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1.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-10, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053081

RESUMO

Background: Among Black American emerging adult men (∼aged 18-25), the early transition to fatherhood is often marred by numerous contextual stressors related to racial discrimination and socioeconomic instability. The strain of transitioning to fatherhood while experiencing high levels of contextual stress may evidence escalations in substance misuse over time as men may turn to substances to cope with the stress of complex life transitions. However, research examining these associations are scarce. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the influence of contextual stress on the association between fatherhood and substance misuse. Hypotheses were tested using multiple linear regression with 3 waves of data from 476 Black American men aged 19 to 22 at baseline living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Results: Results demonstrated that fatherhood status was associated, prospectively, with Black American fathers' substance misuse when exposure to contextual stress was high but not low. Conclusions: Findings underscore the need for substance misuse prevention programs to (a) support Black American fathers in coping with race-related stress and (b) integrate robust socioeconomic stability services in order in disrupt patterns of future substance misuse by improving Black American men's experience of the transition to fatherhood.

2.
Annu Rev Genet ; 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028227

RESUMO

The initiation, progression, and relapse of cancers often result from mutations occurring within somatic cells. Consequently, processes that elevate mutation rates accelerate carcinogenesis and hinder the development of long-lasting therapeutics. Recent sequencing of human cancer genomes has identified patterns of mutations, termed mutation signatures, many of which correspond to specific environmentally induced and endogenous mutation processes. Some of the most frequently observed mutation signatures are caused by dysregulated activity of APOBECs, which deaminate cytidines in single-stranded DNA at specific sequence motifs causing C-to-T and C-to-G substitutions. In humans, APOBEC-generated genetic heterogeneity in tumor cells contributes to carcinogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapeutics. Here, we review the current understanding of APOBECs' role in cancer mutagenesis and impact on disease and the biological processes that influence APOBEC mutagenic capacity. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 56 is November 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

3.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(3): 273-278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interprofessional disaster simulation exercises provide an opportunity for first responder students to learn about disaster response and recovery, to practice their roles and to learn to collaborate with other first responders. With the move to virtual education during the COVID-19 pandemic, a table-top disaster exercise is an alternative format to inperson exercises. To date, most disaster simulation exercises for students have focused on the roles of healthcare providers. As first responders play a critical role in disaster management, there is a need for interprofessional exercises that include students in first responder programs. METHODS: A table-top disaster simulation exercise was held with students from the police (n = 94) and firefighter (n = 30) programs at a large community college in Toronto, Canada, in February 2021. It was held virtually using the Zoom® platform, with college faculty as well as professionals from community partner sites. An evaluation survey that had open- and closed-ended items was administered to students following the event. RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent of the students participated in the survey, and the majority rated the event highly useful and reported that the exercise demonstrated the importance of interprofessional collaboration. Students' responses to the open-ended survey items yielded two themes: understanding roles and performing under duress. DISCUSSION: This evaluation demonstrates the value of using a simulated disaster exercise to teach first responder students about their role in disaster response and recovery, and the importance of interprofessional collaboration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Socorristas , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pandemias , Estudantes
4.
Mol Genet Metab ; 136(4): 296-305, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current newborn screening programs for Pompe disease (PD) and mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) suffer from a high false positive rate and long turnaround time for clinical follow up. This study aimed to develop a novel proteomics-based assay for rapid and accurate second-tier screening of PD and MPS I. A fast turnaround assay would enable the identification of severe cases who need immediate clinical follow up and treatment. METHODS: We developed an immunocapture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics (Immuno-SRM) assay to quantify GAA and IDUA proteins in dried blood spots (DBS) and buccal swabs. Sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, and protein concentration range in healthy control samples were determined. Clinical performance was evaluated in known PD and MPS I patients as well as pseudodeficiency and carrier cases. RESULTS: Using three 3.2 mm punches (~13.1 µL of blood) of DBS, the assay showed reproducible and sensitive quantification of GAA and IDUA. Both proteins can also be quantified in buccal swabs with high reproducibility and sensitivity. Infantile onset Pompe disease (IOPD) and severe MPS I cases are readily identifiable due to the absence of GAA and IDUA, respectively. In addition, late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) and attenuated MPS I patients showed much reduced levels of the target protein. By contrast, pseudodeficiency and carrier cases exhibited significant higher target protein levels compared to true patients. CONCLUSION: Direct quantification of endogenous GAA and IDUA peptides in DBS by Immuno-SRM can be used for second-tier screening to rapidly identify severe PD and MPS I patients with a turnaround time of <1 week. Such patients could benefit from immediate clinical follow up and possibly earlier treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II , Mucopolissacaridose I , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mucopolissacaridose I/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 806955, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756200

