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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914785

RESUMO

Each year, a growing international collection of researchers meets at the NIH to share and discuss developments in the microbiome HIV story. This past year has seen continued progress toward a detailed understanding of host-microbe interactions both within and outside the field of HIV. Commensal microbes are being linked to an ever-growing list of maladies and physiologic states, including major depressive disorder, chronic kidney disease, and Parkinson disease. PubMed citations for "microbiome" are growing at an exponential rate with over 11,000 in 2018. Various microbial taxa have been associated with HIV infection, and some of these taxa associated with HIV infection have also been associated with systemic markers of inflammation in HIV infected individuals. Causality remains unclear however as environmental and behavioral factors may drive HIV risk, inflammation, and gut enterotype. Much of the work currently being done addresses potential mechanisms by which gut microbes influence immune and inflammatory pathways. No portion of the microbiome landscape has grown as rapidly as study of the interplay between gut microbes and response to cancer immunotherapy. As Dr. Wargo discussed in her keynote address, this area has opened the door to better understanding on how commensal microbes interact with the human immune system.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938877

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Barriers to smoking cessation, including negative affect and cognitive dysfunction, may contribute to high smoking rates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Varenicline may help PLWH quit smoking by improving mood and cognition, yet this has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of varenicline on mood and cognition among PLWH enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a varenicline trial (NCT01710137), we assessed mood (depression, anxiety) and cognition (attention, working memory) at weeks 0 (baseline), 1, 3, and 12 (end-of-treatment, EOT). Primary outcomes were changes in mood and cognition from baseline to EOT. Secondarily, mood and cognition were evaluated as predictors of biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at EOT. RESULTS: Overall, 173 subjects (87 varenicline, 86 placebo) were included. At EOT, varenicline reduced anxiety (P < 0.001), vs. placebo (P = 0.31; interaction P = 0.05). Across both treatment arms, reductions in anxiety from baseline to EOT were associated with a higher likelihood of abstinence (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6, P = 0.01). There were no significant treatment by time interactions for cognition or depression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that varenicline operates, at least in part, by reducing anxiety. Anxiety should be an intervention target for smokers with HIV interested in quitting.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834620

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era may lose more life-years to tobacco use than to HIV. Yet, smoking rates are more than twice as high among PLWH than the general population, contributing not just to mortality but to other adverse health outcomes, including neurocognitive deficits (neuroHIV). There is growing evidence that synergy with chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation that persists despite ART may be one mechanism by which tobacco smoking contributes to neuroHIV. This review will summarize the differential effects of nicotine vs tobacco smoking on inflammation in addition to the effects of tobacco smoke components on HIV disease progression. We will also discuss biomarkers of inflammation via neuroimaging as well as biomarkers of nicotine dependence (e.g., nicotine metabolite ratio). Tobacco smoking and nicotine may impact ART drug metabolism and conversely, certain ARTs may impact nicotine metabolism. Thus, we will review these bidirectional relationships and how they may contribute to neuroHIV and other adverse outcomes. We will also discuss the effects of tobacco use on the interaction between peripheral organs (lungs, heart, kidney) and subsequent CNS function in the context of HIV. Lastly, given the dramatic rise in the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems, we will discuss the implications of vaping on these processes. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of addressing tobacco use among PLWH, more research is necessary at both the preclinical and clinical level to disentangle the potentially synergistic effects of tobacco use, nicotine, HIV, cognition and immune dysregulation, as well as identify optimal approaches to reduce tobacco use. Graphical Abstract Proposed model of the relationships among HIV, ART, smoking, inflammation, and neurocognition. Solid lines represent relationships supported by evidence. Dashed lines represent relationships for which there is not enough evidence to make a conclusion. (a) HIV infection produces elevated levels of inflammation even among virally suppressed individuals. (b) HIV is associated with deficits in cognition function. (c) Smoking rates are higher among PLWH, compared to the general population. (d) The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) is associated with smoking behavior. (e) HIV and tobacco use are both associated with higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, and elevated levels of chronic stress. These factors may represent other mechanisms linking HIV and tobacco use. (f) The relationship between nicotine, tobacco smoking, and inflammation is complex, but it is well-established that smoking induces inflammation; the evidence for nicotine as anti-inflammatory is supported in some studies, but not others. (g) The relationship between tobacco use and neurocognition may differ for the effects of nicotine (acute nicotine use may have beneficial effects) vs. tobacco smoking (chronic use may impair cognition). (h) Elevated levels of inflammation may be associated with deficits in cognition. (i) PLWH may metabolize nicotine faster than those without HIV; the mechanism is not yet known and the finding needs validation in larger samples. We also hypothesize that if HIV-infection increases nicotine metabolism, then we should observe an attenuation effect once ART is initiated. (j) It is possible that the increase in NMR is due to ART effects on CYP2A6. (k) We hypothesize that faster nicotine metabolism may result in higher levels of inflammation since nicotine has anti-inflammatory properties.

