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Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1386-1391, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134453


SUMMARY: The incisors are a key factor in dental occlusion and dentofacial aesthetics; therefore, the sagittal position and inclination of the incisors is a key parameter in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment planning. In some cases, the orthodontist will use more than one cephalometric analysis, and thus different results can be obtained. The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic agreement among the different cephalometric measurements used to determine the anteroposterior position and the inclination of the incisors. Lateral cephalometric radiograms of patients between 18 and 59 years old were measured (n=260). Digital cephalometric measurements were made with Dolphin Imaging software, by a single calibrated operator. Here, a specific cephalometric analysis was designed in the software analysis editor. The results for each variable and each measurement were registered and compared. Fleiss's Kappa statistical tests, Cohen's Kappa, and Kendall's coefficient were used to determine the strength of agreement using the Minitab software. The results showed diagnostic strength agreement between slight and moderate among measurements of the same variable. This indicates that same diagnosis might not be obtained when using different approaches to measure the anteroposterior position and inclination of the incisors. It was concluded that there is a difference in the diagnosis between one measurement and another because the results showed slight or moderate strength of agreement. However, in some cases, better agreement was found when the measurements were compared as a function of the diagnostic response.

RESUMEN: Los incisivos son un factor clave en la oclusión dental y la estética dentofacial; por lo tanto, la posición sagital y la inclinación de los incisivos es un parámetro clave en el diagnóstico y la planificación del tratamiento de ortodoncia. En algunos casos, el ortodoncista utilizará más de un análisis cefalométrico y, por lo tanto, se pueden obtener resultados diferentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer el acuerdo de diagnóstico entre las diferentes mediciones cefalométricas utilizadas para determinar la posición anteroposterior y la inclinación de los incisivos. Se midieron radiografías cefalométricas laterales de pacientes entre 18 y 59 años (n = 260). Las mediciones cefalométricas digitales se realizaron con el software Dolphin Imaging, por un solo operador calibrado. Aquí, se diseñó un análisis cefalométrico específico en el editor de análisis de software. Los resultados para cada variable y cada medición se registraron y compararon. Las pruebas estadísticas Kappa de Fleiss, Kappa de Cohen y el coeficiente de Kendall se usaron para determinar la fuerza del acuerdo utilizando el software Minitab. Los resultados mostraron un acuerdo de fuerza diagnóstica entre leve y moderado entre las mediciones de la misma variable. Esto indica que no se puede obtener el mismo diagnóstico cuando se utilizan diferentes enfoques para medir la posición anteroposterior y la inclinación de los incisivos. Se concluyó que existe una diferencia en el diagnóstico entre una medición y otra porque los resultados mostraron una fuerza de acuerdo leve o moderada. Sin embargo, en algunos casos, se encontró un mejor acuerdo cuando se compararon las mediciones en función de la respuesta de diagnóstico.

J Dent Sci ; 15(3): 336-344, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952892


Background/purpose: Non-formation of a tooth impacts the morphology of the alveolar bone, which may, in turn, generate an imbalance in facial growth. This retrospective case-control study aimed to determine whether observable differences exist in the facial growth of patients with dental agenesis relative to complete dentition controls. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 75 patients with dental agenesis, and each case was paired with two controls of the same age and gender (n = 150). All patients were measured cephalometrically (31 variables), and both groups were compared with student's t- or Z-test (P < 0.05). Subsequently, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests (P < 0.05) were used to compare facial growth depending on the missing tooth's sagittal location in the dental arch (anterior or posterior agenesis); as well as its location in the affected bone (maxillary, mandibular, or both). Results: Four measurements with significant differences were found, whereas ten were found in the sagittal location in the dental arch analysis. Regarding the affected bone, there were no affected variables. Conclusion: it was found that patients with dental agenesis show differences in the sagittal growth of the upper jaw and in the position of the lower incisor. In the studied population, these changes are strongly influenced by the sagittal location of the missing tooth, while its location in the jaws does not affect facial growth.

Case Rep Dent ; 2019: 7638959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612084


Dental transmigration is a rare condition that mainly affects the mandibular canines. Since the tooth involved is usually impacted and its crown has crossed the midline towards the opposite side, the treatment options frequently are surgical removal or radiographic follow-up, and, in some cases, orthodontic traction is possible. In 2002, Mupparapu presented a classification for lower canines in transmigration according to their position within the mandible. This paper is aimed at describing the orthodontic treatment of a female patient with two impacted mandibular canines, one of them in a Mupparapu type 2 transmigration position (horizontal impaction position near the lower mandibular border and below the incisors' root apices). Additionally, the paper discusses the biomechanical orthodontic design and the alternative treatment options for these complex cases.

Homo ; 70(2): 147-154, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486824


The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of anatomical variants of maxillary lateral incisors in archaeological and modern populations from the Maya region. Both populations were derived from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The archaeological sample consisted of human remains representing 122 individuals from the ancient Maya archaeological site of Xcambo (AD 250-700). The modern sample consisted of 475 dental models from the municipality of Tahdziú, Yucatan. The anatomical variants evaluated included microdontia, barrel-shaped incisors, and talon cusp. The prevalence of each anatomical variant for each population was calculated and compared (Fisher p < 0.05). The prevalence of anatomical variants was 15.57% (n = 19) in the archaeological sample and 14.11% (n = 67) in the modern one; the difference was not significant (p = 0.666). When compared by specific anatomical variants, a significant (p = 0.013) association was observed for microdontia: 2.45% (n = 3) in the archaeological population and 9.05% (n = 43) in the modern population. Barrel-shaped incisors (p = 0.522) and talon cusp (p = 0.466) did not exhibit significant associations. The overall prevalence of anatomical variants in the maxillary lateral incisors in this region has not changed. The prevalence of microdontia has increased over the last 1500 years, and different microevolutionary processes may be called into question for such change.

Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/patologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/patologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , México , Paleodontologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/história
Rev. odontol. mex ; 22(3): 150-153, jul.-sep. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014413


RESUMEN El desgaste oclusal se ha determinado como un signo de parafunción en edad adulta; sin embargo, es frecuente encontrar dichos desgastes en la dentición decidua considerándose un rasgo fisiológico. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de desgaste dental en piezas temporales en escolares de seis años en una población mexicana. Métodos: Se evaluaron 52 modelos de yeso de niños de seis años, en los cuales se registraron las facetas encontradas en las piezas dentarias deciduas, al igual que los planos terminales. Se usaron las pruebas estadísticas t-Student y ji cuadrada. Resultados: En los niños resultó significativamente mayor el número de piezas desgastadas que en las niñas. Difirió signifi ativamente el número de piezas facetadas por tipo de diente en cada género. El promedio de piezas infantiles facetadas no difirió significativamente entre el plano terminal recto y el mesial. Sin embargo, se obtuvo tendencias (p < 0.10) a un mayor número de piezas facetadas en el plano mesial (13.71 ± 2.46; n2 = 14) que en el plano terminal recto (11.68 ± 4.30; n1 = 19). Conclusión: La evaluación del desgaste oclusal en dentición decidua en la población infantil afecta en igual forma a ambos géneros. Por movimientos masticatorios hay mayor prevalencia de desgastes en ciertas piezas dentarias y diferencia con respecto al género.

ABSTRACT The occlusal faceting has been determined as a sign of parafunction during adulthood, but it´s common to find such worn on the deciduous dentition considered as a physiological trait. Objective: To determine the prevalence of occlusal worn on the deciduous dentition of 6 years old students in a determined Mexican population. Methods: 52 plaster models of 6 years old children were assessed, on which the facets found in deciduous teeth, as terminal planes were registered. The Student t-test statistics and Chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: The number of worn pieces was significantly higher in male than female children. The number of faceted parts by tooth type in each gender differed signifi cantly. The faceted infant pieces average did not differ signifi cantly between straight and mesial terminal plane. Nevertheless, trend (P<0.10) was obtained at a greater number of parts in the mesial faceted plane (13.71 ± 2.46; n2=14) than in the straight terminal plane (11.68 ± 4.30; n1=19). Conclusion: The evaluation of occlusal worn in the deciduous dentition in children affects equally both genders. There is a greater prevalence of worn by chewing movement on certain teeth and it differs according to gender.

Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(22): e10887, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851810


The objective of this study was to compare the differences between the measurements performed manually to those obtained using a digital model scanner of patients with orthodontic treatment.A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 30 study models from patients with permanent dentition who attended a university clinic between January 2010 and December 2015. For the digital measurement, a Maestro 3D Ortho Studio scanner (Italy) was used and Mitutoyo electronic Vernier calipers (Kawasaki, Japan) were used for manual measurement. The outcome variables were the measurements for maxillary intercanine width, mandibular intercanine width, maxillary intermolar width, mandibular intermolar width, overjet, overbite, maxillary arch perimeter, mandibular arch perimeter, and palate height. The independent variables, besides age and sex, were a series of arc characteristics. The Student t test, paired Student t test, and Pearson correlation in SPSS version 19 were used for the analysis.Of the models, 60% were from women. Two of nine measurements for pre-treatment and 6 of 9 measurements for post-treatment showed a difference. The variables that were different between the manual and digital measurements in the pre-treatment were maxillary intermolar width and palate height (P < .05). Post-treatment, differences were found in mandibular intercanine width, palate height, overjet, overbite, and maxillary and mandibular arch perimeter (P < .05).The models measured manually and digitally showed certain similarities for both vertical and transverse measurements. There are many advantages offered to the orthodontist, such as easy storage; savings in time and space; facilitating the reproducibility of information; and conferring the security of not deteriorating over time. Its main disadvantage is the cost.

Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Odontometria/métodos , Ortodontia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
Rev. ADM ; 73(6): 297-302, nov.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-869340


Objetivo: determinar la ubicación vertical y anteroposterior del huesohioides en pacientes entre los 12 y 20 años de edad, que inician tratamientoortodóncico en el Departamento de Ortodoncia y Ortopedia dentomaxilofacial de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Materialy métodos: La muestra fue de 17 radiografías laterales de cráneo. Serealizó trazado del triángulo hioideo para determinar la ubicación vertical(clasificación de Rocabado) y el plano de referencia Ptv (propuesto por Ricketts) para la ubicación anteroposterior del hueso hioides. Enla descripción de los resultados según su biotipo facial; se empleó el promedio, desviación estándar y el coeficiente de variación (CV = DE/Prom) como medida de variabilidad relativa. Se utilizaron intervalos de confi anza Bootstrap (ICB) del 95 por ciento para la media y la determinación del rango de posibles valores de la ubicación hioidea. Resultados: El 58.82 por ciento de la muestra presentó la ubicación inferior del hioides. En los braquifaciales se encontró una posición adelantada del hioides, al igual que la mayoría de los pacientes mesofaciales (66.66 por ciento). Conclusión: La posición del hueso hioides en relación con el biotipo facial juega un papel importante durante los tratamientos ortodóncicos, ya que nos podría orientar en la posición lingual.

Objective: to determine the vertical and anteroposterior position of thehyoid bones in patients between the ages of 12 and 20 years with diff erentfacial growth patterns upon their commencing orthodontic treatmentat the Autonomous University of Yucatán’s Department of Orthodontics.Material and methods. Our sample consisted of 17 lateral cephalometricradiographs traced manually, with the hyoid triangle being measured todetermine the vertical position of the hyoid bone (as per the cephalometricanalysis of Rocabado). The position of the anteroposterior hyoid bones wasdetermined using Ricketts’s PTV reference plane (linear measurements weretaken as described by Ricketts). For the purposes of comparison betweendiff erent skeletal patterns, the mean, standard deviation, and coeffi cientof variation (CV=SD/m) were used as a measure of relative variability.Bootstrap Confi dence Intervals (BCI) of 95% were used for the mean andfor determining the range of possible values for the location of the hyoid.Results: In 58.82% of the sample, the position of the hyoids was found tobe lower. In brachyfacial subjects, the hyoids were found to be positionedfurther forward, as was the case with most of the mesofacial subjects(66.66%). Conclusion: The relative position of the hyoid bones in specifi cfacial biotypes plays an important role during orthodontic treatment, giventhat it could help in the positioning of the tongue.

Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Biotipologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Ortodontia Corretiva , México , Padrões de Referência , Análise Estatística
Rev. odontol. mex ; 19(1): 33-37, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-745709


