Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 8-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of four decision aids (Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS), History, ECG, Age, Risk factors and Troponin (HEART), Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain (EDACS)) used to expedite the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the ED. METHODS: We prospectively included patients who presented to 14 EDs in England (February 2015 to June 2017) with suspected ACS within 12 hours of symptom onset. Data to enable evaluation of the T-MACS, HEART, TIMI and EDACS decision aids (without recalibration) were prospectively collected, blinded to patient outcome. We tested admission blood samples for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI; Siemens ADVIA Centaur). Patients also underwent serial cardiac troponin testing over 3-12 hours. The target condition was an adjudicated diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We also evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (including death, AMI or coronary revascularisation) at 30 days. Diagnostic accuracy of each decision aid and hs-cTnI alone (using the limit of quantification cut-off, 3 ng/L) was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). RESULTS: Of 999 included patients, 132 (13.2%) had AMI. C-statistics were 0.96 for T-MACS, 0.78 for HEART and 0.69 for TIMI. The sensitivities of T-MACS, HEART, TIMI, EDACS and hs-cTnI <3 ng/L for AMI were 99.2% (95% CI 95.7% to 100.0%), 91.8% (85.0% to 96.2%), 97.5% (92.9% to 99.5%), 96.2% (92.2% to 99.4%) and 99.2% (95.9% to 100.0%), respectively. The respective strategies would have ruled out 46.5%, 34.9%, 19.4%, 48.3% and 28.8% patients. PPVs for the decision aids that identify 'high-risk' patients were 80.4% (T-MACS), 51.9% (TIMI) and 37.2% (HEART). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, T-MACS could rule out AMI in 46.5% patients with 99.2% sensitivity. EDACS could rule out AMI in 48.3% patients with lower sensitivity, although the difference was not statistically significant. The HEART and TIMI scores had lower diagnostic accuracy.

3.
Circulation ; 141(3): 161-171, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of more sensitive cardiac troponin assays has led to increased recognition of myocardial injury in acute illnesses other than acute coronary syndrome. The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recommends high-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing and classification of patients with myocardial injury based on pathogenesis, but the clinical implications of implementing this guideline are not well understood. METHODS: In a stepped-wedge cluster randomized, controlled trial, we implemented a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay and the recommendations of the Universal Definition in 48 282 consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. In a prespecified secondary analysis, we compared the primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death and secondary outcome of noncardiovascular death at 1 year across diagnostic categories. RESULTS: Implementation increased the diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction by 11% (510/4471), type 2 myocardial infarction by 22% (205/916), and acute and chronic myocardial injury by 36% (443/1233) and 43% (389/898), respectively. Compared with those without myocardial injury, the rate of the primary outcome was highest in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (cause-specific hazard ratio [HR] 5.64 [95% CI, 5.12-6.22]), but was similar across diagnostic categories, whereas noncardiovascular deaths were highest in those with acute myocardial injury (cause specific HR 2.65 [95% CI, 2.33-3.01]). Despite modest increases in antiplatelet therapy and coronary revascularization after implementation in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, the primary outcome was unchanged (cause specific HR 1.00 [95% CI, 0.82-1.21]). Increased recognition of type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury did not lead to changes in investigation, treatment or outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and the recommendations of the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction identified patients at high-risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular events but was not associated with consistent increases in treatment or improved outcomes. Trials of secondary prevention are urgently required to determine whether this risk is modifiable in patients without type 1 myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2032-2043, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major disparities between women and men in the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome are well recognized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific diagnostic thresholds for myocardial infarction in women and men with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial across 10 hospitals. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration >99th centile of 16 ng/l in women and 34 ng/l in men. The primary outcome was recurrent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 48,282 patients (47% women) were included. Use of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific thresholds increased myocardial injury in women by 42% and in men by 6%. Following implementation, women with myocardial injury remained less likely than men to undergo coronary revascularization (15% vs. 34%) and to receive dual antiplatelet (26% vs. 43%), statin (16% vs. 26%), or other preventive therapies (p < 0.001 for all). The primary outcome occurred in 18% (369 of 2,072) and 17% (488 of 2,919) of women with myocardial injury before and after implementation, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.33), compared with 18% (370 of 2,044) and 15% (513 of 3,325) of men (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Use of sex-specific thresholds identified 5 times more additional women than men with myocardial injury. Despite this increase, women received approximately one-half the number of treatments for coronary artery disease as men, and outcomes were not improved. (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]; NCT01852123).

