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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(14): 145708, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846937

RESUMO

Axial p-n and p-i-n junctions in GaAs0.7P0.3 nanowires are demonstrated and analyzed using electron beam induced current microscopy. Organized self-catalyzed nanowire arrays are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on nanopatterned Si substrates. The nanowires are doped using Be and Si impurities to obtain p- and n-type conductivity, respectively. A method to determine the doping type by analyzing the induced current in the vicinity of a Schottky contact is proposed. It is demonstrated that for the applied growth conditions using Ga as a catalyst, Si doping induces an n-type conductivity contrary to the GaAs self-catalyzed nanowire case, where Si was reported to yield a p-type doping. Active axial nanowire p-n junctions having a homogeneous composition along the axis are synthesized and the carrier concentration and minority carrier diffusion lengths are measured. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of axial p-n junctions in self-catalyzed GaAsP nanowires.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111478, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280004

RESUMO

Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) is a powerful label-free imaging modality for the analysis of morphological dynamics in cell monolayers. However, classical plasmonic imaging systems have relatively poor spatial resolution along one axis due to the plasmon mode attenuation distance (tens of µm, typically), which significantly limits their ability to resolve subcellular structures. We address this limitation by adding an array of nanostructures onto the metal sensing surface (25 nm thick, 200 nm width, 400 nm period grating) to couple localized plasmons with propagating plasmons, thereby reducing attenuation length and commensurately increasing spatial imaging resolution, without significant loss of sensitivity or image contrast. In this work, experimental results obtained with both conventional unstructured and nanostructured gold film SPRI sensor chips show a clear gain in spatial resolution achieved with surface nanostructuring. The work demonstrates the ability of the nanostructured SPRI chips to resolve fine morphological detail (intercellular gaps) in experiments monitoring changes in endothelial cell monolayer integrity following the activation of the cell surface protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) by thrombin. In particular, the nanostructured chips reveal the persistence of small intercellular gaps (<5 µm2) well after apparent recovery of cell monolayer integrity as determined by conventional unstructured surface based SPRI. This new high spatial resolution plasmonic imaging technique uses low-cost and reusable patterned substrates and is likely to find applications in cell biology and pharmacology by allowing label-free quantification of minute cell morphological activities associated with receptor dependent intracellular signaling activity.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/citologia , Ouro/química , Microscopia/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Desenho de Equipamento , Junções Comunicantes/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Nanotecnologia
3.
Nanotechnology ; 30(29): 294003, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032812

RESUMO

We report on the detailed composition of ternary GaAsP nanowires (NWs) grown using self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth by molecular beam epitaxy. We evidence the formation of an unintentional shell, which enlarges by vapor-solid growth concurrently to the main VLS-grown core. The NW core and unintentional shell have typically different chemical compositions if no effort is made to adjust the growth conditions. The compositions can be made equal by changing the substrate temperature and the P/As flux ratio in the vapor phase. In all cases, we still observe the existence of a P-rich interface between the GaAsP NW core and the unintentional shell, even if favorable growth conditions are used.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 30(21): 214006, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736025

RESUMO

In this work, nanoscale electrical and optical properties of n-GaN nanowires (NWs) containing GaN/AlN multiple quantum discs (MQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated by means of single wire I(V) measurements, electron beam induced current microscopy (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis. A strong impact of non-intentional AlN and GaN shells on the electrical resistance of individual NWs is put in evidence. The EBIC mappings reveal the presence of two regions with internal electric fields oriented in opposite directions: one in the MQDs region and the other in the adjacent bottom GaN segment. These fields are found to co-exist under zero bias, while under an external bias either one or the other dominates the current collection. In this way EBIC maps allow us to locate the current generation within the wire under different bias conditions and to give the first direct evidence of carrier collection from AlN/GaN MQDs. The NWs have been further investigated by photoluminescence and CL analyses at low temperature. CL mappings show that the near band edge emission of GaN from the bottom part of the NW is blue-shifted due to the presence of the radial shell. In addition, it is observed that CL intensity drops in the central part of the NWs. Comparing the CL and EBIC maps, this decrease of the luminescence intensity is attributed to an efficient charge splitting effect due to the electric fields in the MQDs region and in the GaN base.