La medición y examen del rango de movimientos mandibulares están considerados dentro del diagnóstico clínico. El reporte de dichos rangos es extenso en adultos pero se ha escrito poco sobre el tema en cuanto a niños. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el rango de movimientos mandibulares en escolares de seis años de edad en México. Se recolectaron los datos de 52 niños de seis años de edad; el 52% correspondió al sexo femenino y el 48% al sexo masculino; con la prueba χ² de bondad de ajuste a la distribución uniforme o proporciones iguales, se analizó diferencias entre las categorías de: patrón de apertura, desviación de la línea media y desviación en apertura y cierre. Cabe señalar que para dicha prueba, en el patrón de apertura se excluyó la categoría con frecuencia cero. Debido al incumplimiento del supuesto de normalidad se utilizó la prueba de Wilcoxon para muestras dependientes en la comparación de la máxima apertura sin asistir y asistida, y con la prueba de t para muestras dependientes, se comparó la lateralidad derecha e izquierda. El patrón de apertura difirió significativamente (χ² = 60.9231, p < 0.0001, gL = 3): Recto 71.1%, desviación lateral derecha no corregida 0%, desviación «S¼ corregida derecha 13.5%; desviación lateral izquierda no corregida 1.9% y desviación «S¼ corregida izquierda 13.5%. El promedio de la máxima apertura no asistida fue de 35.00 mm en comparación con la máxima apertura asistida que fue de 39.11 mm (T = 0, p < 0.0001). Conclusión: El rango de movimientos mandibulares hallados en la población infantil mexicana de seis años de edad en dentición mixta primaria difiere de los encontrados en los niños de la misma edad en otras regiones. Este hecho es debido probablemente a que dichos rangos se ven influenciados por las características craneofaciales, peso, talla de cada población.

Measurement and examination of mandibular movements are procedures considered within any clinical diagnosis. Reports on these ranges are quite widespread for adult patients, but little has been written on the subject when dealing with children. The aim of the present study was to determine range of mandibular movements in six year old schoolchildren in Mexico. Data were collected on 52 six year old children. In this sample, 52% were female and 48% male. With the χ2 goodness of fit test to uniform distribution or equal proportions, differences between the following categories were examined: opening pattern, midline deviation and deviation in opening and closing. It should be noted that for the present test zero frequency category was excluded from the opening pattern. Due to the breach of normality assumption, Wilcoxon test was used for dependent samples in the comparison of unassisted and assisted maximum opening, t test for dependent samples was used to compare left and right laterality. Opening patterns differed significantly (χ2 = 60.9231, p < 0.0001, gL = 3) straight 71.1%. Uncorrected right lateral deviation 0%, right corrected «S¼ deviation 13.5%; uncorrected left lateral deviation 1.9%, and corrected left «S¼ deviation 13.5%. Average of non assisted maximum opening was 35.00 mm when compared to maximum assisted opening which was 39.11 mm (T = 0, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Range of observed mandibular movements in Mexican six year old children with primary mixed dentition was different from same- age children in other regions. This was probably due to the fact that ranks were under the influence of craniofacial, weight, height and size characteristics of each different population.

Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1371-1375, Dec. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-702319


La agenesia de terceros molares se ha reportado en un 24,3 por ciento en México. La agenesia dental está asociada a otras anomalías dentales debido a su origen genético. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y distribución de agenesia de terceros molares así como establecer su asociación con otras anomalías dentales en una población ortodóntica. La muestra incluyó 670 pacientes ortodónticos de 9 a 20 años de edad. Se excluyeron pacientes con tratamiento ortodóntico previo y condiciones sindrómicas. Se calculó la prevalencia de agenesia de terceros molares y se comparó por sexo. Posteriormente los pacientes fueron divididos en 2 grupos, con agenesia de al menos un tercer molar y un grupo control y en ambos se calculó la prevalencia de 10 anomalías dentarias. Los resultados se compararon por medio de la prueba exacta de Fisher (p<0,05). La prevalencia fue del 25,97 por ciento, no hubo diferencia estadística entre géneros (p=0,139). El 41,95 por ciento de los pacientes del grupo de agenesia presentó anomalías asociadas, mientras que en el control fueron el 23,59 por ciento. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre ambos grupos (p=0,0001). Al comparar individualmente la prevalencia de cada anomalía por grupo, se encontró que la agenesia (p=0,0001) y los dientes retenidos (p=0,015) estaban disminuidos significativamente en el grupo control. En conclusión se encontró una prevalencia del 25,97 por ciento, sin preferencia de sexo. Los pacientes con agenesia de terceros molares presentan mayor prevalencia de anomalías dentales asociadas, particularmente agenesia de otros dientes y dientes retenidos.