5.
6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(5): 623-632, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530880

RESUMO

The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) formed a Task Force on the Application of Cardiac Bio-markers (TF-CB) in 2008, re-designated in 2018 as a committee (C-CB), to produce educational materials on cardiac biomarkers. Established in June 2017, definitive tables covering the majority of high-sensitivity, contemporary and point-of-care (POC) cTn assays have been developed by the C-CB and are available on the IFCC website. These tables provide extensive information about assays' analytical characteristics and encompass information on diagnostic discriminants, particularly the 99th percentiles, as provided by the manufacturers.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos
7.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(5): 633-640, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291783

RESUMO

Two interferences recently brought to the forefront as patient safety issues include hemolysis (hemoglobin) and biotin (vitamin B7). The International Federation for Clinical Chemistry Committee on Cardiac Biomarkers (IFCC-CB) obtained input from a majority of cTn and NP assay manufacturers to collate information related to high-sensitivity (hs)-cTnI, hs-cTnT, contemporary, and POC cTn assays, and NP assays interferences due to hemolysis and biotin. The information contained in these tables was designed as educational tools to aid laboratory professionals and clinicians in troubleshooting cardiac biomarker analytical results that are discordant with the clinical situation.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biotina/sangue , Hemólise/fisiologia , Humanos
8.
Lancet ; 392(10151): 919-928, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays permit use of lower thresholds for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but whether this improves clinical outcomes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with a sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold would reduce subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial across ten secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the implementation of an hs-cTnI assay in consecutive patients who had been admitted to the hospitals' emergency departments with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented with suspected acute coronary syndrome and had paired cardiac troponin measurements from the standard care and trial assays. During a validation phase of 6-12 months, results from the hs-cTnI assay were concealed from the attending clinician, and a contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay was used to guide care. Hospitals were randomly allocated to early (n=5 hospitals) or late (n=5 hospitals) implementation, in which the high-sensitivity assay and sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold was introduced immediately after the 6-month validation phase or was deferred for a further 6 months. Patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay were defined as those with an increased hs-cTnI concentration in whom cTnI concentrations were below the diagnostic threshold on the contemporary assay. The primary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular causes at 1 year after initial presentation. Outcomes were compared in patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay before and after its implementation by use of an adjusted generalised linear mixed model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852123. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2013, and March 3, 2016, we enrolled 48 282 consecutive patients (61 [SD 17] years, 47% women) of whom 10 360 (21%) patients had cTnI concentrations greater than those of the 99th centile of the normal range of values, who were identified by the contemporary assay or the high-sensitivity assay. The high-sensitivity assay reclassified 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction who were not identified by the contemporary assay. In those reclassified, subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 1 year occurred in 105 (15%) of 720 patients in the validation phase and 131 (12%) of 1051 patients in the implementation phase (adjusted odds ratio for implementation vs validation phase 1·10, 95% CI 0·75 to 1·61; p=0·620). INTERPRETATION: Use of a high-sensitivity assay prompted reclassification of 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction, but was not associated with a lower subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. Our findings question whether the diagnostic threshold for myocardial infarction should be based on the 99th centile derived from a normal reference population. FUNDING: The British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 113(14): 1708-1718, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016754