5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(11): 1383-1391, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415219

RESUMO

Rationale: The oropharyngeal microbiome is a primary source of lung microbiota, contributes to lower respiratory infection, and is also a driver of oral health.Objectives: We sought to understand oropharyngeal microbial communities in advanced lung disease, community dynamics after lung transplantation, and ecological features of dysbiosis.Methods: Oropharyngeal wash samples were obtained from individuals with end-stage disease awaiting transplantation (n = 22) and longitudinally from individuals at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after transplantation (n = 33), along with healthy control subjects (n = 14). Bacterial 16S and fungal internal transcribed spacer rRNA regions were deep-sequenced, and bacterial community respiratory patterns were imputed from taxonomic composition.Results: Healthy subjects' oropharyngeal microbiomes showed a gradient of community types reflecting relative enrichment of strictly anaerobic, aerobic, or facultative anaerobic bacteria. Patients with end-stage lung disease showed severe dysbiosis by both taxonomic composition and respiration phenotypes, with reduced richness and diversity, increased facultative and decreased aerobic bacteria, and absence of communities characterized by obligate aerobes. In patients at 6 weeks and 3 months post-transplant, richness and diversity were intermediate between healthy and pretransplant subjects, with near-normal distribution of community types. However, by 6 months post-transplant, oropharyngeal wash resembled the low-diversity facultative-dominated profile of pretransplant subjects. Community ecotype correlated with Candida abundance.Conclusions: End-stage lung disease is associated with marked upper respiratory tract dysbiosis involving both community structure and respiratory metabolism profiles of constituent bacteria. Dynamic changes occur after lung transplantation, with partial normalization early but later appearance of severe dysbiosis similar to pretransplant patients. Aberrant oropharyngeal communities may predispose to abnormal lung microbiota and infection risk both in advanced lung disease and after transplantation.

6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 200: 26-33, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) smoke tobacco at higher rates and have more difficulty quitting than the general population, which contributes to significant life-years lost. The effectiveness of varenicline, one of the most effective tobacco dependence treatments, is understudied in HIV. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation among PLWH. METHODS: This was a single-site randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial (NCT01710137). PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who were treatment-seeking daily smokers were randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of varenicline (n = 89) or placebo (n = 90). All participants were offered six smoking cessation behavioral counseling sessions. The primary outcome was 7-day point prevalence abstinence, confirmed with breath carbon monoxide, at Weeks 12 and 24. Continuous abstinence and time to relapse were secondary outcomes. Safety measures were treatment-related side effects, adverse events, blood pressure, viral load, and ART adherence. RESULTS: Of the 179 smokers, 81% were African American, and 68% were male. Varenicline increased cessation at Week 12 (28.1% vs. 12.1%; OR = 4.54, 95% CI:1.83-11.25, P = .001). Continuous abstinence from Week 9 to 12 was higher for varenicline vs. placebo (23.6% vs. 10%; OR = 4.65, 95% CI:1.71-12.67, P = .003); at Week 24, there was no effect of varenicline for point prevalence (14.6% vs. 10%), continuous abstinence (10.1% vs. 6.7%), or time to relapse (Ps > .05). There were no differences between varenicline and placebo on safety measures (Ps > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Varenicline is safe and efficacious for short-term smoking cessation among PLWH and should be used to reduce tobacco-related life-years lost in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fumantes , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141557