RESUMO

Research on skin-deep resilience suggests that for youth and young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds, high levels of planful self-control may promote positive psychosocial outcomes while simultaneously conferring vulnerabilities to chronic diseases related to aging. In this study, we investigated the divergent effects of planful self-control on young Black American men's psychosocial well-being and their metabolic risk. We expected that high levels of planful self-control in emerging adulthood would predict positive outcomes in young adulthood (educational attainment, low depressive symptoms, job satisfaction); however, the combination of high levels of planful self-control and the experience of contextual adversity either in emerging adulthood or in childhood would forecast poor metabolic health. Hypotheses were tested with prospective data from 504 Black American men followed from age 20 to age 26. Planful self-control in emerging adulthood directly forecasted low levels of depressive symptoms, one's likelihood of obtaining a bachelor's degree, increased job satisfaction, and increases in metabolic risk. Exposure to childhood deprivation moderated the influence of planful self-control on metabolic risk. Men with high levels of deprivation and high levels of planful self-control exhibited the worst metabolic profiles in the sample. In contrast, men with high levels of childhood deprivation and low levels of planful self-control exhibited the best metabolic profiles. Documenting the health consequences associated with planful self-control provides a foundation from which to identify modifiable psychosocial factors that affect the course of psychosocial problems and health.

6.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed a hybrid volume surface integral equation (VSIE) method based on domain decomposition to perform fast and accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulations that include both remote and local conductive elements. METHODS: We separated the conductive surfaces present in MRI setups into two domains and optimized electromagnetic (EM) modeling for each case. Specifically, interactions between the body and EM waves originating from local radiofrequency (RF) coils were modeled with the precorrected fast Fourier transform, whereas the interactions with remote conductive surfaces (RF shield, scanner bore) were modeled with a novel cross tensor train-based algorithm. We compared the hybrid-VSIE with other VSIE methods for realistic MRI simulation setups. RESULTS: The hybrid-VSIE was the only practical method for simulation using 1 mm voxel isotropic resolution (VIR). For 2 mm VIR, our method could be solved at least 23 times faster and required 760 times lower memory than traditional VSIE methods. CONCLUSION: The hybrid-VSIE demonstrated a marked improvement in terms of convergence times of the numerical EM simulation compared to traditional approaches in multiple realistic MRI scenarios. SIGNIFICANCE: The efficiency of the novel hybrid-VSIE method could enable rapid simulations of complex and comprehensive MRI setups.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566902

RESUMO

Mid-chain degradable polymers can be prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization from difunctional initiators that include triggers for the desired stimuli. While many difunctional initiators can respond to reducing conditions, procedures to prepare difunctional initiators that respond to oxidizing conditions are significantly less available in the literature. Here, a difunctional initiator incorporating an oxidizable boronic ester trigger was synthesized over four steps using simple and scalable procedures. Methyl methacrylate was polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization using this initiator, and the polymerization kinetics were consistent with a controlled polymerization. The polymer synthesized using the difunctional initiator was found to decrease in molecular weight by 58% in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, while a control experiment using poly(methyl methacrylate) without a degradable linkage showed a much smaller decrease in molecular weight of only 9%. These observed molecular weight decreases were consistent with cleavage of the difunctional initiator via a quinone methide shift and hydrolysis of the methyl ester pendent groups in both polymers, and both polymers increased in polydispersity after oxidative degradation.

