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1.
Vet Rec ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age and antral follicle count (AFC) are related to fertility in cattle, but this information remains limited in mares. METHODS: To verify the influence of age and AFC on the reproductive characteristics of mares, 15 Quarter Horse donors, with 5-15 antral follicles, ranging from three to 17 years old, healthy and in good nutritional status, were divided into groups with low AFC (≤9 follicles) or high AFC (≥10 follicles) and mares considered young (≤9 years) or old (≥10 years). Mares were submitted to ultrasonography to determine the dominant follicle diameter, follicular growth rate, degree of uterine oedema and embryonic recovery for a minimum of three oestrous cycles. RESULTS: AFC was higher (P=0.001) in young mares compared with old mares. An interaction (P=0.001) between AFC and age was observed with regard to follicular growth rate, being that mares with low AFC and are old showed the lowest follicular growth compared with those of low AFC and young, high AFC and old, and high AFC and young. Younger mares and those with high AFC exhibited higher degree of uterine oedema (P<0.05) on the third day of oestrus compared with older mares and with low AFC (3 and 2, respectively). However, in both groups, the degree of oedema reduced by the time of ovulation. CONCLUSION: Follicular growth rate, degree of uterine oedema and the number of antral follicles are higher in young mares with high AFC. However, the rate of embryonic recovery is not influenced by donors' age or AFC.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904800

RESUMO

AIMS : In the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) replacement determined a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Data on long-term TAV performance are still limited. We sought to evaluate the clinical and haemodynamic outcomes of the CoreValve self-expandable valve up to 8-year follow-up (FU). METHODS AND RESULTS : Nine hundred and ninety inoperable or high-risk patients were treated with the CoreValve TAV in eight Italian Centres from June 2007 to December 2011. The median FU was 4.4 years (interquartile range 1.4-6.7 years). Longest FU reached 11 years. A total of 728 died within 8-year FU (78.3% mortality from Kaplan-Meier curve analysis). A significant functional improvement was observed in the majority of patients and maintained over time, with 79.3% of surviving patients still classified New York Heart Association class ≤ II at 8 years. Echocardiographic data showed that the mean transprosthetic aortic gradient remained substantially unchanged (9 ± 4 mmHg at discharge, 9 ± 5 mmHg at 8 years, P = 0.495). The rate of Grade 0/1 paravalvular leak was consistent during FU with no significant change from post-procedure to FU ≥5 years in paired analysis (P = 0.164). Structural valve deterioration (SVD) and late bioprosthetic valve failure (BVF) were defined according to a modification of the 2017 EAPCI/ESC/EACTS criteria. In cumulative incidence functions at 8 years, moderate and severe SVD were 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-4.3%] and 1.6% (95% CI 0.6-3.9%), respectively, while late BVF was 2.5% (95% CI 1.2-5%). CONCLUSION : While TAVs are questioned about long-term performance and durability, the results of the present research provide reassuring 8-year evidence on the CoreValve first-generation self-expandable bioprosthesis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ULISSE registry evaluated the real-world performance of the Ultimaster® biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) in a multicenter-independent cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, including a large proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. METHODS: In this subgroup analysis, 1,660 consecutive patients, 2,422 lesions, treated with BP-SES enrolled in the ULISSE registry were divided in two groups: DM (485 patients, 728 lesions) and non-DM (1,175 patients, 1,694 lesions). Primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), a composite endpoint of cardiac-death, target-vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1-year. Secondary endpoint was TLR at 1-year. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up TLF occurred in 5% overall patients and was significantly higher in DM patients (8 vs. 3.7%; p = .001), due to more cardiac deaths (3.4 vs. 1.1%; p = .002). TLR occurred in 3.2% overall patients, and it was not significantly higher in DM compared to non-DM patients (4.4 vs. 2.8%; p = .114). The incidence of stent thrombosis was low and similar between groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%; p = .526). Insulin-treated DM (ITDM) patients showed higher rate of TLF as compared to non-ITDM patients (13 vs. 6.5%; p = .041), but similar rate of TLR (6 vs. 4%; p = .405). After adjustment for relevant comorbidities, DM was not significantly associated with TLF or cardiac death in patients undergoing BP-SES implantation. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first all-comers evaluation of BP-SES in DM patients. Our findings show that DM patients, mostly those with ITDM, still represent a vulnerable population and experience significantly higher rate of TLF. Overall BP-SES efficacy is considerable, although not statistically significant higher rate of TLR is still present in DM compared to non-DM patients.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): 1-19, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918927