RESUMO

Endobronchial stents are increasingly used to treat airway complications in multiple conditions including lung transplantation but little is known about the biofilms that form on these devices. We applied deep sequencing to profile luminal biofilms of 46 endobronchial stents removed from 20 subjects primarily with lung transplantation-associated airway compromise. Microbial communities were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS marker gene sequencing. Corynebacterium was the most common bacterial taxa across biofilm communities. Clustering analysis revealed three bacterial biofilm types: one low diversity and dominated by Corynebacterium; another was polymicrobial and characterized by Staphylococcus; and the third was polymicrobial and associated with Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Prevotella. Biofilm type was significantly correlated with stent material: covered metal with the Staphylococcus-type biofilm, silicone with the Corynebacterium-dominated biofilm, and uncovered metal with the polymicrobial biofilm. Subjects with sequential stents had frequent transitions between community types. Fungal analysis found Candida was most prevalent, Aspergillus was common and highly enriched in two of three stents associated with airway anastomotic dehiscence, and fungal taxa not typically considered pathogens were highly enriched in some stents. Thus, molecular analysis revealed a complex and dynamic endobronchial stent biofilm with three bacterial types that associate with stent material, a central role for Corynebacterium, and that both expected and unexpected fungi inhabit this unique niche. The current work provides a foundation for studies to investigate the relationship between stent biofilm composition and clinical outcomes, mechanisms of biofilm establishment, and strategies for improved stent technology and use in airway compromise.


Assuntos
Stents/efeitos adversos , Stents/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brônquios/microbiologia , Brônquios/cirurgia , Feminino , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(5): 719-729.e4, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071295

RESUMO

The global virome is largely uncharacterized but is now being unveiled by metagenomic DNA sequencing. Exploring the human respiratory virome, in particular, can provide insights into oro-respiratory diseases. Here, we use metagenomics to identify a family of small circular DNA viruses-named Redondoviridae-associated with human diseases. We first identified two redondovirus genomes from bronchoalveolar lavage samples from human lung donors. We then queried thousands of metagenomic samples and recovered 17 additional complete redondovirus genomes. Detections were exclusively in human samples and mostly from respiratory tract and oro-pharyngeal sites, where Redondoviridae was the second most prevalent eukaryotic DNA virus family. Redondovirus sequences were associated with periodontal disease, and abundances decreased with treatment. Some critically ill patients in a medical intensive care unit were found to harbor high levels of redondoviruses in respiratory samples. These results suggest that redondoviruses colonize human oro-respiratory sites and can bloom in several human disorders.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Boca/virologia , Periodontite/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/patogenicidade , DNA Circular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
AIDS ; 33(6): 1083-1088, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected smokers lose more life years to tobacco use than to HIV infection. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a biomarker of CYP2A6, represents individual variation in the rate at which nicotine is metabolized and is associated with response to smoking cessation treatments. We evaluated whether HIV-infected smokers metabolize nicotine faster than HIV-uninfected smokers, which may contribute to the disproportionate smoking burden and may have important treatment implications. DESIGN: We analysed baseline data from two clinical trials (NCT01710137; NCT01314001) to compare the NMR in HIV-infected smokers (N = 131) to HIV-uninfected smokers (N = 199). METHODS: Propensity scores were used to match the groups 2 : 1 on characteristics that influence NMR: sex, race, BMI and smoking rate. Nicotine metabolites were assessed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods and the ratio of 3-hydroxycotinine:cotinine was used to compute the NMR. RESULTS: HIV-infected smokers had significantly higher NMR (mean = 0.47, SEM = 0.02) and were more likely to be in the highest NMR quartile compared with HIV-uninfected smokers (mean = 0.34, SEM = 0.02; Ps < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The higher NMR observed among HIV-infected smokers may partially explain higher smoking rates and lower response to transdermal nicotine therapy. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV and/or ART contribute to faster nicotine metabolism may guide the use of the NMR to personalize tobacco cessation strategies in this underserved population.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(8): 3229-3238, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718403

RESUMO

Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIVs) use CD4 as the primary receptor to enter target cells. Here, we show that the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants present in wild populations, and that this diversity interferes with SIV envelope (Env)-CD4 interactions. Testing the replication fitness of SIVcpz strains in CD4+ T cells from captive chimpanzees, we found that certain viruses were unable to infect cells from certain hosts. These differences were recapitulated in CD4 transfection assays, which revealed a strong association between CD4 genotypes and SIVcpz infection phenotypes. The most striking differences were observed for three substitutions (Q25R, Q40R, and P68T), with P68T generating a second N-linked glycosylation site (N66) in addition to an invariant N32 encoded by all chimpanzee CD4 alleles. In silico modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified charged residues at the CD4-Env interface and clashes between CD4- and Env-encoded glycans as mechanisms of inhibition. CD4 polymorphisms also reduced Env-mediated cell entry of monkey SIVs, which was dependent on at least one D1 domain glycan. CD4 allele frequencies varied among wild chimpanzees, with high diversity in all but the western subspecies, which appeared to have undergone a selective sweep. One allele was associated with lower SIVcpz prevalence rates in the wild. These results indicate that substitutions in the D1 domain of the chimpanzee CD4 can prevent SIV cell entry. Although some SIVcpz strains have adapted to utilize these variants, CD4 diversity is maintained, protecting chimpanzees against infection with SIVcpz and other SIVs to which they are exposed.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética/imunologia , HIV/genética , HIV/patogenicidade , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pan troglodytes/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/genética , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
11.
Am J Transplant ; 19(4): 1086-1097, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203917

RESUMO

Solid organ transplantation disrupts virus-host relationships, potentially resulting in viral transfer from donor to recipient, reactivation of latent viruses, and new viral infections. Viral transfer, colonization, and reactivation are typically monitored using assays for specific viruses, leaving the behavior of full viral populations (the "virome") understudied. Here we sought to investigate the temporal behavior of viruses from donor lungs and transplant recipients comprehensively. We interrogated the bronchoalveolar lavage and blood viromes during the peritransplant period and 6-16 months posttransplant in 13 donor-recipient pairs using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Anelloviridae, ubiquitous human commensal viruses, were the most abundant human viruses identified. Herpesviruses, parvoviruses, polyomaviruses, and bacteriophages were also detected. Anelloviridae populations were complex, with some donor organs and hosts harboring multiple contemporaneous lineages. We identified transfer of Anelloviridae lineages from donor organ to recipient serum in 4 of 7 cases that could be queried, and immigration of lineages from recipient serum into the allograft in 6 of 10 such cases. Thus, metagenomic analyses revealed that viral populations move between graft and host in both directions, showing that organ transplantation involves implantation of both the allograft and commensal viral communities.

12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 80(2): e36-e40, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) is a biomarker that represents individual variation in the speed that nicotine is metabolized. The rate of nicotine metabolism alters smoking behavior (eg, amount) and has been validated for personalizing tobacco dependence medication selection to increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment side effects in the general population of smokers. Although smoking rates are extremely high among those with HIV, the NMR has not been evaluated in this underserved population. METHODS: We used baseline data from a smoking cessation clinical trial for smokers with HIV (N = 131) to examine associations between NMR and demographic, smoking, disease-related, and psychological characteristics. Pearson r and analysis of variance were used to identify univariate correlates of NMR, which were then entered into a multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, a higher NMR (faster nicotine metabolism) was associated with being white, and more cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, exhaled carbon monoxide, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, and using efavirenz. In a multiple regression model, a higher NMR was associated with more cigarettes per day, higher anxiety symptoms, and efavirenz use. CONCLUSIONS: As in other populations, faster nicotine metabolism was associated with the use of more cigarettes and higher anxiety symptoms. Notably, efavirenz use was associated with faster metabolism, which might make it harder to quit smoking for people with HIV treated with that medication. These findings could help guide further study and the clinical use of the NMR to personalize nicotine dependence treatment in this underserved population.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Nicotina/metabolismo , Agonistas Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culture-based studies, which focus on individual organisms, have implicated stethoscopes as potential vectors of nosocomial bacterial transmission. However, the full bacterial communities that contaminate in-use stethoscopes have not been investigated. METHODS: We used bacterial 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, analysis, and quantification to profile entire bacterial populations on stethoscopes in use in an intensive care unit (ICU), including practitioner stethoscopes, individual-use patient-room stethoscopes, and clean unused individual-use stethoscopes. Two additional sets of practitioner stethoscopes were sampled before and after cleaning using standardized or practitioner-preferred methods. RESULTS: Bacterial contamination levels were highest on practitioner stethoscopes, followed by patient-room stethoscopes, whereas clean stethoscopes were indistinguishable from background controls. Bacterial communities on stethoscopes were complex, and community analysis by weighted UniFrac showed that physician and patient-room stethoscopes were indistinguishable and significantly different from clean stethoscopes and background controls. Genera relevant to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) were common on practitioner stethoscopes, among which Staphylococcus was ubiquitous and had the highest relative abundance (6.8%-14% of contaminating bacterial sequences). Other HAI-related genera were also widespread although lower in abundance. Cleaning of practitioner stethoscopes resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial contamination levels, but these levels reached those of clean stethoscopes in only a few cases with either standardized or practitioner-preferred methods, and bacterial community composition did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: Stethoscopes used in an ICU carry bacterial DNA reflecting complex microbial communities that include nosocomially important taxa. Commonly used cleaning practices reduce contamination but are only partially successful at modifying or eliminating these communities.