8.
Chem Mater ; 34(9): 4073-4087, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573111

RESUMO

A tetragonal argyrodite with >7 mobile cations, Li7Zn0.5SiS6, is experimentally realized for the first time through solid state synthesis and exploration of the Li-Zn-Si-S phase diagram. The crystal structure of Li7Zn0.5SiS6 was solved ab initio from high-resolution X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data and supported by solid-state NMR. Li7Zn0.5SiS6 adopts a tetragonal I4 structure at room temperature with ordered Li and Zn positions and undergoes a transition above 411.1 K to a higher symmetry disordered F43m structure more typical of Li-containing argyrodites. Simultaneous occupation of four types of Li site (T5, T5a, T2, T4) at high temperature and five types of Li site (T5, T2, T4, T1, and a new trigonal planar T2a position) at room temperature is observed. This combination of sites forms interconnected Li pathways driven by the incorporation of Zn2+ into the Li sublattice and enables a range of possible jump processes. Zn2+ occupies the 48h T5 site in the high-temperature F43m structure, and a unique ordering pattern emerges in which only a subset of these T5 sites are occupied at room temperature in I4 Li7Zn0.5SiS6. The ionic conductivity, examined via AC impedance spectroscopy and VT-NMR, is 1.0(2) × 10-7 S cm-1 at room temperature and 4.3(4) × 10-4 S cm-1 at 503 K. The transition between the ordered I4 and disordered F43m structures is associated with a dramatic decrease in activation energy to 0.34(1) eV above 411 K. The incorporation of a small amount of Zn2+ exercises dramatic control of Li order in Li7Zn0.5SiS6 yielding a previously unseen distribution of Li sites, expanding our understanding of structure-property relationships in argyrodite materials.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564948

