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1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 85.e1-85.e19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251649

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic warrants an unprecedented global healthcare response requiring maintenance of existing hospital-based services while simultaneously preparing for high-acuity care for infected and sick individuals. Hospitals must protect patients and the diverse healthcare workforce by conserving personal protective equipment and redeployment of facility resources. While each hospital or health system must evaluate their own capabilities and surge capacity, we present principles of management of surgical services during a health emergency and provide specific guidance to help with decision making. We review the limited evidence from past hospital and community responses to various health emergencies and focus on systematic methods for adjusting surgical services to create capacity, addressing the specific risks of coronavirus disease 2019. Successful strategies for tiered reduction of surgical cases involve multidisciplinary engagement of the entire healthcare system and use of a structured risk-assessment categorization scheme that can be applied across the institution. Our institution developed and operationalized this approach over 3 working days, indicating that immediate implementation is feasible in response to an unforeseen healthcare emergency.

2.
Insects ; 10(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635365

RESUMO

The western honey bee remains the most important pollinator for agricultural crops. Disease and stressors threaten honey bee populations and productivity during winter- and summertime, creating costs for beekeepers and negative impacts on agriculture. To combat diseases and improve overall bee health, researchers are constantly developing honey bee medicines using the tools of microbiology, molecular biology and chemistry. Below, we present a manifesto alongside standardized protocols that outline the development and a systematic approach to test natural products as 'bee medicines.' These will be accomplished in both artificial rearing conditions and in colonies situated in the field. Output will be scored by gene expression data of host immunity, bee survivorship, reduction in pathogen titers, and more subjective merits of the compound in question. Natural products, some of which are already encountered by bees in the form of plant resins and nectar compounds, provide promising low-cost candidates for safe prophylaxis or treatment of bee diseases.

3.
Biomolecules ; 9(8)2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357646

RESUMO

American Foulbrood (AFB) is a deadly bacterial disease affecting pupal and larval honey bees. AFB is caused by the endospore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (PL). Propolis, which contains a variety of organic compounds, is a product of bee foraging and is a resinous substance derived from botanical substances found primarily in trees. Several compounds from the class of caffeic acid esters, which are commonly found in propolis, have been shown to have antibacterial activity against PL. In this study, six different caffeic acid esters were synthesized, purified, spectroscopically analyzed, and tested for their activity against PL to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Caffeic acid isopropenyl ester (CAIE), caffeic acid benzyl ester (CABE), and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) were the most effective in inhibiting PL growth and killing PL cell with MICs and MBCs of 125 µg/mL when used individually, and a MIC and MBC of 31.25 µg/mL for each compound alone when CAIE, CABE, and CAPE are used in combination against PL. These compounds inhibited bacterial growth through a bactericidal effect, which revealed cell killing but no lysis of PL cells after 18 h. Incubation with CAIE, CABE, and CAPE at their MICs significantly increased reactive oxygen species levels and significantly changed glutathione levels within PL cells. Caffeic acid esters are potent bactericidal compounds against PL and eliminate bacterial growth through an oxidative stress mechanism.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Paenibacillus larvae/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/química , Antibacterianos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paenibacillus larvae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paenibacillus larvae/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Health Commun ; 34(10): 1075-1084, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634356

RESUMO

This study highlights the role of local communities in creating culturally rooted health information resources based on comparative effectiveness research (CER), depicting the role of culture in creating entry points for building community-grounded communication structures for evidence-based health knowledge. We report the results from running a year-long culture-centered campaign that was carried out among African American communities in two counties, Lake and Marion County, in Indiana addressing basic evidence-based knowledge on four areas of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Campaign effectiveness was tested through an experimental design with post-test knowledge of CER among African Americans in these counties compared to CER knowledge among African Americans in a comparable control county (Allen). Our campaign, based on the principles of the culture-centered approach (CCA), increased community CER knowledge in the experimental communities relative to a community that did not receive the culturally centered health information campaign. The CCA-based campaign developed by community members and distributed through the mass media, community wide channels such as health fairs and church meetings, postcards, and face-to-face interventions explaining the postcards improved CER knowledge in specific areas (ACE-I/ARBs, atrial fibrillation, and renal artery stenosis) in the CCA communities as compared to the control community.