14.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 70, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutation of the IL2RG gene results in a form of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID-X1), which has been treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. SCID-X1 gene therapy results in reconstitution of the previously lacking T cell compartment, allowing analysis of the roles of T cell immunity in humans by comparing before and after gene correction. METHODS: Here we interrogate T cell reconstitution using four forms of high throughput analysis. (1) Estimation of the numbers of transduced progenitor cells by monitoring unique positions of integration of the therapeutic gene transfer vector. (2) Estimation of T cell population structure by sequencing of the recombined T cell receptor (TCR) beta locus. (3) Metagenomic analysis of microbial populations in oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and gut samples. (4) Metagenomic analysis of viral populations in gut samples. RESULTS: Comparison of progenitor and mature T cell populations allowed estimation of a minimum number of cell divisions needed to generate the observed populations. Analysis of microbial populations showed the effects of immune reconstitution, including normalization of gut microbiota and clearance of viral infections. Metagenomic analysis revealed enrichment of genes for antibiotic resistance in gene-corrected subjects relative to healthy controls, likely a result of higher healthcare exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omic approach enables the characterization of multiple effects of SCID-X1 gene therapy, including T cell repertoire reconstitution, estimation of numbers of cell divisions between progenitors and daughter T cells, normalization of the microbiome, clearance of microbial pathogens, and modulations in antibiotic resistance gene levels. Together, these results quantify several aspects of the long-term efficacy of gene therapy for SCID-X1. This study includes data from ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Microbiota , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Divisão Celular , Pré-Escolar , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/microbiologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(10): 1448-1453, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have suggested a potential link between nasal microbes and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; Wegener's), but these studies relied on culture-dependent methods. This study comprehensively examined the entire community of nasal microbiota (bacteria and fungi) in participants with GPA compared with healthy controls using deep sequencing methods. METHODS: 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing were performed on nasal microbial DNA isolated from nasal swabs of 60 participants with GPA and 41 healthy controls. Alpha and beta diversity were assessed as well as the relative abundance of the most abundant bacterial and fungal taxa. The effects of covariates including disease activity and immunosuppressive therapies on microbial composition were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with controls, participants with GPA had a significantly different microbial composition (weighted UniFrac p=0.04) and lower relative abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis (for both, false discovery rate-corrected p=0.02). Disease activity in GPA was associated with a lower abundance of fungal order Malasseziales compared with participants with GPA in remission (p=0.04) and controls (p=0.01). Use of non-glucocorticoid immunosuppressive therapy was associated with 'healthy' nasal microbiota while participants with GPA who were off immunosuppressive therapy had more dysbiosis (weighted UniFrac p=0.01). No difference in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus aureus was observed between GPA and controls. CONCLUSIONS: GPA is associated with an altered nasal microbial composition, at both the bacterial and fungal levels. Use of immunosuppressive therapies and disease remission are associated with healthy microbial communities.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/microbiologia , Microbiota , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propionibacterium/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Virol ; 92(17)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925666

RESUMO

Current approaches do not eliminate all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures (P = 0.15). At the time of viral exposures, MVC plasma and tissue (including tonsil) concentrations were within the range seen in humans receiving MVC as a therapeutic. Both treated and control RMs were infected with only a single transmitted/founder variant, consistent with the dose of virus typical of HIV-1 infection. The uninfected RMs expressed the lowest levels of CCR5 on the CD4+ T cells. Ramp-up viremia was significantly delayed (P = 0.05) in the MVC-treated RMs, yet peak and postpeak viral loads were similar in treated and control RMs. In conclusion, in spite of apparent effective CCR5 blockade in infant RMs, MVC had a marginal impact on acquisition and only a minimal impact on the postinfection delay of viremia following oral SIV infection. Newly developed, more effective CCR5 blockers may have a more dramatic impact on oral SIV transmission than MVC.IMPORTANCE We have previously suggested that the very low levels of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT) in African nonhuman primates that are natural hosts of SIVs are due to a low availability of target cells (CCR5+ CD4+ T cells) in the oral mucosa of the infants, rather than maternal and milk factors. To confirm this new MTIT paradigm, we performed a proof-of-concept study in which we therapeutically blocked CCR5 with maraviroc (MVC) and orally exposed MVC-treated and naive infant rhesus macaques to SIV. MVC had only a marginal effect on oral SIV transmission. However, the observation that the infant RMs that remained uninfected at the completion of the study, after 6 repeated viral challenges, had the lowest CCR5 expression on the CD4+ T cells prior to the MVC treatment appears to confirm our hypothesis, also suggesting that the partial effect of MVC is due to a limited efficacy of the drug. New, more effective CCR5 inhibitors may have a better effect in preventing SIV and HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/administração & dosagem , Cicloexanos/administração & dosagem , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/transmissão , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/farmacocinética , Cicloexanos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lactente , Maraviroc , Tonsila Palatina/química , Soro/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis/farmacocinética , Carga Viral
18.
PeerJ ; 6: e4612, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666764