RESUMO

Elucidation of the physiologically distinct subunits of troponin in 1973 greatly facilitated our understanding of cardiac contraction. Although troponins are expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, there are isoforms of troponin I/T expressed selectively in the heart. By exploiting cardiac-restricted epitopes within these proteins, one of the most successful diagnostic tests to date has been developed: cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. For the past decade, cTn has been regarded as the gold-standard marker for acute myocardial necrosis: the pathological hallmark of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Whilst cTn is the cornerstone for ruling-out AMI in patients presenting with a suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), elevated cTn is frequently observed in those without clinical signs indicative of AMI, often reflecting myocardial injury of 'unknown origin'. cTn is commonly elevated in acute non-ACS conditions, as well as in chronic diseases. It is unclear why these elevations occur; yet they cannot be ignored as cTn levels in chronically unwell patients are directly correlated to prognosis. Paradoxically, improvements in assay sensitivity have meant more differential diagnoses have to be considered due to decreased specificity, since cTn is now more easily detected in these non-ACS conditions. It is important to be aware cTn is highly specific for myocardial injury, which could be attributable to a myriad of underlying causes, emphasizing the notion that cTn is an organ-specific, not disease-specific biomarker. Furthermore, the ability to detect increased cTn using high-sensitivity assays following extreme exercise is disconcerting. It has been suggested troponin release can occur without cardiomyocyte necrosis, contradicting conventional dogma, emphasizing a need to understand the mechanisms of such release. This review discusses basic troponin biology, the physiology behind its detection in serum, its use in the diagnosis of AMI, and some key concepts and experimental evidence as to why cTn can be elevated in chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo
11.
Lancet ; 386(10012): 2481-8, 2015 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26454362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suspected acute coronary syndrome is the commonest reason for emergency admission to hospital and is a large burden on health-care resources. Strategies to identify low-risk patients suitable for immediate discharge would have major benefits. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study of 6304 consecutively enrolled patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome presenting to four secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Scotland. We measured plasma troponin concentrations at presentation using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay. In derivation and validation cohorts, we evaluated the negative predictive value of a range of troponin concentrations for the primary outcome of index myocardial infarction, or subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01852123). FINDINGS: 782 (16%) of 4870 patients in the derivation cohort had index myocardial infarction, with a further 32 (1%) re-presenting with myocardial infarction and 75 (2%) cardiac deaths at 30 days. In patients without myocardial infarction at presentation, troponin concentrations were less than 5 ng/L in 2311 (61%) of 3799 patients, with a negative predictive value of 99·6% (95% CI 99·3-99·8) for the primary outcome. The negative predictive value was consistent across groups stratified by age, sex, risk factors, and previous cardiovascular disease. In two independent validation cohorts, troponin concentrations were less than 5 ng/L in 594 (56%) of 1061 patients, with an overall negative predictive value of 99·4% (98·8-99·9). At 1 year, these patients had a lower risk of myocardial infarction and cardiac death than did those with a troponin concentration of 5 ng/L or more (0·6% vs 3·3%; adjusted hazard ratio 0·41, 95% CI 0·21-0·80; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Low plasma troponin concentrations identify two-thirds of patients at very low risk of cardiac events who could be discharged from hospital. Implementation of this approach could substantially reduce hospital admissions and have major benefits for both patients and health-care providers. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation and Chief Scientist Office (Scotland).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 444: 149-53, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25684454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beckman Coulter recently released a new cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay, AccuTnI+3, for the Access 2 and DxI platforms. We validated the stated 99th percentile (20 ng/l) using a large population of healthy adults representative of the Northern California population. METHODS: Within a large sample of healthy adult members receiving care at Kaiser Permanente, cTnI was quantified in residual specimens using the AccuTnI+3 assay. Patients were selected based on pre-defined criteria extracted from a comprehensive electronic medical record. All specimens with a cTnI concentration >30ng/l were repeated; specimens that had a reproducible result >30 ng/l were subject to heterophile blocking procedure. 