5.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 19(1): 336-369, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707072

RESUMO

Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan-French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 29(25): 255401, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553942

RESUMO

By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell's performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell's performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

7.
Nano Lett ; 17(11): 6667-6675, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035545

RESUMO

We present an effective method of determining the doping level in n-type III-V semiconductors at the nanoscale. Low-temperature and room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements are carried out on single Si-doped GaAs nanowires. The spectral shift to higher energy (Burstein-Moss shift) and the broadening of luminescence spectra are signatures of increased electron densities. They are compared to the CL spectra of calibrated Si-doped GaAs layers, whose doping levels are determined by Hall measurements. We apply the generalized Planck's law to fit the whole spectra, taking into account the electron occupation in the conduction band, the bandgap narrowing, and band tails. The electron Fermi levels are used to determine the free electron concentrations, and we infer nanowire doping of 6 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3. These results show that cathodoluminescence provides a robust way to probe carrier concentrations in semiconductors with the possibility of mapping spatial inhomogeneities at the nanoscale.

8.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5358-64, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525513

RESUMO

Ultrathin c-Si solar cells have the potential to drastically reduce costs by saving raw material while maintaining good efficiencies thanks to the excellent quality of monocrystalline silicon. However, efficient light trapping strategies must be implemented to achieve high short-circuit currents. We report on the fabrication of both planar and patterned ultrathin c-Si solar cells on glass using low temperature (T < 275 °C), low-cost, and scalable techniques. Epitaxial c-Si layers are grown by PECVD at 160 °C and transferred on a glass substrate by anodic bonding and mechanical cleavage. A silver back mirror is combined with a front texturation based on an inverted nanopyramid array fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and wet etching. We demonstrate a short-circuit current density of 25.3 mA/cm(2) for an equivalent thickness of only 2.75 µm. External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements are in very good agreement with FDTD simulations. We infer an optical path enhancement of 10 in the long wavelength range. A simple propagation model reveals that the low photon escape probability of 25% is the key factor in the light trapping mechanism. The main limitations of our current technology and the potential efficiencies achievable with contact optimization are discussed.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(19): 12298-306, 2016 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111517

RESUMO

Highly transparent and conductive materials are required for many industrial applications. One of the interesting features of ZnO is the possibility to dope it using different elements, hence improving its conductivity. Results concerning the zinc oxide thin films electrodeposited in a zinc perchlorate medium containing a boron precursor are presented in this study. The addition of boron to the electrolyte leads to significant effects on the morphology and crystalline structure as well as an evolution of the optical properties of the material. Varying the concentration of boric acid from 0 to 15 mM strongly improves the compactness of the deposit and increases the band gap from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Investigations were also conducted to estimate and determine the influence of boric acid on the electrical properties of the ZnO layers. As a result, no doping effect effect by boron was demonstrated. However, the role of boric acid on the material quality has also been proven and discussed. Boric acid strongly contributes to the growth of high quality electrodeposited zinc oxide. The high doping level of the film can be attributed to the perchlorate ions introduced in the bath. Finally, a ZnO layer electrodeposited in a boron rich electrolyte was tested as front contact of a Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 based solar cell. An efficiency of 12.5% was measured with a quite high fill factor (>70%) which confirms the high conductivity of the ZnO thin film.

10.
Opt Lett ; 41(8): 1744-7, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27082334

RESUMO

Nanorod arrays with diameters much smaller than the wavelength exhibit sharp resonances with strong electric-field enhancement and angular dependence. They are investigated for enhanced infrared spectroscopy of molecular bonds. The molecule 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (CS) is taken as a reference, and its complex permittivity is determined experimentally in the 3-5 µm wavelength range. When grafted on silicon nitride nanorods, we show numerically that its weak absorption bands due to chemical bond vibrations can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared with unstructured thin film. We propose a figure of merit (FoM) to assess the performance of this spectroscopic scheme, and we study the impact of the nanorod cross section on the FoM.

11.
ACS Nano ; 10(2): 2251-8, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767699

RESUMO

Mechanical vibrational resonances in metal nanoparticles are intensively studied because they provide insight into nanoscale elasticity and for their potential application to ultrasensitive mass detection. In this paper, we use broadband femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to study the longitudinal acoustic phonons of arrays of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios, fabricated by electron beam lithography with very high size uniformity. We follow in real time the impulsively excited extensional oscillations of the nanorods by measuring the transient shift of the localized surface plasmon band. Broadband and high-sensitivity detection of the time-dependent extinction spectra enables one to develop a model that quantitatively describes the periodic variation of the plasmon extinction coefficient starting from the steady-state spectrum with only one additional free parameter. This model allows us to retrieve the time-dependent elongation of the nanorods with an ultrahigh sensitivity and to measure oscillation amplitudes of just a few picometers and plasmon energy shifts on the order of 10(-2) meV.

12.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8961, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25753657

RESUMO

This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>10(20) cm(-3)) and mobilities (up to 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell.

