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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416404

RESUMO

We propose the hypothesis that small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by virtue of their capacity to exchange lipids, affecting neuronal membrane composition and vascular and synaptic functions. Concentrations of small HDLs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were measured in 180 individuals ≥60 years of age using ion mobility methodology. Small HDL concentrations in CSF were positively associated with performance in three domains of cognitive function independent of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status, age, sex, and years of education. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between levels of small HDLs in CSF and plasma. Further studies will be aimed at determining whether specific components of small HDL exchange across the blood, brain, and CSF barriers, and developing approaches to exploit small HDLs for therapeutic purposes.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365899

RESUMO

AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is among the commonest attributable risk factors for heart failure (HF). We compared clinical characteristics associated with the progression to HF in patients with or without a history of MI in the HOMAGE cohort and validated our results in UK Biobank. METHODS AND RESULTS: During a follow-up of 5.2 (3.5-5.9) years, 177 (2.4%) patients with prior MI and 370 (1.92%) patients without prior MI experienced HF onset in the HOMAGE cohort (n = 26 478, history of MI: n = 7241). Older age, male sex and higher heart rate were significant risk factors of HF onset in patients with and without prior MI. Lower renal function was more strongly associated with HF onset in patients with prior MI. Higher body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and blood glucose were significantly associated with HF onset only in patients without prior MI (all p for interactions <0.05). In the UK Biobank (n = 500 001, history of MI: n = 4555), higher BMI, glycated haemoglobin, diabetes and hypertension had a stronger association with HF onset in participants without prior MI compared to participants with MI (all p for interactions <0.05). CONCLUSION: The importance of clinical risk factors associated with HF onset is dependent on whether the patient has had a prior MI. Diabetes and hypertension are associated with new-onset HF only in the absence of MI history. Patients may benefit from targeted risk management based on MI history.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325085

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the treatment effects of ticagrelor monotherapy in the very high-risk cohort of patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the TWILIGHT trial, after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin post-PCI, event-free patients were randomized to either aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor for 12 months. Those with available information on DM and CKD status were included in this subanalysis and were stratified by the presence or absence of either condition: 3391 (54.1%) had neither DM nor CKD (DM-/CKD-), 1822 (29.0%) had DM only (DM+/CKD-), 561 (8.9%) had CKD only (DM-/CKD+), and 8.0% had both DM and CKD (DM+/CKD+). The incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding did not differ according to DM/CKD status (p-trend = 0.13), but there was a significant increase in BARC 3 or 5 bleeding (p-trend<0.001) as well as the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (p-trend<0.001). Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced bleeding events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin across all four groups, including DM+/CKD+ patients with respect to BARC 2-5 (4.5% vs. 8.7%; HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-1.01) as well as BARC 3-5 (0.8% vs. 5.3%; HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.53) bleeding, with no evidence of heterogeneity. The risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was similar between treatment arms across all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the presence of DM, CKD, and their combination, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischemic events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199421

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can provide haemodynamic information and may influence the response to spironolactone and other heart failure (HF) therapies. We aimed to study patient characteristics and circulating protein associations with LVEF, and whether LVEF influenced the response to spironolactone. METHODS AND RESULTS: HOMAGE enrolled patients aged >60 years at high risk of developing HF with a LVEF ≥45%. Overall, 527 patients were randomized to either spironolactone or standard of care for ≈9 months, and 276 circulating proteins were measured using Olink® technology. A total of 364 patients had available LVEF determined by the Simpson's biplane method. The respective LVEF tertiles were: tertile 1: <60% (n = 122), tertile 2: 60%-65% (n = 121), and tertile 3: >65% (n = 121). Patients with a LVEF >65% had smaller left ventricular chamber size and volumes, and lower natriuretic peptide levels. Compared to patients with a LVEF <60%, those with LVEF >65% had higher levels of circulating c-c motif chemokine ligand-23 and interleukin-8, and lower levels of tissue plasminogen activator, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), S100 calcium binding protein A12, and collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1). Spironolactone significantly reduced the circulating levels of BNP and COL1A1 without significant treatment-by-LVEF heterogeneity: BNP change ß = -0.36 log2 and COL1A1 change ß = -0.16 log2 (p < 0.0001 for both; interaction p > 0.1 for both). Spironolactone increased LVEF from baseline to month 9 by 1.1% (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Patients with higher LVEF had higher circulating levels of chemokines and inflammatory markers and lower levels of stretch, injury, and fibrosis markers. Spironolactone reduced the circulating levels of natriuretic peptides and type 1 collagen, and increased LVEF.