99th percentiles were calculated based on age, sex, race and body mass index categories. RESULTS: Among 1764 tested subjects, the 99th percentile for all samples was 25 ng/l. Sex differences were observed; the male and female 99th percentiles were 31 and 21 ng/l, respectively (p=0.001). Age (range evaluated 18-89y, median 47y) also had a significant influence on the value (p=0.003), but there were no significant differences by race. False positive results were detected in 0.9% of specimens (0.6% "fliers" and 0.3% heterophile antibodies), corresponding to 52% of all results >30 ng/l. CONCLUSIONS: Among a large, representative cohort of healthy adults, we found a 99th percentile value consistent with prior studies based on highly selected small patient samples. Sex and age-specific upper reference limits for cTnI should be considered. In this cohort, about half the findings above the 99th percentile were false positives. Avoiding reporting erroneous results requires implementation of quality indicators.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Caracteres Sexuais , Troponina I/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bioensaio , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ ; 350: g7873, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnosis of myocardial infarction using a high sensitivity troponin I assay and sex specific diagnostic thresholds in men and women with suspected acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Regional cardiac centre, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1126, 46% women). Two cardiologists independently adjudicated the diagnosis of myocardial infarction by using a high sensitivity troponin I assay with sex specific diagnostic thresholds (men 34 ng/L, women 16 ng/L) and compared with current practice where a contemporary assay (50 ng/L, single threshold) was used to guide care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The high sensitivity troponin I assay noticeably increased the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in women (from 11% to 22%; P<0.001) but had a minimal effect in men (from 19% to 21%, P=0.002). Women were less likely than men to be referred to a cardiologist or undergo coronary revascularisation (P<0.05 for both). At 12 months, women with undisclosed increases in troponin concentration (17-49 ng/L) and those with myocardial infarction (≥50 ng/L) had the highest rate of death or reinfarction compared with women without (≤16 ng/L) myocardial infarction (25%, 24%, and 4%, respectively; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although having little effect in men, a high sensitivity troponin assay with sex specific diagnostic thresholds may double the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in women and identify those at high risk of reinfarction and death. Whether use of sex specific diagnostic thresholds will improve outcomes and tackle inequalities in the treatment of women with suspected acute coronary syndrome requires urgent attention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Am Heart J ; 169(1): 6-16.e6, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25497242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic performance of conventional troponin (cTn) and high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis comparing cTn and hs-cTn for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and assessment of prognosis in patients with chest pain. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched for studies assessing both cTn and hs-cTn in patients with chest pain. Study authors were contacted and many provided previously unpublished data. RESULTS: From 17 included studies, there were 8,644 patients. Compared with baseline cTn, baseline hs-cTn had significantly greater sensitivity (0.884 vs 0.749, P < .001) and negative predictive value (NPV; 0.964 vs 0.935, P < .001), whereas specificity (0.816 vs 0.938, P < .001) and positive predictive value (0.558 vs 0.759, P < .001) were significantly reduced. Based on summary receiver operating characteristic curves, test performance for the diagnosis of AMI was not significantly different between baseline cTn and hs-cTn (0.90 [95% CI 0.85-0.95] vs 0.92 [95% CI 0.90-0.94]). In a subanalysis of 6 studies that alternatively defined AMI based on hs-cTn, cTn had lower sensitivity (0.666, P < .001) and NPV (0.906, P < .001). Elevation of baseline hs-cTn, but negative baseline cTn, was associated with increased risk of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction during follow-up (P < .001) compared with both negative. CONCLUSION: High-sensitivity troponin has significantly greater early sensitivity and NPV for the diagnosis of AMI at the cost of specificity and positive predictive value, which may enable early rule in/out of AMI in patients with chest pain. Baseline hs-cTn elevation in the setting of negative cTn is also associated with increased nonfatal myocardial infarction or death during follow-up.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Open Heart ; 1(1): e000108, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25332816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) can occur in patients with chronic kidney disease. Differences in cTn concentrations between cTnT and cTnI have been reported but the mechanism of such discrepancy has not been investigated. This study investigates the clearance of cTn with the aid of an in vitro model of haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: Serum was obtained before and after a single session of dialysis from 53 patients receiving HD and assayed for cTnT and cTnI. An in vitro model of the dialysis process was used to investigate the mechanism of clearance of cTn during HD. RESULTS: Serum cTnI was significantly lower (p=0.043) following a session of HD whereas cTnT concentrations were similar to those obtained before HD. Using an in vitro model of dialysis, it was demonstrated that cTnI is not dialysed from the vascular compartment but adheres to the dialyser membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The adherence of cTnI to the dialyser membrane is responsible for the observed decrease in serum cTnI following a session of dialysis. The adherence of cTnT or T-I-C complex to the dialyser membrane could not be demonstrated and supports the observation that pre-HD and post-HD serum concentrations of cTnT are similar.