13.
Opt Lett ; 40(4): 661-4, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25680175

RESUMO

We report on multiple extraordinary optical extinction (EOE) phenomena achieved through encapsulated dual metallic gratings. They are evidenced in TM polarization by angularly and spectrally resolved transmission measurements in the mid-infrared wavelength range. We show that EOE can be achieved on both sides of the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) resonance, leading to pass-band filters with an improved rejection rate.

14.
Rep Prog Phys ; 77(12): 126402, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25427236

RESUMO

Dielectric and metallic gratings have been studied for more than a century. Nevertheless, novel optical phenomena and fabrication techniques have emerged recently and have opened new perspectives for applications in the visible and infrared domains. Here, we review the design rules and the resonant mechanisms that can lead to very efficient light-matter interactions in sub-wavelength nanostructure arrays. We emphasize the role of symmetries and free-space coupling of resonant structures. We present the different scenarios for perfect optical absorption, transmission or reflection of plane waves in resonant nanostructures. We discuss the fabrication issues, experimental achievements and emerging applications of resonant nanostructure arrays.

15.
Opt Express ; 21 Suppl 3: A372-81, 2013 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24104424

RESUMO

We propose a design to confine light absorption in flat and ultra-thin amorphous silicon solar cells with a one-dimensional silver grating embedded in the front window of the cell. We show numerically that multi-resonant light trapping is achieved in both TE and TM polarizations. Each resonance is analyzed in detail and modeled by Fabry-Perot resonances or guided modes via grating coupling. This approach is generalized to a complete amorphous silicon solar cell, with the additional degrees of freedom provided by the buffer layers. These results could guide the design of resonant structures for optimized ultra-thin solar cells.

16.
Opt Lett ; 38(4): 425-7, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23455090

RESUMO

We theoretically study metal-dielectric structures made of bi-atomic metallic gratings coupled to a guided-mode dielectric resonator. The bi-atomic pattern grating allows tailoring of the Fourier spectrum of the inverse grating permittivity in order to adapt the frequency gap and obtain a flat dispersion band over a wide angular range. A significant enhancement (two-fold) of the angular tolerance as compared to a simply periodic structure is obtained.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(14): 143903, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23083243

RESUMO

We demonstrate that almost 100% of incident photons can interact with a monolayer of scatterers in a symmetrical environment. Nearly perfect optical extinction through free-standing transparent nanorod arrays has been measured. The sharp spectral opacity window, in the form of a characteristic Fano resonance, arises from the coherent multiple scattering in the array. In addition, we show that nanorods made of absorbing material exhibit a 25-fold absorption enhancement per unit volume compared to unstructured thin film. These results open new perspectives for light management in high-Q, low volume dielectric nanostructures, with potential applications in optical systems, spectroscopy, and optomechanics.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Nanotubos/química , Fótons , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Membranas Artificiais , Espalhamento de Radiação , Compostos de Silício/química
18.
Opt Express ; 20(12): 13082-90, 2012 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22714335

RESUMO

We study experimentally and theoretically band-pass filters based on guided-mode resonances in free-standing metal-dielectric structures with subwavelength gratings. A variety of filters are obtained: polarizing filters with 1D gratings, and unpolarized or selective filters with 2D gratings, which are shown to behave as two crossed-1D structures. In either case, a high transmission (up to ≈ 79 %) is demonstrated, which represents an eight-fold enhancement compared to the geometrical transmission of the grating. We also show that the angular sensitivity strongly depends on the rotation axis of the sample. This behavior is explained with a detailed description of the guided-mode transmission mechanism.

19.
Opt Express ; 19(18): 17293-7, 2011 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21935093

RESUMO

A nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with a 40 nm-thick GaAs absorbing layer has been studied numerically and experimentally. A gold nanowire array is the top mirror of a Fabry-Perot cavity and forms interdigitated Schottky contacts. Nearly perfect absorption is achieved in TE polarization. It is shown numerically that the gold nanowire array induces light absorption in GaAs nanowires with tiny sections (100 nm × 40 nm). High external quantum efficiency (η > 40 %) is demonstrated.

20.
Opt Lett ; 36(16): 3054-6, 2011 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21847157

RESUMO

We present the experimental study of a free-standing metallic guided-mode resonant structure, for bandpass filtering applications in the mid-IR wavelength range. Structure consists of a subwavelength gold grating with narrow slits deposited on a silicon nitride membrane. High optical transmission is measured with up to 78% transmission at resonance. Angularly resolved spectra are presented revealing Fano-type resonance.

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