5.
EuroIntervention ; 17(16): 1330-1339, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the TWILIGHT trial, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was shown to be a safe bleeding avoidance strategy in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after three-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI, according to DES type. METHODS: In the current sub-analysis from TWILIGHT, patients were stratified into three groups based on DES type: durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES), durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (DP-ZES), and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES). Bleeding and ischaemic outcomes were assessed at one year after randomisation. RESULTS: Out of 5,769 patients, 3,014 (52.2%) had DP-EES, 1,350 (23.4%) had DP-ZES and 1,405 (24.4%) had BP-DES. Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy had significantly lower BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding compared with DAPT; DP-EES (3.8% vs 6.7%; HR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.41-0.78), DP-ZES (4.6% vs 6.9%; HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42-1.04) and BP-DES (4.2% vs 7.9%; HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; pinteraction=0.76). Ticagrelor monotherapy resulted in similar rates of death, MI, or stroke: DP-EES (4.2% vs 4.3%; HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37); DP-ZES (4.1% vs 3.1%; HR 1.32; 95% CI: 0.75-2.33); BP-DES (3.9% vs 4.2%; HR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54-1.55; pinteraction=0.60). In both unadjusted and covariate-adjusted analyses, DES type was not associated with any differences in ischaemic or bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short DAPT duration lowered bleeding complications without increasing the ischaemic risk, irrespective of DES type. We observed no significant differences among DES types.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Everolimo/farmacologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Stents , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 8(2): 149-156, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822033

RESUMO

AIMS: Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of developing heart failure (HF). The effect of spironolactone on BP of patients at risk of developing HF is yet to be determined. To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on the BP of patients at risk for HF and whether renin can predict spironolactone's effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: HOMAGE (Heart OMics in Aging) was a prospective multicentre randomized open-label blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial including 527 patients at risk for developing HF randomly assigned to either spironolactone (25-50 mg/day) or usual care alone for a maximum of 9 months. Sitting BP was assessed at baseline, Months 1 and 9 (or last visit). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), mixed effects models, and structural modelling equations was used. The median (percentile25-75) age was 73 (69-79) years, 26% were female, and >75% had history of hypertension. Overall, the baseline BP was 142/78 mmHg. Patients with higher BP were older, more likely to have diabetes and less likely to have coronary artery disease, had greater left ventricular mass (LVM), and left atrial volume (LAV). Compared with usual care, by last visit, spironolactone changed SBP by -10.3 (-13.0 to -7.5) mmHg and DBP by -3.2 (-4.8 to -1.7) mmHg (P < 0.001 for both). A higher proportion of patients on spironolactone had controlled BP <130/80 mmHg (36 vs. 26%; P = 0.014). Lower baseline renin levels predicted a greater response to spironolactone (interactionP = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Spironolactone had a clinically important BP-lowering effect. Spironolactone should be considered for lowering blood pressure in patients who are at risk of developing HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Espironolactona , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 93, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256586

RESUMO

The common brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced activity-dependent BDNF release and increased risk for anxiety disorders and PTSD. Here we behaviorally phenotyped a novel Val66Met rat model with an equivalent valine to methionine substitution in the rat Bdnf gene (Val68Met). In a three-day fear conditioning protocol of fear learning and extinction, adult rats with the Met/Met genotype demonstrated impaired fear memory compared to Val/Met rats and Val/Val controls, with no genotype differences in fear learning or extinction. This deficit in fear memory occurred irrespective of the sex of the animals and was not seen in adolescence (4 weeks of age). There were no changes in open-field locomotor activity or anxiety measured in the elevated plus maze (EPM) nor in other types of memory measured using the novel-object recognition test or Y-maze. BDNF exon VI expression in the dorsal hippocampus was higher and BDNF protein level in the ventral hippocampus was lower in female Val/Met rats than female Val/Val rats, with no other genotype differences, including in total BDNF, BDNF long, or BDNF IV mRNA. These data suggest a specific role for the BDNF Met/Met genotype in fear memory in rats. Further studies are required to investigate gene-environment interactions in this novel animal model.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Medo , Feminino , Genótipo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratos
8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4624-4634, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662382

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) represent a prevalent subgroup among those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early aspirin discontinuation after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has emerged as a bleeding avoidance strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in a contemporary HBR population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial evaluated the treatment effects of early aspirin withdrawal followed by ticagrelor monotherapy in HBR patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomized to 12 months of aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor. A total of 1064 (17.2%) met the Academic Research Consortium definition for HBR. Ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in HBR (6.3% vs. 11.4%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.82) and non-HBR patients (3.5% vs. 5.9%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.77) with similar relative (Pinteraction = 0.67) but a trend towards greater absolute risk reduction in the former [-5.1% vs. -2.3%; difference in absolute risk differences (ARDs) -2.8%, 95% CI -6.4% to 0.8%, P = 0.130]. A similar pattern was observed for more severe BARC 3 or 5 bleeding with a larger absolute risk reduction in HBR patients (-3.5% vs. -0.5%; difference in ARDs -3.0%, 95% CI -5.2% to -0.8%, P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between treatment arms, irrespective of HBR status. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who completed 3-month DAPT without experiencing major adverse events, aspirin discontinuation followed by ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced bleeding without increasing ischaemic events, compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The absolute risk reduction in major bleeding was larger in HBR than non-HBR patients.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4683-4693, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423374

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prespecified subanalysis of the TWILIGHT trial, we evaluated the treatment effects of ticagrelor with or without aspirin according to renal function. The trial enrolled patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation who fulfilled at least one clinical and one angiographic high-risk criterion. Chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, was a clinical study entry criterion. Following a 3-month period of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo on top of ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. Of the 6835 patients randomized and with available eGFR at baseline, 1111 (16.3%) had CKD. Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in both patients with [4.6% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.80] and without (4.0% vs. 6.7%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75; Pinteraction = 0.508) CKD, but the absolute risk reduction was greater in the former group. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were not significantly different between the two randomized groups irrespective of the presence (7.9% vs. 5.7%; HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.88-2.22) or absence of (3.2% vs. 3.6%; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20; Pinteraction = 0.111) CKD. CONCLUSION: Among CKD patients undergoing PCI, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischaemic events as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Circulation ; 144(18): 1476-1484, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational and small, randomized studies suggest that influenza vaccine may reduce future cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind trial to compare inactivated influenza vaccine with saline placebo administered shortly after myocardial infarction (MI; 99.7% of patients) or high-risk stable coronary heart disease (0.3%). The primary end point was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis at 12 months. A hierarchical testing strategy was used for the key secondary end points: all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, and stent thrombosis. RESULTS: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the data safety and monitoring board recommended to halt the trial before attaining the prespecified sample size. Between October 1, 2016, and March 1, 2020, 2571 participants were randomized at 30 centers across 8 countries. Participants assigned to influenza vaccine totaled 1290 and individuals assigned to placebo equaled 1281; of these, 2532 received the study treatment (1272 influenza vaccine and 1260 placebo) and were included in the modified intention to treat analysis. Over the 12-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 67 participants (5.3%) assigned influenza vaccine and 91 participants (7.2%) assigned placebo (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.52-0.99]; P=0.040). Rates of all-cause death were 2.9% and 4.9% (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89]; P=0.010), rates of cardiovascular death were 2.7% and 4.5%, (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.90]; P=0.014), and rates of MI were 2.0% and 2.4% (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.50-1.46]; P=0.57) in the influenza vaccine and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination early after an MI or in high-risk coronary heart disease resulted in a lower risk of a composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis, and a lower risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death, as well, at 12 months compared with placebo. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02831608.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(13): 1434-1446, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: As the risk for bleeding and ischemic complications after PCI increases with age, the authors conducted a pre-specified analysis of the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention) trial to evaluate the possible benefits of ticagrelor monotherapy according to age. METHODS: The TWILIGHT trial enrolled patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents who fulfilled at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic high-risk criterion. Age ≥65 years was a clinical entry criterion. After 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, event-free patients were randomized to ticagrelor plus placebo or ticagrelor plus aspirin for an additional 12 months. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The key secondary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 3,113 patients (47.7%) were ≥65 years of age. At 1 year after randomization, ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (4.5% vs. 8.2%; hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 to 0.71) without increasing ischemic events (4.2% vs. 4.4%; hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.35) compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin among patients ≥65 years of age. These findings were consistent in patients <65 years of age with respect to the primary (pinteraction = 0.62) and key secondary (pinteraction = 0.77) endpoints and across different age categories. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of ticagrelor monotherapy following 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy significantly reduced clinically relevant bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin without an increase in ischemic events, irrespective of age.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ticagrelor , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3512-3520, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156155

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is common in both men and women, yet disease pathophysiology, presentation, and progression differ between sexes. Studies addressing whether biomarkers predict new onset HF sex-specifically are scarce. This study therefore aims to test the sex-specificity of 252 protein biomarkers for new-onset HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A matched case-control design in patients selected from cohorts within the HOMAGE consortium was used. Cases (new-onset HF, n = 562) and controls (n = 780) were matched for cohort (PREDICTOR, HEALTH-ABC, & PROSPER), follow-up time (defined as time from entry to incident HF), and age. Incident HF was defined as first hospitalization for HF. Targeted plasma proteins (n = 252) were measured using Proximity Extension Assay technology from O-link. To look for sex differences for new onset HF, we adjusted for cohort, age, and baseline clinical parameters. At baseline, women had a biomarker profile reflecting activated metabolism and immune responses. However, none of the biomarkers had a significant interaction with sex in predicting new onset HF, but four biomarkers had a trend towards sex-specificity (P < 0.013). E-selectin and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist were more female-specific, whereas IL17A and CHIT1 tended to be male sex-specific for incident HF. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of biomarkers associated with incident HF did not significantly differ between women and men, despite clear differences in biomarkers at baseline.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(9): 1032-1041, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991416

RESUMO

Importance: Shortened dual antiplatelet therapy followed by potent P2Y12 receptor inhibitor monotherapy reduces bleeding without increasing ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective: To explore sex differences and evaluate the association of sex with outcomes among patients treated with ticagrelor monotherapy vs ticagrelor plus aspirin. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of TWILIGHT, an investigator-initiated, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at 187 sites across 11 countries. Study participants included patients who underwent successful PCI with drug-eluting stents, were planned for discharge with ticagrelor plus aspirin, and who had at least 1 clinical and at least 1 angiographic feature associated with high risk of ischemic or bleeding events. Data were analyzed from May to July 2020. Interventions: At 3 months after PCI, patients adherent to ticagrelor and aspirin without major adverse event were randomized to either aspirin or placebo for an additional 12 months along with ticagrelor. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding at 12 months after randomization. The primary ischemic end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Of 9006 enrolled patients, 7119 underwent randomization (mean [SD] age, 63.9 [10.2] years; 5421 [76.1%] men). Women were older (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [9.6] years in women vs 63.4 [10.3] years in men) with higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (347 women [21.2%] vs 764 men [14.7%]). The primary bleeding end point occurred more often in women than men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.64; P = .01). After multivariate adjustment, incremental bleeding risk associated with female sex was no longer significant (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.95-1.52; P = .12). Ischemic end points were similar between sexes. Ticagrelor plus placebo vs ticagrelor plus aspirin was associated with lower risk of BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding in women (adjusted HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.92; P = .02) and men (adjusted HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.44-0.73; P < .001; P for interaction = .69). Ischemic end points were similar between treatment groups in both sexes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the higher bleeding risk in women compared with men was mostly attributable to baseline differences, whereas ischemic events were similar between sexes. In this high-risk PCI population, the benefits of early aspirin withdrawal with continuation of ticagrelor were generally comparable in women and men. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02270242.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suspensão de Tratamento
14.
JCI Insight ; 6(5)2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682798

