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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821736

RESUMO

In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium, and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this situation relates to disturbing activities that may affect wild boar movements and their possible impact on the spread of ASFV. Despite evidence of disturbance related to hunting practices, there is a paucity of information on the impact of forestry and human leisure activities. To assess this impact on wild boar movements, a systematic review was first conducted but very few useful data were obtained. For this reason, an expert elicitation was carried out by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety in order to deal with this knowledge gap. A total of 30 experts originating from France and adjacent neighbouring countries (Spain, Belgium and Switzerland) were elicited about the relative importance of six factors of spatial disturbance of wild boar (noise, smell, invasion of space, modification of the environment, duration and frequency of the activity). Then, for each factor of disturbance, they were asked about the impact of 16 different commercial forestry and human leisure activities. A global weighted score was estimated in order to capture the variability of a wide range of territorial conditions and the uncertainty of expert elicitation. This estimate permitted ranking all 16 activities and aggregating them in three groups according to their potential for disturbance of wild boar, using a regression tree analysis. The results of this expert elicitation provide a methodological approach that may be useful for French and other European decision makers and stakeholders involved in the crisis management of ASF.

2.
Rev Prat ; 69(3): 328-332, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983264

RESUMO

Livestock-related zoonoses. Livestock-related zoonoses are numerous but their severity and frequency in humans are very different. The most frequent aetiological agents in France, not considering food-borne contamination, can be classi- fied based on the exposure conditions for humans: contaminated aerosols, oral contamination or by contact. General hygiene preventive measures must be put in place, but also ones that are specific to the threat. A vigilance on the emergence of diseases must also be implemented.


Assuntos
Gado , Zoonoses , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , França , Humanos , Saúde Pública
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 148-153, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961812

RESUMO

Mycoplasma wenyonii, a hemoplasma infecting cattle, was never detected in France. In 2014, evocative inclusions were observed in erythrocytes from cattle presenting milk drops, anemia, and edema in Brittany (France). A survey was then initiated to investigate the epidemiological situation and correlate mycoplasma detection with clinical signs. For this purpose, a new PCR assay targeting polC gene was designed. Comparative results with published PCR assays place this new one as more specific, allowing a one-step diagnosis without further sequencing. A total of 181 cows were included in this study and 4.97% (n = 9) were positive, resulting in the first molecular identification of M. wenyonii in France. All positive animals presented anemia, edema and milk drop. When selecting animals presenting evocative clinical signs, the prevalence of M. wenyonii in Brittany was estimated to 25.6%. Further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of the infection, the implication of arthropods and the existence of asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , França/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência
4.
Vet Rec ; 183(5): 161, 2018 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907659

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of major concern in most countries including Europe, where no outbreaks have occurred since a decade. Indeed, the risk of FMD introduction from infected countries is not negligible and the awareness of field stakeholders (farmers, veterinarians) is essential to ensure an effective detection of the viral circulation. The French veterinary services launched in 2015 a survey to estimate the awareness of farmers and veterinarians and their knowledge about epidemiological and regulatory aspects of FMD. Official health visits were used to collect information from cattle farmers and veterinarians through two separate questionnaires. The results show that not all cattle farmers were aware of the risk of FMD reintroduction in France and of its routes of infection and speed of dissemination. As for the veterinarians, their promptness to report a suspicion was dependent on the occurrence of FMD cases in European countries. These results highlight key aspectsregarding FMD epidemiology which should be regularly reminded to the field stakeholders in FMD-free countries to increase their awareness and thus ensure an effective early detection in case of FMD introduction.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/psicologia , Febre Aftosa , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Animais , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , França , Humanos
6.
Ann Bot ; 115(7): 1105-15, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25878141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sorbus domestica (Rosaceae) is one of the rarest deciduous tree species in Europe and is characterized by a scattered distribution. To date, no large-scale geographic studies on population genetics have been carried out. Therefore, the aims of this study were to infer levels of molecular diversity across the major part of the European distribution of S. domestica and to determine its population differentiation and structure. In addition, spatial genetic structure was examined together with the patterns of historic and recent gene flow between two adjacent populations. METHODS: Leaf or cambium samples were collected from 17 populations covering major parts of the European native range from north-west France to south-east Bulgaria. Seven nuclear microsatellites and one chloroplast minisatellite were examined and analysed using a variety of methods. KEY RESULTS: Allelic richness was unexpectedly high for both markers within populations (mean per locus: 3·868 for nSSR and 1·647 for chloroplast minisatellite). Moreover, there was no evidence of inbreeding (mean Fis = -0·047). The Italian Peninsula was characterized as a geographic region with comparatively high genetic diversity for both genomes. Overall population differentiation was moderate (FST = 0·138) and it was clear that populations formed three groups in Europe, namely France, Mediterranean/Balkan and Austria. Historic gene flow between two local Austrian populations was high and asymmetric, while recent gene flow seemed to be disrupted. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that molecular mechanisms such as self-incompatibility and high gene flow distances are responsible for the observed level of allelic richness as well as for population differentiation. However, human influence could have contributed to the present genetic pattern, especially in the Mediterranean region. Comparison of historic and recent gene flow may mirror the progress of habitat fragmentation in eastern Austria.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Sorbus/genética , Áustria , Europa (Continente) , Repetições de Microssatélites
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 248, 2014 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25312811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Europe in 2011 and caused a widespread epidemic in ruminants.In France, SBV emergence was monitored through a national multi-stakeholder surveillance and investigation system. Based on the monitoring data collected from January 2012 to August 2013, we describe the spread of SBV in France during two seasons of dissemination (vector seasons 2011 and 2012) and we provide a large-scale assessment of the impact of this new disease in ruminants. RESULTS: SBV impact in infected herds was primarily due to the birth of stillborns or deformed foetuses and neonates. Congenital SBV morbidity level was on average moderate, although higher in sheep than in other ruminant species. On average, 8% of lambs, 3% of calves and 2% of kids born in SBV-infected herds showed typical congenital SBV deformities. In addition, in infected herds, farmers reported retrospectively a lower prolificacy during the vector season, suggesting a potential impact of acute SBV infection during mating and early stages of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the lack of available control and prevention measures, SBV spread quickly in the naive ruminant population. France continues to monitor for SBV, and updated information is made available online on a regular basis [http://www.plateforme-esa.fr/]. Outbreaks of congenital SBV are expected to occur sporadically from now on, but further epidemics may also occur if immunity at population level declines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Epidemias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/congênito , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/congênito , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , França/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/congênito , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/congênito , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Conserv Biol ; 27(2): 373-84, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23240629

RESUMO

Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, <2% of the conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Árvores/genética , Europa (Continente) , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1078: 491-4, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17114761

RESUMO

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the agent of pasture fever or tick-borne fever, a disease of ruminants and humans in the United States and in Europe. Although several hundred cases have been suspected to occur in cattle in France, none has yet been microbiologically confirmed. We report the first identification of A. phagocytophilum 16S RNA gene sequence in a case of TBF in France. This indicates that the diagnosis of tick-borne fever should be also evoked in cattle exposed to Ixodes ticks in France.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
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