RESUMO

Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(4): e1007003, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659623

RESUMO

Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts. It is not known what coreceptors were used by the precursors of SIVcpz, whether coreceptor use changed during emergence of the SIVcpz/HIV-1 lineage, and what T cell subsets express CXCR6 in natural hosts. Using species-matched coreceptors and CD4, we show here that SIVcpz uses only CCR5 for entry and, like HIV-1, cannot use CXCR6. In contrast, SIVmus efficiently uses both CXCR6 and CCR5. Coreceptor selectivity was determined by Env, with CXCR6 use abrogated by Pro326 in the V3 crown, which is absent in monkey SIVs but highly conserved in SIVcpz/HIV-1. To characterize which cells express CXCR6, we generated a novel antibody that recognizes CXCR6 of multiple primate species. Testing lymphocytes from SM, the best-studied natural host, we found that CXCR6 is restricted to CD4+ effector memory cells, and is expressed by a sub-population distinct from those expressing CCR5. Thus, efficient CXCR6 use, previously identified in SM and AGM infection, also characterizes a member of the SIV lineage that gave rise to SIVcpz/HIV-1. Loss of CXCR6 usage by SIVcpz may have altered its cell tropism, shifting virus from CXCR6-expressing cells that may support replication without disrupting immune function or homeostasis, towards CCR5-expressing cells with pathogenic consequences.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR6/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Carga Viral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Cercocebus atys , Macaca mulatta , Filogenia , Receptores CCR5/genética , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
20.
mBio ; 9(2)2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588401

RESUMO

Classical ecology provides principles for construction and function of biological communities, but to what extent these apply to the animal-associated microbiota is just beginning to be assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of several well-known ecological principles on animal-associated microbiota by characterizing gut microbial specimens from bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) ranging from flies to whales. A rigorously vetted sample set containing 265 specimens from 64 species was assembled. Bacterial lineages were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Previously published samples were also compared, allowing analysis of over 1,098 samples in total. A restricted number of bacterial phyla was found to account for the great majority of gut colonists. Gut microbial composition was associated with host phylogeny and diet. We identified numerous gut bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences that diverged deeply from previously studied taxa, identifying opportunities to discover new bacterial types. The number of bacterial lineages per gut sample was positively associated with animal mass, paralleling known species-area relationships from island biogeography and implicating body size as a determinant of community stability and niche complexity. Samples from larger animals harbored greater numbers of anaerobic communities, specifying a mechanism for generating more-complex microbial environments. Predictions for species/abundance relationships from models of neutral colonization did not match the data set, pointing to alternative mechanisms such as selection of specific colonists by environmental niche. Taken together, the data suggest that niche complexity increases with gut size and that niche selection forces dominate gut community construction.IMPORTANCE The intestinal microbiome of animals is essential for health, contributing to digestion of foods, proper immune development, inhibition of pathogen colonization, and catabolism of xenobiotic compounds. How these communities assemble and persist is just beginning to be investigated. Here we interrogated a set of gut samples from a wide range of animals to investigate the roles of selection and random processes in microbial community construction. We show that the numbers of bacterial species increased with the weight of host organisms, paralleling findings from studies of island biogeography. Communities in larger organisms tended to be more anaerobic, suggesting one mechanism for niche diversification. Nonselective processes enable specific predictions for community structure, but our samples did not match the predictions of the neutral model. Thus, these findings highlight the importance of niche selection in community construction and suggest mechanisms of niche diversification.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Ecologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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