6.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(11): 1274-1284, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356154

RESUMO

Because of their agricultural value, there is a great body of research dedicated to understanding the microorganisms responsible for rumen carbon degradation. However, we lack a holistic view of the microbial food web responsible for carbon processing in this ecosystem. Here, we sampled rumen-fistulated moose, allowing access to rumen microbial communities actively degrading woody plant biomass in real time. We resolved 1,193 viral contigs and 77 unique, near-complete microbial metagenome-assembled genomes, many of which lacked previous metabolic insights. Plant-derived metabolites were measured with NMR and carbohydrate microarrays to quantify the carbon nutrient landscape. Network analyses directly linked measured metabolites to expressed proteins from these unique metagenome-assembled genomes, revealing a genome-resolved three-tiered carbohydrate-fuelled trophic system. This provided a glimpse into microbial specialization into functional guilds defined by specific metabolites. To validate our proteomic inferences, the catalytic activity of a polysaccharide utilization locus from a highly connected metabolic hub genome was confirmed using heterologous gene expression. Viral detected proteins and linkages to microbial hosts demonstrated that phage are active controllers of rumen ecosystem function. Our findings elucidate the microbial and viral members, as well as their metabolic interdependencies, that support in situ carbon degradation in the rumen ecosystem.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Rúmen , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Proteômica , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/virologia , Ruminantes , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo
7.
Sci Adv ; 4(9): eaas9593, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263955

RESUMO

Recently, it was recognized that widely used calculations of methane radiative forcing systematically underestimated its global value by 15% by omitting its shortwave effects. We show that shortwave forcing by methane can be accurately calculated despite considerable uncertainty and large gaps in its shortwave spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the forcing is insensitive, even when confronted with much more complete methane absorption spectra extending to violet light wavelengths derived from observations of methane-rich Jovian planets. We undertake the first spatially resolved global calculations of this forcing and find that it is dependent on bright surface features and clouds. Localized annual mean forcing from preindustrial to present-day methane increases approaches +0.25 W/m2, 10 times the global annualized shortwave forcing and 43% of the total direct CH4 forcing. Shortwave forcing by anthropogenic methane is sufficiently large and accurate to warrant its inclusion in historical analyses, projections, and mitigation strategies for climate change.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2938, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087330

RESUMO

Scenarios that limit global warming to below 2 °C by 2100 assume significant land-use change to support large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) removal from the atmosphere by afforestation/reforestation, avoided deforestation, and Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). The more ambitious mitigation scenarios require even greater land area for mitigation and/or earlier adoption of CO2 removal strategies. Here we show that additional land-use change to meet a 1.5 °C climate change target could result in net losses of carbon from the land. The effectiveness of BECCS strongly depends on several assumptions related to the choice of biomass, the fate of initial above ground biomass, and the fossil-fuel emissions offset in the energy system. Depending on these factors, carbon removed from the atmosphere through BECCS could easily be offset by losses due to land-use change. If BECCS involves replacing high-carbon content ecosystems with crops, then forest-based mitigation could be more efficient for atmospheric CO2 removal than BECCS.

9.
Science ; 361(6400): 326-327, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049861
10.
J Am Coll Health ; 66(7): 655-664, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study identified important stressors associated with depressive symptoms in college students across the subgroups of gender and domestic/international status, and compared between-group differences across stress levels. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 631 undergraduate students from October 2014 to March 2015. METHODS: Participants completed an online survey containing measures of stressors (Student-Stress-Survey), depressive symptoms (CES-D scale), and demographics. RESULTS: The mean CES-D score (16.24) of sample indicated high depressive symptoms. International students reported higher depressive symptoms than domestic students and students identifying as female showed higher depression symptoms than male. Eight most frequently occurring stressors experienced by over 50% of the sample were identified as important; differences in stress levels across gender and domestic/international status were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This renewed look reinforced that tailored and sustained efforts are needed to address the continued prevalence of different stressors and associated depressive symptoms faced by college students on US campuses.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
West J Nurs Res ; 40(1): 5-19, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322653

RESUMO

College students are heavy consumers of energy beverages, yet further study is needed to better understand determinants of use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study ( N = 283) was to identify beliefs explaining unsafe consumption practices. A principal components analysis revealed three eigenvalues >1 explaining approximately 55% of the variance (health and appearance, performance and fatigue, and recreation and alcohol). Multiple regression analysis explained 75% of the variance for intent to consume. Standardized beta for attitude and subjective norms was p < .001; perceived behavioral control was p < .05. MANOVA was used to determine the effect of gender on eight dependent variables (Wilks's lambda = 3.78, p < .001). Attitudes and subjective norms influenced the intent to consume energy beverages, particularly in males. Students viewed energy beverages as useful for managing health and appearance and performance and fatigue, and as a way to enhance recreation and alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Cultura , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudantes/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(12): e392, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students' maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. METHODS: Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. RESULTS: eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on vaccinations, and maintaining a balanced diet. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest several areas that may be targeted for future health campaigns toward college students. In addition, eHEALS was found to be a useful instrument for college students in the United States. Lastly, these results point to a need to deliver targeted information to college students, particularly since eHEALS captures literacy based on positively phrased items.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
J Int Adv Otol ; 13(3): 333-339, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the microbial flora of adenoids from patients with recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) and patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was prospective and controlled. Adenoids were obtained from children undergoing adenoidectomy for recurrent AOM (n=7) or OSA (n=13). Specimens were processed for total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation. 16s DNA 454-pyrosequencing was performed on AOM (n=5) and OSA (n=5) specimens. All specimens were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the quantification of the oral commensal bacteria, Streptococcus salivarius. RESULTS: All adenoid specimens had evidence of microbes. Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were among the dominant species in all samples. S. salivarius, Prevotella sp. and Terrahaemophilus aromaticivorans were more common on adenoids from OSA patients (p<0.05). Bradyrhizobium sp. was more common on adenoids from patients with recurrent AOM (p<0.05). The microbial profiles associated with recurrent AOM were different from, but overlapped with OSA. S. salivarius quantified by real-time PCR was not different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Microbes are present on all adenoid specimens, though the microbial profile differs between recurrent AOM and OSA. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Florida , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Otite Média , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono
17.
ISME J ; 11(3): 691-703, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27959345

