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1.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3052-3061, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648336

RESUMO

Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) is expressed on progenitor cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is detectable during homeostasis and increases in hypoplasia due to genetic defects or treatment with cytoreductive agents. Conversely, Flt3+ AML is associated with depletion of Flt3L to undetectable levels. After induction chemotherapy, Flt3L is restored in patients entering complete remission (CR) but remains depressed in those with refractory disease. Weekly sampling reveals marked differences in the kinetics of Flt3L response during the first 6 weeks of treatment, proportionate to the clearance of blasts and cellularity of the bone marrow. In the UK NCRI AML17 trial, Flt3L was measured at day 26 in a subgroup of 140 patients with Flt3 mutation randomized to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lestaurtinib or placebo. In these patients, attainment of CR was associated with higher Flt3L at day 26 (Mann-Whitney UP < .0001). Day 26 Flt3L was also associated with survival; Flt3L ≤291 pg/mL was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS), and Flt3L >1185 pg/mL was associated with higher overall survival (OS; P = .0119). The separation of EFS and OS curves increased when minimal residual disease (MRD) status was combined with Flt3L measurement, and Flt3L retained a near-significant association with survival after adjusting for MRD in a proportional hazards model. Serial measurement of Flt3L in patients who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant for AML illustrates the potential value of monitoring Flt3L to identify relapse. Measurement of Flt3L is a noninvasive test with the potential to inform clinical decisions in patients with AML.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2857-2865, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1999, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040289

RESUMO

Mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critical innate immune effectors and initiators of the adaptive immune response. MPs are present in the alveolar airspace at steady state, however little is known about DC recruitment in acute pulmonary inflammation. Here we use lipopolysaccharide inhalation to induce acute inflammation in healthy volunteers and examine the impact on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood MP repertoire. Classical monocytes and two DC subsets (DC2/3 and DC5) are expanded in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 8 h after lipopolysaccharide inhalation. Surface phenotyping, gene expression profiling and parallel analysis of blood indicate recruited DCs are blood-derived. Recruited monocytes and DCs rapidly adopt typical airspace-resident MP gene expression profiles. Following lipopolysaccharide inhalation, alveolar macrophages strongly up-regulate cytokines for MP recruitment. Our study defines the characteristics of human DCs and monocytes recruited into bronchoalveolar space immediately following localised acute inflammatory stimulus in vivo.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 31, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene for odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) is a member of the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein gene family. ODAM is primarily expressed in dental tissues including the enamel organ and the junctional epithelium, and may also have pleiotropic functions that are unrelated to teeth. Here, we leverage the power of natural selection to test competing hypotheses that ODAM is tooth-specific versus pleiotropic. Specifically, we compiled and screened complete protein-coding sequences, plus sequences for flanking intronic regions, for ODAM in 165 placental mammals to determine if this gene contains inactivating mutations in lineages that either lack teeth (baleen whales, pangolins, anteaters) or lack enamel on their teeth (aardvarks, sloths, armadillos), as would be expected if the only essential functions of ODAM are related to tooth development and the adhesion of the gingival junctional epithelium to the enamel tooth surface. RESULTS: We discovered inactivating mutations in all species of placental mammals that either lack teeth or lack enamel on their teeth. A surprising result is that ODAM is also inactivated in a few additional lineages including all toothed whales that were examined. We hypothesize that ODAM inactivation is related to the simplified outer enamel surface of toothed whales. An alternate hypothesis is that ODAM inactivation in toothed whales may be related to altered antimicrobial functions of the junctional epithelium in aquatic habitats. Selection analyses on ODAM sequences revealed that the composite dN/dS value for pseudogenic branches is close to 1.0 as expected for a neutrally evolving pseudogene. DN/dS values on transitional branches were used to estimate ODAM inactivation times. In the case of pangolins, ODAM was inactivated ~ 65 million years ago, which is older than the oldest pangolin fossil (Eomanis, 47 Ma) and suggests an even more ancient loss or simplification of teeth in this lineage. CONCLUSION: Our results validate the hypothesis that the only essential functions of ODAM that are maintained by natural selection are related to tooth development and/or the maintenance of a healthy junctional epithelium that attaches to the enamel surface of teeth.