RESUMO

Recent aerobic exercise training in the heat has reported blunted aerobic power improvements and reduced mitochondrial-related gene expression in men. It is unclear if this heat-induced blunting of the training response exists in females. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of 60 min of cycling in the heat over three weeks on thermoregulation, gene expression, and aerobic capacity in females. Untrained females (n = 22; 24 ± 4yoa) were assigned to three weeks of aerobic training in either 20 °C (n = 12) or 33 °C (n = 10; 40%RH). Maximal aerobic capacity (39.5 ± 6.5 to 41.5 ± 6.2 mL·kg-1·min-1, p = 0.021, ηp2 = 0.240, 95% CI [0.315, 3.388]) and peak aerobic power (191.0 ± 33.0 to 206.7 ± 27.2 W, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.531, 95% CI [8.734, 22.383]) increased, while the absolute-intensity trial (50%VO2peak) HR decreased (152 ± 15 to 140 ± 13 b·min-1, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.691, 95% CI [15.925, 8.353]), but they were not different between temperatures (p = 0.440, p = 0.955, p = 0.341, respectively). Independent of temperature, Day 22 tolerance trial skin temperatures decreased from Day 1 (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.319, 95% CI [1.408, 0.266), but training did not influence core temperature (p = 0.598). Average sweat rates were higher in the 33 °C group vs. the 20 °C group (p = 0.008, ηp2 = 0.303, 95% CI [67.9, 394.9]) but did not change due to training (p = 0.571). Pre-training PGC-1α mRNA increased 4h-post-exercise (5.29 ± 0.70 fold change, p < 0.001), was lower post-training (2.69 ± 0.22 fold change, p = 0.004), and was not different between temperatures (p = 0.455). While training induced some diminished transcriptional stimulus, generally the training temperature had little effect on genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and metabolic enzymes. These female participants increased aerobic fitness and maintained an exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA response in the heat equal to that of room temperature conditions, contrasting with the blunted responses previously observed in men.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Alta , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro
11.
MAGMA ; 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-permittivity pads have shown promising results in enhancing SNR and transmit efficiency when used for MRI of the brain, but fewer studies have been conducted to examine the performance of high-permittivity pads in other parts of the patient. In this work, we evaluate the impact on SNR and transmit efficiency distributions when high-permittivity pads with different thickness are positioned near the chest of the patient in combination with a transmit/receive array coil. METHODS: The performance of the pads is evaluated through numerical simulations, and both the SNR distribution and the transmit efficiency maps are compared with those obtained when the pads are not present and the distance between the coils and the patient is minimal. The average improvement of SNR and transmit efficiency in the heart is also evaluated for different values of the permittivity of the pads. RESULTS: In the scenario examined, high-permittivity pads can increase SNR and transmit efficiency in the heart volume by as much as 16% and 65%, respectively.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e27534, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simple visualizations in health research data, such as scatter plots, heat maps, and bar charts, typically present relationships between 2 variables. Interactive visualization methods allow for multiple related facets such as numerous risk factors to be studied simultaneously, leading to data insights through exploring trends and patterns from complex big health care data. The technique presents a powerful tool that can be used in combination with statistical analysis for knowledge discovery, hypothesis generation and testing, and decision support. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this scoping review is to describe and summarize the evidence of interactive visualization applications, methods, and tools being used in population health and health services research (HSR) and their subdomains in the last 15 years, from January 1, 2005, to March 30, 2019. Our secondary objective is to describe the use cases, metrics, frameworks used, settings, target audience, goals, and co-design of applications. METHODS: We adapted standard scoping review guidelines with a peer-reviewed search strategy: 2 independent researchers at each stage of screening and abstraction, with a third independent researcher to arbitrate conflicts and validate findings. A comprehensive abstraction platform was built to capture the data from diverse bodies of literature, primarily from the computer science and health care sectors. After screening 11,310 articles, we present findings from 56 applications from interrelated areas of population health and HSR, as well as their subdomains such as epidemiologic surveillance, health resource planning, access, and use and costs among diverse clinical and demographic populations. RESULTS: In this companion review to our earlier systematic synthesis of the literature on visual analytics applications, we present findings in 6 major themes of interactive visualization applications developed for 8 major problem categories. We found a wide application of interactive visualization methods, the major ones being epidemiologic surveillance for infectious disease, resource planning, health service monitoring and quality, and studying medication use patterns. The data sources included mostly secondary administrative and electronic medical record data. In addition, at least two-thirds of the applications involved participatory co-design approaches while introducing a distinct category, embedded research, within co-design initiatives. These applications were in response to an identified need for data-driven insights into knowledge generation and decision support. We further discuss the opportunities stemming from the use of interactive visualization methods in studying global health; inequities, including social determinants of health; and other related areas. We also allude to the challenges in the uptake of these methods. CONCLUSIONS: Visualization in health has strong historical roots, with an upward trend in the use of these methods in population health and HSR. Such applications are being fast used by academic and health care agencies for knowledge discovery, hypotheses generation, and decision support. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/14019.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde da População , Big Data , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(3): 1510-1521, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038861

RESUMO

We submit that the safe operating space of the planetary boundary of novel entities is exceeded since annual production and releases are increasing at a pace that outstrips the global capacity for assessment and monitoring. The novel entities boundary in the planetary boundaries framework refers to entities that are novel in a geological sense and that could have large-scale impacts that threaten the integrity of Earth system processes. We review the scientific literature relevant to quantifying the boundary for novel entities and highlight plastic pollution as a particular aspect of high concern. An impact pathway from production of novel entities to impacts on Earth system processes is presented. We define and apply three criteria for assessment of the suitability of control variables for the boundary: feasibility, relevance, and comprehensiveness. We propose several complementary control variables to capture the complexity of this boundary, while acknowledging major data limitations. We conclude that humanity is currently operating outside the planetary boundary based on the weight-of-evidence for several of these control variables. The increasing rate of production and releases of larger volumes and higher numbers of novel entities with diverse risk potentials exceed societies' ability to conduct safety related assessments and monitoring. We recommend taking urgent action to reduce the harm associated with exceeding the boundary by reducing the production and releases of novel entities, noting that even so, the persistence of many novel entities and/or their associated effects will continue to pose a threat.