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease with no approved disease-modifying therapies. Multiplications, mutations, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SNCA gene, encoding α-synuclein (aSyn) protein, either cause or increase risk for PD. Intracellular accumulations of aSyn are pathological hallmarks of PD. Taken together, reduction of aSyn production may provide a disease-modifying therapy for PD. We show that antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) reduce production of aSyn in rodent preformed fibril (PFF) models of PD. Reduced aSyn production leads to prevention and removal of established aSyn pathology and prevents dopaminergic cell dysfunction. In addition, we address the translational potential of the approach through characterization of human SNCA-targeting ASOs that efficiently suppress the human SNCA transcript in vivo. We demonstrate broad activity and distribution of the human SNCA ASOs throughout the nonhuman primate brain and a corresponding decrease in aSyn cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels. Taken together, these data suggest that, by inhibiting production of aSyn, it may be possible to reverse established pathology; thus, these data support the development of SNCA ASOs as a potential disease-modifying therapy for PD and related synucleinopathies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
15.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(4): 268-277, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to further understand the mechanisms underlying effect of spironolactone and assessed its impact on multiple plasma protein biomarkers and their respective underlying biologic pathways. BACKGROUND: In addition to their beneficial effects in established heart failure (HF), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may act upstream on mechanisms, preventing incident HF. In people at risk for developing HF, the HOMAGE (Heart OMics in AGEing) trial showed that spironolactone treatment could provide antifibrotic and antiremodeling effects, potentially slowing the progression to HF. METHODS: Baseline, 1-month, and 9-month (or last visit) plasma samples of HOMAGE participants were measured for protein biomarkers (n = 276) by using Olink Proseek-Multiplex cardiovascular and inflammation panels (Olink, Uppsala, Sweden). The effect of spironolactone on biomarkers was assessed by analysis of covariance and explored by knowledge-based network analysis. RESULTS: A total of 527 participants were enrolled; 265 were randomized to spironolactone (25 to 50 mg/day) and 262 to standard care ("control"). The median (interquartile range) age was 73 years (69 to 79 years), and 26% were female. Spironolactone reduced biomarkers of collagen metabolism (e.g., COL1A1, MMP-2); brain natriuretic peptide; and biomarkers related to metabolic processes (e.g., PAPPA), inflammation, and thrombosis (e.g., IL17A, VEGF, and urokinase). Spironolactone increased biomarkers that reflect the blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (e.g., renin) and increased the levels of adipokines involved in the anti-inflammatory response (e.g., RARRES2) and biomarkers of hemostasis maintenance (e.g., tPA, UPAR), myelosuppressive activity (e.g., CCL16), insulin suppression (e.g., RETN), and inflammatory regulation (e.g., IL-12B). CONCLUSIONS: Proteomic analyses suggest that spironolactone exerts pleiotropic effects including reduction in fibrosis, inflammation, thrombosis, congestion, and vascular function improvement, all of which may mediate cardiovascular protective effects, potentially slowing progression toward heart failure. (HOMAGE [Bioprofiling Response to Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists for the Prevention of Heart Failure]; NCT02556450).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Espironolactona , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Proteômica , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
16.
Neurobiol Dis ; 148: 105175, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188920

RESUMO

Prevalent in approximately 20% of the worldwide human population, the rs6265 (also called 'Val66Met') single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a common genetic variant that can alter therapeutic responses in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Possession of the variant Met allele results in decreased activity-dependent release of BDNF. Given the resurgent worldwide interest in neural transplantation for PD and the biological relevance of BDNF, the current studies examined the effects of the rs6265 SNP on therapeutic efficacy and side-effect development following primary dopamine (DA) neuron transplantation. Considering the significant reduction in BDNF release associated with rs6265, we hypothesized that rs6265-mediated dysfunctional BDNF signaling contributes to the limited clinical benefit observed in a subpopulation of PD patients despite robust survival of grafted DA neurons, and further, that this mutation contributes to the development of aberrant graft-induced dyskinesias (GID). To this end, we generated a CRISPR knock-in rat model of the rs6265 BDNF SNP to examine for the first time the influence of a common genetic polymorphism on graft survival, functional efficacy, and side-effect liability, comparing these parameters between wild-type (Val/Val) rats and those homozygous for the variant Met allele (Met/Met). Counter to our hypothesis, the current research indicates that Met/Met rats show enhanced graft-associated therapeutic efficacy and a paradoxical enhancement of graft-derived neurite outgrowth compared to wild-type rats. However, consistent with our hypothesis, we demonstrate that the rs6265 genotype in the host rat is strongly linked to development of GID, and that this behavioral phenotype is significantly correlated with neurochemical signatures of atypical glutamatergic neurotransmission by grafted DA neurons.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transplante de Células/métodos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/transplante , Discinesias/genética , Animais , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células/efeitos adversos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/etiologia , Discinesias/etiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Simpatolíticos/toxicidade , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(37): 3533-3545, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085967

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ticagrelor monotherapy on clinically relevant bleeding and major ischaemic events in relation to clinical presentation with and without non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a pre-specified subgroup analysis of The Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention (TWILIGHT) trial, which enrolled 9006 patients with high-risk features undergoing PCI with DES. After 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ticagrelor plus aspirin, 7119 adherent and event-free patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to ticagrelor plus placebo versus ticagrelor plus aspirin for 12 months. The primary outcome was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding while the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke was the key secondary outcome. Among patients with NSTE-ACS (n = 4614), ticagrelor monotherapy reduced BARC 2, 3, or 5 bleeding by 53% [3.6% vs. 7.6%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.61; P < 0.001) and in stable patients (n = 2503) by 24% (4.8% vs. 6.2%; HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.54-1.06; P = 0.11; nominal Pint = 0.03). Rates of all-cause death, MI, or stroke among those with (4.3% vs. 4.4%; HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.74-1.28; P = 0.84) and without (3.1% vs. 3.2%; HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.61-1.49; P = 0.85) NSTE-ACS were similar between treatment arms irrespective of clinical presentation (Pint = 0.96). CONCLUSION: Among patients with or without NSTE-ACS who have completed an initial 3-month course of DAPT following PCI with DES, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced clinically meaningful bleeding events without increasing ischaemic risk as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The benefits of ticagrelor monotherapy with respect to bleeding events were more pronounced in patients with NSTE-ACS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02270242.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Exp Neurol ; 330: 113327, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387398

RESUMO

Numerous genes, and alterations in their expression, have been identified as risk factors for developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). However, our understanding of the complexities of molecular changes remains insufficient for development of clinical treatment. In the current study we used gene array, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis to provide a unique compare and contrast assessment of the relationship of four candidate genes to LID, employing three genetically distinct rat strains (Sprague-Dawley (SD), Fischer-344 (F344) and Lewis-RT.1) showing differences in dyskinesia susceptibility and 'first-ever LID' versus 'chronic LID' expression in subjects displaying equal dyskinesia severity. In these studies, rat strains were easily distinguishable for their LID propensity with: 1) a majority of SD rats expressing LID (LID+) and a subset being resistant (LID-); 2) all F344 rats readily developing (LID+); and 3) all Lewis rats being LID-resistant (LID-). Following chronic levodopa, LID+ SD rats showed significant increases in candidate gene expression: Nr4a2/(Nurr1) > > Trh > Inhba = Fosb. However, SD rats with long-standing striatal dopamine (DA) depletion treated with first-ever versus chronic high-dose levodopa revealed that despite identical levels of LID severity: 1) Fosb and Nurr1 transcripts but not protein were elevated with acute LID expression; 2) FOSB/ΔFOSB and NURR1 proteins were elevated only with chronic LID; and 3) Trh transcript and protein were elevated only with chronic LID. Strikingly, despite similar levodopa-induced striatal DA release in both LID-expressing F344 and LID-resistant Lewis rats, Fosb, Trh, Inhba transcripts were significantly elevated in both strains; however, Nurr1 mRNA was significantly increased only in LID+ F344 rats. These findings suggest a need to reevaluate currently accepted genotype-to-phenotype relationships in the expression of LID, specifically that of Fosb, a transcription factor generally assumed to play a causal role, and Nurr1, a transcription factor that has received significant attention in PD research linked to its critical role in the survival and function of midbrain DA neurons but who's striatal expression, generally below levels of detection, has remained largely unexplored as a regulator of LID. Finally these studies introduce a novel 'model' (inbred F344 vs inbred Lewis) that may provide a powerful tool for investigating the role for 'dyskinesia-resistance' genes downstream of 'dyskinesia-susceptibility' genes in modulating LID expression, a concept that has received considerably less attention and offers a new ways of thinking about antidyskinetic therapies.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/toxicidade , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/genética , Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos/metabolismo , Levodopa/toxicidade , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Animais , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Genótipo , Masculino , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/genética , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(19): 2403-2413, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with ticagrelor after a brief period of dual antiplatelet therapy can reduce bleeding without increasing ischemic harm after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of this approach among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ticagrelor monotherapy versus ticagrelor plus aspirin among patients with DM undergoing PCI. METHODS: This was a pre-specified analysis of the DM cohort in the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients after Coronary Intervention) trial. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, patients were maintained on ticagrelor and randomized to aspirin or placebo for 1 year. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The composite ischemic endpoint was all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. RESULTS: Patients with DM comprised 37% (n = 2,620) of the randomized cohort and were characterized by more frequent comorbidities and a higher prevalence of multivessel disease. The incidence of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2, 3, or 5 bleeding was 4.5% and 6.7% among patients with DM randomized to ticagrelor plus placebo versus ticagrelor plus aspirin (hazard ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.47 to 0.91; p = 0.012). Ticagrelor monotherapy was not associated with an increase in ischemic events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin (4.6% vs. 5.9%; hazard ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.55 to 1.09; p = 0.14). In the overall trial population, there was no significant interaction between DM status and treatment group for the primary bleeding or ischemic endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, the effect of ticagrelor monotherapy in reducing the risk of clinically relevant bleeding without any increase in ischemic events was consistent among patients with or without DM undergoing PCI. (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention [TWILIGHT]; NCT02270242).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(19): 2414-2424, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether a regimen of ticagrelor monotherapy attenuates bleeding complications without increasing ischemic risk in patients undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ticagrelor monotherapy versus ticagrelor plus aspirin in patients undergoing complex PCI from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor with Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients after Coronary Intervention) trial. METHODS: In the TWILIGHT trial, after 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free and adherent patients remained on ticagrelor and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo for 1 year. Complex PCI was defined as any of the following: 3 vessels treated, ≥3 lesions treated, total stent length >60 mm, bifurcation with 2 stents implanted, atherectomy device use, left main PCI, surgical bypass graft or chronic total occlusion as target lesions. Bleeding and ischemic endpoints were evaluated at 1 year after randomization. RESULTS: Among 7,119 patients randomized in the main trial, complex PCI was performed in 2,342 patients. Compared to ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor plus placebo resulted in significantly lower rates of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (4.2% vs. 7.7%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 to 0.76). BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding was also significantly reduced (1.1% vs. 2.6%; HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.80). There were no significant between-group differences in death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (3.8% vs. 4.9%; HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.15), nor in stent thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing complex PCI who initially completed 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, continuation of ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with lower incidence of bleeding without increasing the risk of ischemic events compared to continuing ticagrelor plus aspirin. (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention [TWILIGHT]; NCT02270242).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
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