RESUMO

Despite optimal combination of guideline-directed anti-ischemic therapies and myocardial revascularization, a substantial proportion of patients with stable coronary artery disease continues to experience disabling symptoms and is often referred as "no-option." The appraisal of the pathways linking ischemia to symptom perception indicates a complex model of heart-brain interactions in the generation of the subjective anginal experience and inspired novel approaches that may be clinically effective in alleviating the angina burden of this population. Conversely, the prevailing ischemia-centered view of angina, with the focus on traditional myocardial revascularization as the sole option to address ischemia on top of medical therapy, hinders the experimental characterization and broad-scale clinical implementation of strongly needed therapeutic options. The interventionist, often the first physician to establish the diagnosis of refractory angina pectoris (RAP) following coronary angiography, should be aware of the numerous emerging technologies with the potential to improve quality of life in the growing population of RAP patients. This review describes the current landscape and the future perspectives on nonpharmacological treatment technologies for patients with RAP, with a view on the underlying physiopathological rationale and current clinical evidence.

5.
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785122

RESUMO

In the last years, the use of sutureless devices in frail patients with severe aortic stenosis has increased thanks to their "easier and faster" technique of implantation in comparison to conventional surgery. Results from metanalysis show comparable outcomes in comparison to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in terms of mortality, stroke incidence, and rate of pace-maker implantation. The incidence of para-valvular leak (PVL) is even lower for sutureless devices than for TAVR. The few cases described are generally due to incomplete decalcification or incorrect valve sizing and consequent stent distortion. To our knowledge this is the first case describing PVL with massive aortic regurgitation due to early partial embolization of a Perceval valve and its successfully treatment with valve-in-valve by using a self-expanding TAVR device.

7.
Can J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813673

RESUMO

Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention is gaining importance due to the development of percutaneous techniques addressing tricuspid regurgitation. The presence of a redundant eustachian valve can increase procedural complexity by restricting the manipulation of transcatheter devices. We present a case of torrential tricuspid regurgitation and a redundant eustachian valve hampering the manipulation of the delivery system. We were able to reach the tricuspid valve by looping 2 standard guidewires into the atrium. We performed a tricuspid-plasty by implanting 2 MitraClips with a satisfactory final result. This technique can be applied when the eustachian valve impairs navigation in the right atrium.

8.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(12): E376-E383, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786529

RESUMO

The use of debulking devices improved in the last few years, due to the expanding indications to percutaneous coronary angioplasty, involving an elevated number of coronary stenoses with heavy calcification. Rotational atherectomy has become one of the most used devices in this challenging scenario. The aim of this review is to analyze the components and the use of the Rotablator System (Boston Scientific) and to better understand helpful tips and tricks in order to face the most common complications occurring during the procedure.

9.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(12): E384-E386, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786530

RESUMO

Chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization and its effects on left ventricular function and patient outcomes has intrigued the interventional community over the last several years. Now that there is plenty of knowledge and experience on "how to treat" the lesion, another scientific effort should focus on "when to treat" the lesion. Physiologic assessment has altered the way we treat coronary artery stenosis to improve cardiovascular outcomes. We tend to assess the effects of CTO recanalization by evaluating resting parameters, although the effects of ischemia and concomitant left ventricular dysfunction manifest mainly during exercise. Physiologic assessment in CTOs by implementation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing, in order to indirectly assess the physiological effect of exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, could represent a novel approach to monitor the effects of CTO recanalization and hopefully to identify the responders after recanalization.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(23): 2388-2401, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806220

RESUMO

Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is fairly common in the general population and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although surgical mitral valve (MV) repair and replacement are well established treatment options for MV disease, as much as one-half of patients with severe, symptomatic MR are not referred for surgery due to prohibitive procedural risk. Novel transcatheter alternatives are therefore being developed to provide an alternative treatment for these patients. A growing experience with transcatheter MV replacement (TMVR) strategies is accumulating and promising early results have been reported. However, the risk of transcatheter heart valve (THV) thrombosis seems to be relevant after TMVR, potentially higher than that observed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and routine anticoagulant therapy appears to be necessary to mitigate this risk. Hereafter, the authors: 1) review available evidence on thrombotic risk after TMVR (including new dedicated THVs for native MV, valve-in-valve, valve-in-ring, and valve-in-mitral annular calcification); and 2) discuss the antithrombotic treatment strategies after TMVR.

12.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845892

RESUMO

AIMS: A relevant amount of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are ineligible for non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) due to previous major bleeding or because at high bleeding risk (HBR). In this setting the indication for percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAO) is a valuable alternative. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NOACs versus LAAO indication in NVAF patients at HBR (HAS-BLED ≥3). METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive patients who underwent successful LAAO (n=193) and those treated with NOACs (n=189) (dabigatran, apixaban or rivaroxaban) were included. A 1:1 propensity-score-matching (PSM) was used to match LAAO and NOACs patients. At baseline, patients in the LAAO group had higher HAS-BLED (4.2% vs 3.3%, p<0.001) and lower CHADS-VASc (4.3% vs. 4.7%, p=0.005). After 1:1 PSM, 192 patients were enrolled in the final analysis (LAAO n=96; NOACs n=96). At 2-year follow-up, no significant difference in thromboembolic (7.3% vs. 6.3%, p=0.966) and ISTH-major bleeding events rate (6.7% vs. 4.8% p=0.503) were found between the two unmatched groups. All-cause death was significantly higher in the LAAO group (18.7% vs. 10.6%; p=0.049). After PSM, all-cause death, thromboembolic and ISTH-major bleeding event rates were similar between groups. Significant independent predictors of all-cause death were dialysis (HR 5.65, 2.16-14.85, p<0.001) and age (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.13, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In NVAF patients at HBR, LAAO and NOACs performed similarly in terms of thromboembolic and major bleeding events up to 2-year follow-up. Our findings warrant further investigations in randomized trials and therefore can be considered as hypothesis generating.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcomes of transcatheter self-expandable prostheses in patients with small annuli. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic heart valves appear to have better performance than surgical valves in terms of prosthesis-patient mismatch, especially in patients with aortic stenosis with small aortic annuli. METHODS: TAVI-SMALL (International Multicenter Registry to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Expandable Valves in Small Aortic Annuli) is a retrospective registry of patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annuli (annular perimeter <72 mm or area <400 mm2 on computed tomography) treated with transcatheter self-expandable valves (n = 859; Evolut R, n = 397; Evolut PRO, n = 84; ACURATE, n = 201; Portico, n = 177). Primary endpoints were post-procedural mean aortic gradient, indexed effective orifice area, and rate of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch. RESULTS: Pre-discharge gradients were consistently low in every group, with a slight benefit with the Evolut R (8.1 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.7 to 8.5 mm Hg) and Evolut PRO (6.9 mm Hg; 95% CI: 6.3 to 7.6 mm Hg) compared with the ACURATE (9.6 mm Hg; 95% CI: 8.9 to 10.2 mm Hg) and Portico (8.9 mm Hg; 95% CI: 8.2 to 9.6 mm Hg) groups (p < 0.001). Mean indexed effective orifice area was 1.04 cm2/m2 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.08 cm2/m2) with a trend toward lower values with the Portico. No significant differences were reported in terms of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (overall rate 9.4%; p = 0.134), permanent pacemaker implantation (15.6%), and periprocedural and 1-year adverse events. Pre-discharge more than mild paravalvular leaks were significantly more common with the Portico (19.2%) and less common with the Evolut PRO (3.6%) compared with the Evolut R (11.8%) and ACURATE (9%) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter self-expandable valves showed optimal clinical and echocardiographic results in patients with small aortic annuli, although supra-annular functioning transcatheter heart valves seemed to slightly outperform intra-annular functioning ones. The role of transcatheter aortic valve replacement with self-expandable valves for the treatment of aortic stenosis in patients with small annuli needs to be confirmed in larger trials.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Ad hoc" percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a frequent practice as reported in large real-life registries, but most of the patients undergo PCI without being on full and effective dual antiplatelet therapy or clopidogrel is administered orally only a few minutes before the beginning of the procedure. This practice, especially in complex PCI, could be affected by a higher rate of peri-procedural adverse events. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a 72-year old male diabetic, hypertensive and hyperlipidemic, clopidogrel-naïve, with stable angina who underwent coronary angiography showing several tight stenoses on the left descending artery (LAD) and followed by a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the vessel. The two main diagonal branches were severely stenosed at the origin as well. Due to patient's decision an ad hoc complex PCI (CTO and multiple Bifurcations) was successfully performed using cangrelor, instead of cath-lab clopidogrel pretreatment, in order to reduce the incidence of peri-procedural myocardial infarction risk, as suggested by recent evidence. Finally, the patient was started on dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, as guidelines recommend to consider in complex procedures, and discharged 48 h later without complications or significant increases of myocardial enzymes. DISCUSSION: Current Guidelines recommend loading dose (I/A) or pre-treatment with clopidogrel, nevertheless trials have not demonstrated its benefit, unlike cangrelor. This case highlights the role of aggressive antiplatelet therapy administered in the cath lab to reduce periprocedural ischemic events during elective treatment of complex lesions requiring multiple stenting in clopidogrel-naïve patients.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781576

RESUMO

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common disease affecting more than 4 million people in the United States and the European Union. A significant number of percutaneous valves have been developed recently, specifically designed for the mitral anatomy, and with a promising evidence of good procedural and echocardiographic outcomes. However, even if transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) will have a role in the future of percutaneous treatment of both functional and degenerative mitral regurgitation, percutaneous mitral valve repair will always play a vital role in the treatment of MR because of the favorable safety profile and the fact that it respects the native anatomy. In this review, we will discuss the new emerging technologies under development to treat mitral regurgitation focusing on different devices that aim to target different components of the mitral anatomy.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693078

RESUMO

Importance: Women experience worse ischemic and bleeding outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objectives: To assess the association of sex with patient outcomes at 2 years after contemporary PCI and with the efficacy and safety of 2 antiplatelet strategies. Design, Setting, and Analysis: This study is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized GLOBAL LEADERS study evaluating 2 strategies of antiplatelet therapy after PCI in an unselected population including 130 secondary/tertiary care hospitals in different countries. The main study enrolled 15 991 unselected patients undergoing PCI between July 2013 and November 2015. Patients had an outpatient clinic visit at 30 days and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the index procedure. Data were analyzed between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2019. Interventions: Eligible patients were randomized to either the experimental or reference antiplatelet strategy. Experimental strategy consisted of 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) followed by 23 months of ticagrelor monotherapy, while the reference strategy comprised of 12 months of DAPT followed by 12 months of aspirin monotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was the composite of all-cause mortality and new Q-wave myocardial infarction at 2 years. The secondary safety end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding. Results: Of the 15 968 patients included in this study, 3714 (23.3%) were women. The risk of the primary end point at 2 years was similar between women and men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.20). Compared with men, women had higher risk of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding (adjusted HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.67) and hemorrhagic stroke at 2 years (adjusted HR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.92-11.81). At 2 years, there was no between-sex difference in the efficacy and safety of the 2 antiplatelet strategies. At 1 year, compared with DAPT, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk of bleeding in men (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.98) but not in women (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.80-1.89; P for interaction = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with men, women experienced a higher risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke after PCI. The effect of 2 antiplatelet strategies on death and Q-wave myocardial infarction following PCI did not differ between the sexes at 2 years. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01813435.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669110

RESUMO

A 79-year-old man with heart failure was referred to our attention for a degenerated bio-Bentall Mitroflow 27. The Heart Team decided for a valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve implantation with an Acurate neoM associated to coronary protection due to high risk of coronary obstruction (CO). Besides the supra-anular design, this case shows additional potential advantages of the Acurate neo in ViV procedures: the upper crown, which is meant to favor supra-anular anchoring, also let to cap the bioprosthesis leaflets and minimize the risk of CO; there is not any interference between the valve cage and the stents protruding into the aorta, avoiding potential stent crushing and assuming an easier future coronary engagement.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2088-2101, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623768

RESUMO

A large amount of evidence supports the widespread use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) among patients who are at low to intermediate risk for surgery. However, several controversies exist about the optimal antithrombotic regimen to use in these patients. On the one hand, concerns about ischemic stroke, subclinical leaflet thrombosis, valve thrombosis, and long-term durability suggest the need for a stronger antithrombotic regimen to ensure a better patient and valve outcome. On the other hand, the high bleeding risk of this population and the current lack of strong evidence in favor of a more aggressive antithrombotic strategy require caution. This review analyzes the rationale of antithrombotic therapy in TAVR illustrating the present scenario and future perspectives.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478334

RESUMO

AIMS: To establish the value of the SYNTAX Score-II (SS-II) in predicting long-term mortality of patients treated with left main PCI (LM-PCI) using second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAX score (SS) and the SS-II were calculated in 804 patients included in the FAILS-2 registry (failure in left main study with 2nd generation stents). Patients were classified in low (SS-II ≤33; n = 278, 34.6%), intermediate (SS-II 34-43; n = 260, 32.3%) and high (SS-II ≥44; n = 266, 33.1%) SS-II tertiles. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. A significant difference in long-term mortality was noted (5.2 ± 3.6 years): 4.1, 7.5, and 16.7% in low, mid and high SS-II tertiles respectively (p < .001). SS-II score was more accurate in predicting mortality than SS (AUC = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.67-0.79 vs. AUC = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.48-0.63, respectively; p < .001). SS-II led to a reclassification in the risk of all-cause mortality re-allocating 73% of patients from the CABG-only indication to PCI or equipoise PCI-or-CABG indication. Using multiple Cox regression analysis, SS-II (HR: 1.07; 95%CI: 1.05-1.09; p < .001), along with Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.03-2.66; p = .07) and Cardiogenic shock (CS) (HR: 2.82 (95%CI: 1.41-5.64; p = .003) were independent predictors of long-term mortality. SS-II (HR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.04-1.06; p < .001) along with Insulin dependent Type 2 DM (HR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09-2.30.; p < .05), ACS (HR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.16-2.14; p < .001) and CS (HR: 2.02 95%CI 1.16-3.53; p < .05), were independent predictors of long-term MACE. CONCLUSION: The SS-II was superior to the SS in predicting outcomes associated with contemporary LM-PCI. In this real-world population, two clinical variables not included in the SS-II, ACS and T2DM, were identified as additional markers of poor outcome.

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