Assuntos
Planeta Terra , Poluição Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plásticos
14.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 654-664, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648448

RESUMO

Problem-driven visualization work is rooted in deeply understanding the data, actors, processes, and workflows of a target domain. However, an individual's personality traits and cognitive abilities may also influence visualization use. Diverse user needs and abilities raise natural questions for specificity in visualization design: Could individuals from different domains exhibit performance differences when using visualizations? Are any systematic variations related to their cognitive abilities? This study bridges domain-specific perspectives on visualization design with those provided by cognition and perception. We measure variations in visualization task performance across chemistry, computer science, and education, and relate these differences to variations in spatial ability. We conducted an online study with over 60 domain experts consisting of tasks related to pie charts, isocontour plots, and 3D scatterplots, and grounded by a well-documented spatial ability test. Task performance (correctness) varied with profession across more complex visualizations (isocontour plots and scatterplots), but not pie charts, a comparatively common visualization. We found that correctness correlates with spatial ability, and the professions differ in terms of spatial ability. These results indicate that domains differ not only in the specifics of their data and tasks, but also in terms of how effectively their constituent members engage with visualizations and their cognitive traits. Analyzing participants' confidence and strategy comments suggests that focusing on performance neglects important nuances, such as differing approaches to engage with even common visualizations and potential skill transference. Our findings offer a fresh perspective on discipline-specific visualization with specific recommendations to help guide visualization design that celebrates the uniqueness of the disciplines and individuals we seek to serve.

15.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(6): 7-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890313

RESUMO

The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across application domains has prompted our society to pay closer attention to AI's trustworthiness, fairness, interpretability, and accountability. In order to foster trust in AI, it is important to consider the potential of interactive visualization, and how such visualizations help build trust in AI systems. This manifesto discusses the relevance of interactive visualizations and makes the following four claims: i) trust is not a technical problem, ii) trust is dynamic, iii) visualization cannot address all aspects of trust, and iv) visualization is crucial for human agency in AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Confiança , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21008, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697369

RESUMO

The cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3A (A3A), is a prominent source of mutations in multiple cancer types. These APOBEC-signature mutations are non-uniformly distributed across cancer genomes, associating with single-stranded (ss) DNA formed during DNA replication and hairpin-forming sequences. The biochemical and cellular factors that influence these specificities are unclear. We measured A3A's cytidine deaminase activity in vitro on substrates that model potential sources of ssDNA in the cell and found that A3A is more active on hairpins containing 4 nt ssDNA loops compared to hairpins with larger loops, bubble structures, replication fork mimics, ssDNA gaps, or linear DNA. Despite pre-bent ssDNAs being expected to fit better in the A3A active site, we determined A3A favors a 4 nt hairpin substrate only 2- to fivefold over linear ssDNA substrates. Addition of whole cell lysates or purified RPA to cytidine deaminase assays more severely reduced A3A activity on linear ssDNA (45 nt) compared to hairpin substrates. These results indicate that the large enrichment of A3A-driven mutations in hairpin-forming sequences in tumor genomes is likely driven in part by other proteins that preferentially bind longer ssDNA regions, which limit A3A's access. Furthermore, A3A activity is reduced at ssDNA associated with a stalled T7 RNA polymerase, suggesting that potential protein occlusion by RNA polymerase also limits A3A activity. These results help explain the small transcriptional strand bias for APOBEC mutation signatures in cancer genomes and the general targeting of hairpin-forming sequences in the lagging strand template during DNA replication.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Replicação do DNA , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Ativação Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Transcrição Genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379592

RESUMO

We present VisInReport, a visual analytics tool that supports the manual analysis of discourse transcripts and generates reports based on user interaction. As an integral part of scholarly work in the social sciences and humanities, discourse analysis involves an aggregation of characteristics identified in the text, which, in turn, involves a prior identification of regions of particular interest. Manual data evaluation requires extensive effort, which can be a barrier to effective analysis. Our system addresses this challenge by augmenting the users' analysis with a set of automatically generated visualization layers. These layers enable the detection and exploration of relevant parts of the discussion supporting several tasks, such as topic modeling or question categorization. The system summarizes the extracted events visually and verbally, generating a content-rich insight into the data and the analysis process. During each analysis session, VisInReport builds a shareable report containing a curated selection of interactions and annotations generated by the analyst. We evaluate our approach on real-world datasets through a qualitative study with domain experts from political science, computer science, and linguistics. The results highlight the benefit of integrating the analysis and reporting processes through a visual analytics system, which supports the communication of results among collaborating researchers.