Assuntos
Ameloblastos/metabolismo , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Eutérios/genética , Inativação Gênica , Odontogênese , Proteínas/genética , Baleias/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Códon/genética , Feminino , Fósseis , Funções Verossimilhança , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Gravidez , Proteínas/metabolismo
6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1485, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042760

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for numerous hematological malignancies. However, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major complication affecting 40-70% of all transplant patients, whereby the earliest and most frequent presentation is in the skin. MicroRNAs play a role in varied biological process and have been reported as potential biomarkers for aGvHD. More recently, microRNAs have received added attention as circulatory biomarkers that can be detected in biofluids. In this study, we performed global microRNA expression profiling using a discovery cohort of diagnostic cutaneous aGvHD biopsies (n = 5, stages 1-3) and healthy volunteers (n = 4), in order to identify a signature list of microRNAs that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cutaneous aGvHD. Candidate microRNAs (n = 8) were then further investigated in a validation cohort of post-HSCT skin biopsies (n = 17), pre-HSCT skin biopsies (n = 6) and normal controls (n = 6) for their association with aGvHD. Expression of let-7c (p = 0.014), miR-503-5p (p = 0.003), miR-365a-3p (p = 0.02), miR-34a-5p (p < 0.001) and miR-34a-3p (p = 0.006) were significantly differentially expressed between groups and significantly associated with survival outcome in post-HSCT patients (miR-503-5p ROC AUC = 0.83 p = 0.021, Log Rank p = 0.003; miR-34a-3p ROC AUC = 0.93, p = 0.003, Log Rank p = 0.004). There was no association with relapse. A statistical interaction between miR-34a-3p and miR-503-5p (p = 0.016) was diagnostic for aGvHD. Expression levels of the miR-34a-5p protein target p53 were assessed in the epidermis of the skin, and an inverse correlation was identified (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.039). Expression of the validated candidate microRNAs was also assessed at day 28 post-HSCT in the sera of transplant recipients, in order to investigate their potential as circulatory microRNA biomarkers. Expression of miR-503-5p (p = 0.001), miR-34a-5p (p = 0.005), and miR-34a-3p (p = 0.004) was significantly elevated in the sera of patients who developed aGvHD versus no-aGvHD (n = 30) and miR-503-5p was associated with overall survival (OS) (ROC AUC = 0.80, p = 0.04, Log Rank p = 0.041). In conclusion, this investigation reports that microRNA expression levels in clinical skin biopsies, obtained at the time of cutaneous aGvHD onset, show potential as diagnostic biomarkers for aGvHD and as predictive biomarkers for OS. In addition, the same microRNAs can be detected in the circulation and show predictive association with post-HSCT outcomes.

7.
Immunity ; 49(2): 326-341.e7, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054204

RESUMO

The maintenance of appropriate arterial tone is critically important for normal physiological arterial function. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we have shown that in the mouse aorta, resident macrophages prevented arterial stiffness and collagen deposition in the steady state. Using phenotyping, transcriptional profiling, and targeted deletion of Csf1r, we have demonstrated that these macrophages-which are a feature of blood vessels invested with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in both mouse and human tissues-expressed the hyaluronan (HA) receptor LYVE-l. Furthermore, we have shown they possessed the unique ability to modulate collagen expression in SMCs by matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9-dependent proteolysis through engagement of LYVE-1 with the HA pericellular matrix of SMCs. Our study has unveiled a hitherto unknown homeostatic contribution of arterial LYVE-1+ macrophages through the control of collagen production by SMCs and has identified a function of LYVE-1 in leukocytes.