18.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 3(1): 18-27, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24562800

RESUMO

AIMS: This systematic review aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of combined cardiac troponin (cTn) and copeptin assessment in comparison to cTn alone for early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Primary studies were eligible if they evaluated diagnostic accuracy for cTn with and without copeptin in patients with symptoms suggestive of AMI. AMI was defined according to the universal definition, using detection of cTn as a marker for myocardial necrosis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, Pascal, and Cochrane) from inception to March 2013, reviewing conference proceedings and contacting field experts and the copeptin manufacturer. RESULTS: In 15 studies totalling 8740 patients (prevalence of AMI 16%), adding copeptin improved the sensitivity of cTn assays (from 0.87 to 0.96, p=0.003) at the expense of lower specificity (from 0.84 to 0.56, p<0.001). In 12 studies providing data for 6988 patients without ST-segment elevation, the summary sensitivity and specificity estimates were 0.95 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.65) for the combined assessment of cTn and copeptin. When a high-sensitivity cTnT assay was used in combination with copeptin, the summary sensitivity and specificity estimates were 0.98 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.58). CONCLUSION: Despite substantial between-study heterogeneity, this meta-analysis demonstrates that copeptin significantly improves baseline cTn sensitivity. Management studies are needed to establish the effectiveness and safety of measuring copeptin in combination with high-sensitivity cTnT for early rule-out of AMI without serial testing.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Precursores de Proteínas , Curva ROC
19.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 14(2): 185-97, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24524847

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent disease that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality; HF is estimated to cost the US healthcare system over US$39 billion annually. Biomarkers have an increasingly important role in achieving management goals through rapid diagnosis and monitoring of disease processes. HF is a target for healthcare cost control measures and quality improvement metrics. In achieving these benchmarks, point-of-care testing, the development of more sensitive assays for traditional biomarkers and determining appropriate applications for novel markers will be essential in meeting these health quality and cost-driven metrics. Point-of-care applications involving biomarkers can be utilized in inpatient, outpatient and emergency department settings to aid in the rapid diagnosis, risk stratification and management of patients presenting with symptoms consistent with HF. In this paper we review current and promising HF biomarkers with an emphasis on point-of-care testing and its implications in the changing healthcare landscape.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiologia/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/sangue , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Troponina/sangue
20.
Clin Biochem ; 47(6): 327-37, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24530339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a syndrome characterized by the inability of the heart to meet the body's circulatory demands. Heart failure is a growing health issue worldwide and the prevalence of heart failure is expected to rise as populations age. Therapies and interventions for a variety of cardiac conditions continue to advance and biomarkers will play an increasing role in patient management. METHODS: This is a review of the clinical research in blood based biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic guidance of heart failure. The focus of this review is biomarkers that are currently available for clinical measurement, and their current and potential for applications for managing heart failure patients. RESULTS: The various biologic pathways and physiologic processes of heart failure biomarkers represent a host of different including inflammation, remodeling, strain, neurohormonal activation, metabolism and cardiac myocyte injury. The clinical characteristics and applications of each heart failure biomarker are discussed. CONCLUSION: As populations age and effective treatments and interventions for coronary artery disease improve, heart failure will increase in incidence and prevalence. Blood biomarkers will play an increasing role in the early diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and management of heart failure patients in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA