, Adamts3 and Adamts14, and of the genes encoding the major fibrillar collagens, Col1a1, Col2a1 and Col3a1, during mouse embryogenesis, demonstrated distinct tissue-specific, overlapping expression patterns of the protease and substrate genes. Adamts3, but not Adamts2 or Adamts14, was co-expressed with Col2a1 in cartilage throughout development, and with Col1a1 in bone and musculotendinous tissues. ADAMTS3 induced procollagen I processing in dermatosparactic fibroblasts, suggesting a role in procollagen I processing during musculoskeletal development. Adamts2, but not Adamts3 or Adamts14, was co-expressed with Col3a1 in many tissues including the lungs and aorta, and Adamts2(-/-) mice showed widespread defects in procollagen III processing. Adamts2(-/-) mice had abnormal lungs, characterized by a decreased parenchymal density. However, the aorta and collagen fibrils in the aortic wall appeared normal. Although Adamts14 lacked developmental tissue-specific expression, it was co-expressed with Adamts2 in mature dermis, which possibly explains the presence of some processed skin procollagen in dermatosparaxis. The data show how evolutionarily related proteases with similar substrate preferences may have distinct biological roles owing to tissue-specific gene expression, and provide insights into collagen biosynthesis and the pathobiology of dermatosparaxis.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Colágeno/biossíntese , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/enzimologia , Pró-Colágeno N-Endopeptidase/metabolismo , Pró-Colágeno/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas ADAM/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS , Proteína ADAMTS4 , Animais , Osso e Ossos/embriologia , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno Tipo II/biossíntese , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Derme/enzimologia , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pró-Colágeno N-Endopeptidase/genética , Dente/embriologia
18.
J Biol Chem ; 280(12): 10938-44, 2005 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15657063

RESUMO

The extracellular pH (pHe) of tumor tissues is often acidic, which can induce the expression of several proteins. We previously showed that production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was induced by culturing cells at acidic pHe (5.4-6.5). Here we have investigated the signal transduction pathway by which acidic pHe induces MMP-9 expression. We found that acidic pHe (5.9) activated phospholipase D (PLD), and inhibition of PLD activity by 1-butanol and Myr-ARF6 suppressed the acidic pHe-induced MMP-9 expression. Exogenous PLD, but not phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC or PLA2, mimicked MMP-9 induction by acidic pHe. Western blot analysis revealed that acidic pHe increased the steady-state levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38 and that the PLD inhibitors suppressed these increases. Using 5'-deletion mutant constructs of the MMP-9 promoter, we found that the acidic pHe-responsive region was located at nucleotide -670 to -531, a region containing the NF kappa B binding site. A mutation into the NF kappa B binding site reduced, but not completely, the acidic pHe-induced MMP-9 promoter activity, and NF kappa B activity was induced by acidic pHe. Pharmacological inhibitors specific for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (PD098059) and p38 (SB203580) attenuated the acidic pHe-induced NF kappa B activity and MMP-9 expression. These data suggest that PLD, mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38), and NF kappa B mediate the acidic pHe signaling to induce MMP-9 expression. A transcription factor(s) other than NF kappa B may also be involved in the MMP-9 expression.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Melanoma Experimental/enzimologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Fosfolipase D/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Melanoma Experimental/secundário , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia
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