8.
Int J Immunogenet ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043490

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only cure for most haematological malignancies, however, the mortality rate remains high. Complications after HSCT include relapse, graft versus host disease (GvHD), graft rejection and infection. Over the last few years several groups, have demonstrated that non-HLA gene polymorphisms can be predictive of outcome after HSCT. Since the glucocorticoid cortisol is pivotal in the regulation of the immune system, we decided to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6198, rs33388 and rs33389) within the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and correlate with HSCT outcome. The training set consisted of patients (n = 458) who underwent HSCT for acute leukaemia between 1983 and 2005. In the recipients, the absence of the ACT haplotype and absence of the T allele of rs33388 were associated with decreased OS and the absence of the ACT haplotype, the absence of the T allele of rs33388 and the presence of the ATA haplotype were associated with increased risk of relapse. In addition, the presence of the ACT haplotype in the recipient showed a trend to be associated with increased risk of chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD). The patients in this cohort received mainly myeloablative conditioning (n = 327). The SNPs in the glucocorticoid receptor were then investigated in a validation set (n = 251) of HSCT patients transplanted for acute leukaemia from 2006. This cohort contained significantly more patients that had received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Some of the results could be validated in these patients. However, contrary to the training set, the absence of the haplotype ACT in the donor in this cohort was associated with increased risk of cGvHD. Differences in the conditioning were shown to influence the results. These results are the first to associate GR SNPs with HSCT outcome and demonstrate the inherent problems of replicating SNP association studies in HSCT, due to different pre-transplant regimens.

10.
Cell Rep ; 23(12): 3658-3672.e6, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925006

RESUMO

The IRF8-dependent subset of classical dendritic cells (cDCs), termed cDC1, is important for cross-priming cytotoxic T cell responses against pathogens and tumors. Culture of hematopoietic progenitors with DC growth factor FLT3 ligand (FLT3L) yields very few cDC1s (in humans) or only immature "cDC1-like" cells (in the mouse). We report that OP9 stromal cells expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (OP9-DL1) optimize FLT3L-driven development of cDC1s from murine immortalized progenitors and primary bone marrow cells. Co-culture with OP9-DL1 induced IRF8-dependent cDC1s with a phenotype (CD103+ Dec205+ CD8α+) and expression profile resembling primary splenic cDC1s. OP9-DL1-induced cDC1s showed preferential migration toward CCR7 ligands in vitro and superior T cell cross-priming and antitumor vaccination in vivo. Co-culture with OP9-DL1 also greatly increased the yield of IRF8-dependent CD141+ cDC1s from human bone marrow progenitors cultured with FLT3L. Thus, Notch signaling optimizes cDC generation in vitro and yields authentic cDC1s for functional studies and translational applications.

11.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2018 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727728
13.
J Exp Med ; 215(4): 1005-1006, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559503

RESUMO

The maintenance of macrophage populations, role of environmental cues in shaping their physiology, and the response of resident cells to perturbation are critical factors in tissue homeostasis with implications for many pathological scenarios. Pigment-containing cells of the dermis are the latest to come under the scrutiny of a mouse-induced depletion model.

14.
JCI Insight ; 3(5)2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515032

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation induced by the influx of donor-derived effector T cells (TE) into peripheral tissues. Current treatment strategies rely on targeting systemic T cells; however, the precise location and nature of instructions that program TE to become pathogenic and trigger injury are unknown. We therefore used weighted gene coexpression network analysis to construct an unbiased spatial map of TE differentiation during the evolution of GVHD and identified wide variation in effector programs in mice and humans according to location. Idiosyncrasy of effector programming in affected organs did not result from variation in T cell receptor repertoire or the selection of optimally activated TE. Instead, TE were reprogrammed by tissue-autonomous mechanisms in target organs for site-specific proinflammatory functions that were highly divergent from those primed in lymph nodes. In the skin, we combined the correlation-based network with a module-based differential expression analysis and showed that Langerhans cells provided in situ instructions for a Notch-dependent T cell gene cluster critical for triggering local injury. Thus, the principal determinant of TE pathogenicity in GVHD is the final destination, highlighting the need for target organ-specific approaches to block immunopathology while avoiding global immune suppression.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1239, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588478

RESUMO

Ikaros family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1) is a haematopoietic transcription factor required for mammalian B-cell development. IKZF1 deficiency also reduces plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) numbers in mice, but its effects on human DC development are unknown. Here we show that heterozygous mutation of IKZF1 in human decreases pDC numbers and expands conventional DC1 (cDC1). Lenalidomide, a drug that induces proteosomal degradation of IKZF1, also decreases pDC numbers in vivo, and reduces the ratio of pDC/cDC1 differentiated from progenitor cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, non-classical monocytes are reduced by IKZF1 deficiency in vivo. DC and monocytes from patients with IKZF1 deficiency or lenalidomide-treated cultures secrete less IFN-α, TNF and IL-12. These results indicate that human DC development and function are regulated by IKZF1, providing further insights into the consequences of IKZF1 mutation on immune function and the mechanism of immunomodulation by lenalidomide.

16.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452225

RESUMO

The critical functions of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunity and tolerance have been demonstrated in many animal models but their non-redundant roles in humans are more difficult to probe. Human primary immunodeficiency (PID), resulting from single gene mutations, may result in DC deficiency or dysfunction. This relatively recent recognition illuminates the in vivo role of human DCs and the pathophysiology of the associated clinical syndromes. In this review, the development and function of DCs as established in murine models and human in vitro systems, discussed. This forms the basis of predicting the effects of DC deficiency in vivo and understanding the consequences of specific mutations on DC development and function. DC deficiency syndromes are associated with heterozygous GATA2 mutation, bi-allelic and heterozygous IRF8 mutation and heterozygous IKZF1 mutation. The intricate involvement of DCs in the balance between immunity and tolerance is leading to increased recognition of their involvement in a number of other immunodeficiencies and autoimmune conditions. Owing to the precise control of transcription factor gene expression by super-enhancer elements, phenotypic anomalies are relatively commonly caused by heterozygous mutations.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 113: 829-840, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454054

RESUMO

A powerful system for studying protein aggregation, particularly rapid self-assembly, is spider silk. Spider silks are proteinaceous and silk proteins are synthesized and stored within silk glands as liquid dope. As needed, liquid dope is near-instantaneously transformed into solid fibers or viscous adhesives. The dominant constituents of silks are spidroins (spider fibroins) and their terminal domains are vital for the tight control of silk self-assembly. To better understand spidroin termini, we used target capture and deep sequencing to identify spidroin gene sequences from six species representing the araneoid families of Araneidae, Nephilidae, and Theridiidae. We obtained 145 terminal regions, of which 103 are newly annotated here, as well as novel variants within nine diverse spidroin types. Our comparative analyses demonstrated the conservation of acidic, basic, and cysteine amino acid residues across spidroin types that had been proposed to be important for monomer stability, dimer formation, and self-assembly from a limited sampling of spidroins. Computational, protein homology modeling revealed areas of spidroin terminal regions that are highly conserved in three-dimensions despite sequence divergence across spidroin types. Analyses of our dense sampling of terminal regions suggest that most spidroins share stabilization mechanisms, dimer formation, and tertiary structure, despite producing functionally distinct materials.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Genômica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Seda/química , Seda/genética , Aranhas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Seda/metabolismo
18.
Immunology ; 154(1): 3-20, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313948

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DC) are a class of bone-marrow-derived cells arising from lympho-myeloid haematopoiesis that form an essential interface between the innate sensing of pathogens and the activation of adaptive immunity. This task requires a wide range of mechanisms and responses, which are divided between three major DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid/conventional DC1 (cDC1) and myeloid/conventional DC2 (cDC2). Each DC subset develops under the control of a specific repertoire of transcription factors involving differential levels of IRF8 and IRF4 in collaboration with PU.1, ID2, E2-2, ZEB2, KLF4, IKZF1 and BATF3. DC haematopoiesis is conserved between mammalian species and is distinct from monocyte development. Although monocytes can differentiate into DC, especially during inflammation, most quiescent tissues contain significant resident populations of DC lineage cells. An extended range of surface markers facilitates the identification of specific DC subsets although it remains difficult to dissociate cDC2 from monocyte-derived DC in some settings. Recent studies based on an increasing level of resolution of phenotype and gene expression have identified pre-DC in human blood and heterogeneity among cDC2. These advances facilitate the integration of mouse and human immunology, support efforts to unravel human DC function in vivo and continue to present new translational opportunities to medicine.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Células Dendríticas/classificação , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
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