RESUMO

Ruminants have co-evolved with their gastrointestinal microbial communities that digest plant materials to provide energy for the host. Some arctic and boreal ruminants have already shown to be vulnerable to dietary shifts caused by changing climate, yet we know little about the metabolic capacity of the ruminant microbiome in these animals. Here, we use meta-omics approaches to sample rumen fluid microbial communities from Alaskan moose foraging along a seasonal lignocellulose gradient. Winter diets with increased hemicellulose and lignin strongly enriched for BS11, a Bacteroidetes family lacking cultivated or genomically sampled representatives. We show that BS11 are cosmopolitan host-associated bacteria prevalent in gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other mammals. Metagenomic reconstruction yielded the first four BS11 genomes; phylogenetically resolving two genera within this previously taxonomically undefined family. Genome-enabled metabolic analyses uncovered multiple pathways for fermenting hemicellulose monomeric sugars to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), metabolites vital for ruminant energy. Active hemicellulosic sugar fermentation and SCFA production was validated by shotgun proteomics and rumen metabolites, illuminating the role BS11 have in carbon transformations within the rumen. Our results also highlight the currently unknown metabolic potential residing in the rumen that may be vital for sustaining host energy in response to a changing vegetative environment.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Cervos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Mudança Climática , Cervos/classificação , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Estações do Ano
18.
Eur J Neurosci ; 45(1): 106-120, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564091

RESUMO

The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems regulate cognitive and motivational processes and are strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders in which these processes are disturbed. Sex differences and sex hormone modulation are also known for these dopamine-sensitive behaviours in health and disease. One relevant mechanism of hormone impact appears to be regulation of cortical and subcortical dopamine levels. This study asked whether this regulation of dopamine tone is a consequence of sex or sex hormone impact on the firing modes of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons. To address this, single unit extracellular recordings made in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were compared among urethane-anaesthetized adult male, female, gonadectomized male rats. These comparisons showed that gonadectomy had no effect on nigral cells and no effects on pacemaker, bursty, single-spiking or random modes of dopamine activity in the ventral tegmental area. However, it did significantly and selectively increase burst firing in these cells in a testosterone-sensitive, estradiol-insensitive manner. Given the roles of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in modulating midbrain dopamine cell firing, we next asked whether gonadectomy's effects on dopamine cell bursting had correlated effects on the activity of ventral tegmentally projecting prefrontal cortical neurons. We found that gonadectomy indeed significantly and selectively increased burst firing in ventral tegmentally projecting but not neighbouring prefrontal cells. These effects were also androgen-sensitive. Together, these findings suggest a working model wherein androgen influence over the activity of PFC neurons regulates its top-down modulation of mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems and related dopamine-sensitive behaviours.


Assuntos
Castração , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Substância Negra/citologia , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Castração/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Health Commun ; 32(10): 1241-1251, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484329

RESUMO

Across the life course, African Americans bear an unequal burden of disease compared to other racial groups. In spite of the widespread acknowledgment of racial health disparities, the voices of African Americans, their articulations of health and their local etiologies of health disparities are limited. In this article, we highlight the important role of communication scholarship to understand the everyday enactment of health disparities. Drawing upon the culture-centered approach (CCA) to co-construct narratives of health with African Americans residents of Lake County, Indiana, we explore the presence of stress in the everyday narratives of health. These narratives voice the social and structural sources of stress, and articulate resistive coping strategies embedded in relationship to structures.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Narração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Indiana , Entrevistas como Assunto
20.
West J Nurs Res ; 38(9): 1094-113, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094555

RESUMO

College is a time when young adults establish lifestyle habits. This research examines how personalization and limited resources might be balanced most effectively when designing incentives to shift college students' intentions toward positive dietary changes. A randomized 2 × 2 experiment (Coaching/Coupons × Fruits and Vegetables/Low Fat) was conducted, where respondents were exposed to virtual interventions and asked pre- and post-intervention about their intent to eat healthy. Results suggest that interventions may incentivize students, but are dependent on student characteristics. On-campus students and students with more knowledge about healthy diets were more likely to increase their intent when offered coaching; students living off campus and those with less knowledge resonated with coupons. On- and off-campus students differed in their positive responses to eating fruits and vegetables versus low fat foods, respectively. Younger students may be more susceptible to interventions. Findings may be useful in designing meaningful incentives for college students.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Motivação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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