18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(12): 1545-1551, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399057

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of local muscle heating during endurance exercise on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial-related gene expression. Twelve subjects (25 ± 6 yr, 177 ± 8 cm, 78 ± 16 kg, and peak aerobic capacity 45 ± 8 mL·kg-1·min-1) cycled with one leg heated (HOT) and the other serving as a control (CON). Skin and intramuscular temperatures were taken before temperature intervention (Pre), after 30 minutes (Pre30), after exercise (Post) and four hours after exercise (4Post). Muscle biopsies were taken from each leg at Pre and 4Post. Intramuscular temperature increased within HOT (34.4 ± 0.7 °C to 36.1 ± 0.5 °C, p < 0.001) and was higher than CON at Pre30 (34.0 ± 0.7 °C, p < 0.001). However, temperatures at POST were similar (HOT 38.4 ± 0.7 °C, CON 38.3 ± 0.5 °C, p = 0.661). Skin temperature was higher than CON at Post30 (30.3 ± 1.0 °C, p < 0.001) and Post (HOT 34.6 ± 0.9 °C, CON 32.3 ± 1.6 °C, p < 0.001). PGC-1α, VEGF and NRF2 mRNA increased with exercise (p < 0.05) but was not altered with heating (p > 0.05). TFAM increased after exercise with heat application (HOT, p = 0.019) but not with exercise alone (CON, p = 0.422). There was no difference in NRF1, ESRRα, or any of the mitophagy related genes in response to exercise or temperature (p > 0.05). In conclusion, TFAM is enhanced by local heat application during endurance exercise, whereas other genes related to mitochondrial homeostasis are unaffected. Novelty: The main finding of this study is that localized heating increased TFAM mRNA expression. The normal exercise-induced increased PGC-1α gene expression was unaltered by local muscle heating.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Biópsia , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Temperatura Cutânea , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(30): 16457-16465, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951284

RESUMO

We report the aperiodic titanate Ba10 Y6 Ti4 O27 with a room-temperature thermal conductivity that equals the lowest reported for an oxide. The structure is characterised by discontinuous occupancy modulation of each of the sites and can be considered as a quasicrystal. The resulting localisation of lattice vibrations suppresses phonon transport of heat. This new lead material for low-thermal-conductivity oxides is metastable and located within a quaternary phase field that has been previously explored. Its isolation thus requires a precisely defined synthetic protocol. The necessary narrowing of the search space for experimental investigation was achieved by evaluation of titanate crystal chemistry, prediction of unexplored structural motifs that would favour synthetically accessible new compositions, and assessment of their properties with machine-learning models.

20.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(5): 639-649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motivational Interviewing (MI) is widely used in substance abuse treatment, possibly due to the short sessions and the treatment's cost-effectiveness. Previous research has established the efficacy of MI among a broad range of populations and outcomes. However, there is a lack of a review of the knowledge about if MI works with justice-involved individuals who have substance use issues. Purpose: This review aimed to examine the extent of the literature on MI as a treatment to decrease rates of substance use for justice-involved individuals. Methods: The databases utilized for the review include Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), PsycINFO, and ProQuest. The dates for the literature inclusion were from 2008 to March 2020. The literature search was initiated in February and was completed in March 2020. Results: Five RCT studies were identified. Studies were conducted using populations during incarceration in prison, prior to release from jail, through probation, and those with DWI charges. However, all of the populations included were actively being monitored for substance use. All five studies found no difference between groups at the latest point in the study, which for most included the follow-up measure. Consideration for potential moderators such as severity and type of substance use, and length of treatment and follow up data are discussed. Conclusion: The results of the review indicated that more standardized and rigorous research is needed for exploring MI with individuals involved with the justice system with the focus of decreasing substance use.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
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