Prevalence of third molar agenesis has been estimated in 24.3 percent in Mexico. Dental agenesis is associated with other dental anomalies due its genetic origin. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of third molar agenesis and to establish its association with other dental anomalies in an orthodontic population. The sample included 670 orthodontic patients from 9 to 20 years old. Exclusion criteria were patients with previous orthodontic treatment and syndromic conditions. Third molar agenesis prevalence was calculated and sex values were compared. Then, patients were divided into 2 groups, with agenesis of at least one third molar and a control group; prevalence of 10 dental anomalies were calculated for both groups. The results were compared using Fisher's exact test (p <0.05). Third molar agenesis prevalence was 25.97 percent, there was no statistical difference between sexes (p= 0.139). The 41.95 percent of patients in the agenesis group had abnormalities associated, whereas in the control group it was 23.59 percent. A significant difference between groups was found (p= 0.0001). When comparing the prevalence of each individual anomaly between groups, it was found that agenesis (p= 0.0001) and impacted teeth (p= 0.015) were significantly decreased in the control group. In conclusion it was found a prevalence of 25.97 percent, with no sex preference. Patients with agenesis of third molars have a higher prevalence of associated dental anomalies, particularly agenesis of other teeth and impacted teeth.

Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Anodontia/epidemiologia , Dente Serotino/anormalidades , Anormalidades Dentárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
Rev. bras. saúde matern. infant ; 10(3): 323-329, jul.-set. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-561378


OBJETIVOS: determinar la asociación entre variables indicadoras de posición socioeconómica y la presencia de labio y/o paladar hendido no sindrómico (L/PH). MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 110 casos con L/PH pareados por edad y sexo con 220 controles, seleccionados de la clínica del Hospital Niño DIF de Hidalgo, México. A través de un cuestionario se recogió una serie de variables relacionadas con la posición socio-económica. Utilizando el análisis de componentes principales (correlación policórica) se combinaron las variables relacionadas entre sí y se construyeron diversas variables indicadoras de posición socioeconómica; nivel socioeconómico (características de la vivienda), índice de bienestar (posesiones de bienes/ enseres del hogar), escolaridad de los padres (años de estudio), seguridad social (derechohabiencia), e indigenismo (hablar alguna lengua indígena por alguno de los padres). El análisis bivariado se realizó con regresión logística condicionada. RESULTADOS: el 90.9 por ciento de los pacientes presentó labio + paladar hendido al mismo tiempo, ya sea uni o bilateral. El tipo de defecto mas común fue el labio y paladar hendido izquierdo (33.6 por ciento). Resultaron asociadas a L/PH las variables: índice de bienestar (comparado con el peor quintil: 2do OR=0.46; p=0.030, 3er OR=0.39; p=0.015, 4to OR=0.30; p=0.002, 5to OR=0.27; p=0.001), nivel socioeconómico (comparado con el mejor tercil: 2do OR=0.46; p=0.004, 3er OR=0.18; p<0.001), escolaridad del padre (OR=0.86; p<0.001), y escolaridad de la madre (OR=0.84; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONES: este estudio demuestra la existencia de desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud bucal, observándose que los sujetos de menor posición socioeconómica presentan mayor riesgo de tener L/PH.

OBJECTIVES: to investigate the association between socioeconomic position and the presence of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). METHODS: a case-control study with 110 cases with CL/P matched by age and gender with 220 controls was carried out, the cases were selected from the Hospital Niño DIF Hidalgo of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. A structured questionnaire which contained socioeconomic variables was used to recollect data. Applying the principal component analysis (polycoric correlation) the socioeconomic variables were combined and were builded several socioeconomic position indicators as: socioeconomic level (house characteristics), living comfort level (house supplies), parents education (school years), social security, indigenism (native language spoken by either parent). A bivariate analysis was realized using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: the highest frecuency found was the cleft lip and palate at the same time (90.9 percent) either uni or bilateral. The most common defect was left cleft lip and palate (33.6 percent). Cleft lip and/ or palate was associated with the living comfort level (compared with the worst quintil: 2nd OR= 0.46; p=0.030, 3rd OR=0.39; p=0.015, 4th OR= 0.30; p=0.002, 5th OR=0.27; p=0.001), socioeconomic level (compared with the worst tercil: 2nd OR=0.46; p=0.004), 3rd OR=0.18; p<0.001, father's schooling (OR=0.86; p<0.001), and mother's schooling (OR=0.84; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: the study demonstrates the socioeconomic inequality in oral health, observing risk for CL/P according to socioeconomic position.

Humanos , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos