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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 44-51, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a primary hyperlipemia. It is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of lipoproteins metabolism mainly caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR). We aimed to investigate the functional impact on the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity of six uncharacterised variants located in the coding region of the LDLR gene, namely c.428G > T, c.640T > C, c.1708C > T, c.1736A > T, c.1981C > G and c.2114C > G (NM_000527.4) and to attempt to define their clinical status. METHODS: Functional studies were carried out using site-directed mutagenesis techniques and expression of LDLR protein in vitro. Results were correlated with clinical data and in silico analyses in order to assess the physiopathological role of these variants. RESULTS: This work provides functional information about 6 uncharacterised mutations in LDLR. CONCLUSIONS: The six variants studied here appeared to affect the LDLR function in vitro to different degrees, ranging from receptors with normal to slightly reduced activity to receptors exhibiting less than 10% of the wild-type activity. According to these studies and The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) Standards and Guidelines, two variants could be classified as "Likely Benign" (p.(Ala705Gly) and p.(Leu570Phe)), three variants as "Pathogenic" (p.(Asp579Val), p.(Cys143Phe) and p.(Trp214Arg)) and one variant as "Likely Pathogenic" (p.(Pro661Ala)).

2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595439

RESUMO

Serotoninergic system is one of the most important neurotransmission systems investigated in the field of psychiatry. Extensive evidence reveals how alterations of this system, and especially of the SLC6A4 gene, may be associated with psychiatric disorders. In this study we aimed to evaluate the pleiotropic nature of SLC6A4 alterations and their association with the overall risk of brain diseases rather than disorder-specific. SLC6A4 variants, namely 5HTTLPR, STin2, rs2066713, rs25531, rs4251417, rs6354 and rs7224199 were investigated in 4 independent cohorts of subjects with specific psychiatric disorders, including Alcohol dependence disorder (ALC), Alzheimer disease (ALZ), Schizophrenia (SCZ) and Bipolar disorder (BPD). Other variables (biochemical parameters and Psychiatric scales scores) were also tested for association. SLC6A4 polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of developing major psychiatric disorders (SCZ and BPD); however some signals were detected in ALC (HTTLPR pd = 9.25 × 10-03, pr = 7.24 × 10-03; rs2066713 pd = 6.35 × 10-08; rs25531 pd = 2.95 × 10-02; rs4251417 pd = 2.46 × 10-03), and ALZ (rs6354 pr = 1.22 × 10-02; rs7224199 pd = 1.00 × 10-08, pr = 2.65 × 10-02) cohorts. Some associations were also observed on exploratory analyses. Our findings did not reveal any major influence on SCZ and BPD development; On the other hand, some alteration of the SLC6A4 sequence were associated with an increased risk of ALC and ALZ disorders, suggesting common pathways. The results of this study should be carefully interpreted since it suffers of some inherent limitations (e.g. cohort size, slight ethnic heterogeneity). Further analyses may provide better detail on the molecular processes behind SLC6A4 alterations.

3.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103733, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449985

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in HARS2 have been associated with Perrault syndrome, characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and premature ovarian insufficiency. Here we report three novel families, compound heterozygous for missense variants in HARS2 identified by next-generation sequencing, namely c.172A > G (p.Lys58Glu) and c.448C > T (p.Arg150Cys) identified in two sisters aged 13 and 16 years and their older brother, c.448C > T (p.Arg150Cys) and c.980G > A (p.Arg327Gln) identified in a seven year old girl, and finally c.137T > A (p.Leu46Gln) and c.259C > T (p.Arg87Cys) identified in a 32 year old woman. Clinically, all five individuals presented with early onset, rapidly progressive hearing impairment. Whereas the oldest female fulfilled the criteria of Perrault syndrome, the three younger females, aged 7, 13 and 16, all had apparently normal ovarian function, apart from irregular menstrual periods in the oldest female at age 16. The present report expands the list of HARS2 variants and helps gain further knowledge to the phenotype.

4.
Phys Ther ; 99(11): 1562-1573, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Brief Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) could be a useful tool for balance assessment. Although some psychometric characteristics have been examined, others still need to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the structural validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and internal consistency of the Brief-BESTest in neurological patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were from 416 patients with neurological disease and related balance disorders. Patients were assessed with the 5-levels Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC 5-levels), Brief-BESTest, and some simple balance tests (ie, 1-leg stance, Timed "Up & Go" test, functional reach, and a fall history questionnaire). Three Brief-BESTest models were examined through confirmatory factor analysis, and the following indexes were calculated: Comparative Fit Index, Tucker-Lewis Index, and root-mean-square error of approximation. Convergent validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between Brief-BESTest and ABC 5-levels total scores. Receiver operating characteristics assessed the ability of each model to differentiate between people with falls and those without falls. Internal consistency was measured with Cronbach α and coefficient ω. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed model 3 (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.95; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.05), with item 1 removed and error covariance between items 3 and 4 and between items 5 and 6, to have a significantly better structure than models 1 and 2. The correlation between Brief-BESTest and ABC 5-levels was 0.61 (Spearman ρ) for all 3 models. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics showed an acceptable accuracy (0.72) in distinguishing patients with a history of falls from those without a history of falls (95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.78) for all models and was superior to the areas under the curve of other simple balance tests (1-leg stance, Timed "Up & Go" test, functional reach). Cronbach α was good for Brief-BESTest models 1 (0.92) and 3 (0.92), but ω was greater than 0.80 only for model 3. LIMITATIONS: The sample was heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: The Brief-BESTest, after some changes, shows good validity and internal consistency in patients affected by different balance disorders.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1756-1763, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241255

RESUMO

Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) is a very rare (prevalence: 1/500000 births) autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is characterized by multi-systemic involvement associated with progressive intellectual disability, hearing loss, skeletal anomalies, and coarse facial features. The spectrum is wide, from very severe and lethal to a milder phenotype that usually progresses slowly. AM is caused by a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. A diagnosis can be established by measuring the activity of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase in leucocytes and screening for abnormal urinary excretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides. Genetic confirmation is obtained with the identification of MAN2B1 mutations. Enzyme replacement therapy (LAMZEDER ) was approved for use in Europe in August 2018. Here, we describe seven individuals from four families, diagnosed at 3-23 years of age, and who were referred to a clinical geneticist for etiologic exploration of syndromic hearing loss, associated with moderate learning disabilities. Exome sequencing had been used to establish the molecular diagnosis in five cases, including a two-sibling pair. In the remaining two patients, the diagnosis was obtained with screening of urinary oligosaccharides excretion and the association of deafness and hypotonia. These observations emphasize that the clinical diagnosis of AM can be challenging, and that it is likely an underdiagnosed rare cause of syndromic hearing loss. Exome sequencing can contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of these nonspecific mild phenotypes, with advantages for treatment and management.

6.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 809-817, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177572

RESUMO

The first step in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is catalyzed by the two BCAA transferase isoenzymes, cytoplasmic branched-chain amino acid transferase (BCAT) 1, and mitochondrial BCAT2. Defects in the second step of BCAA catabolism cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a condition which has been far more extensively investigated. Here, we studied the consequences of BCAT2 deficiency, an ultra-rare condition in humans. We present genetic, clinical, and functional data in five individuals from four different families with homozygous or compound heterozygous BCAT2 mutations which were all detected following abnormal biochemical profile results or familial mutation segregation studies. We demonstrate that BCAT2 deficiency has a recognizable biochemical profile with raised plasma BCAAs and, in contrast with MSUD, low-normal branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) with undetectable l-allo-isoleucine. Interestingly, unlike in MSUD, none of the individuals with BCAT2 deficiency developed acute encephalopathy even with exceptionally high BCAA levels. We observed wide-ranging clinical phenotypes in individuals with BCAT2 deficiency. While one adult was apparently asymptomatic, three individuals had presented with developmental delay and autistic features. We show that the biochemical characteristics of BCAT2 deficiency may be amenable to protein-restricted diet and that early treatment may improve outcome in affected individuals. BCAT2 deficiency is an inborn error of BCAA catabolism. At present, it is unclear whether developmental delay and autism are parts of the variable phenotypic spectrum of this condition or coincidental. Further studies will be required to explore this.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2270-2285, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206972

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene ZC4H2, which encodes a zinc-finger protein, cause an infrequently described syndromic form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. We present genetic and detailed phenotypic information on 23 newly identified families and simplex cases that include 19 affected females from 18 families and 14 affected males from nine families. Of note, the 15 females with deleterious de novo ZC4H2 variants presented with phenotypes ranging from mild to severe, and their clinical features overlapped with those seen in affected males. By contrast, of the nine carrier females with inherited ZC4H2 missense variants that were deleterious in affected male relatives, four were symptomatic. We also compared clinical phenotypes with previously published cases of both sexes and provide an overview on 48 males and 57 females from 42 families. The spectrum of ZC4H2 defects comprises novel and recurrent mostly inherited missense variants in affected males, and de novo splicing, frameshift, nonsense, and partial ZC4H2 deletions in affected females. Pathogenicity of two newly identified missense variants was further supported by studies in zebrafish. We propose ZC4H2 as a good candidate for early genetic testing of males and females with a clinical suspicion of fetal hypo-/akinesia and/or (neurogenic) AMC.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3049-3067, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042289

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) encompasses a spectrum of premature menopause, including both primary and secondary amenorrhea. For 75% to 90% of individuals with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism presenting as POI, the molecular etiology is unknown. Common etiologies include chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, and congenital disorders affecting ovarian development and function, as well as syndromic and nonsyndromic single gene disorders suggesting POI represents a complex trait. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contribution of known disease genes to POI and identify molecular etiologies and biological underpinnings of POI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We applied exome sequencing (ES) and family-based genomics to 42 affected female individuals from 36 unrelated Turkish families, including 31 with reported parental consanguinity. RESULTS: This analysis identified likely damaging, potentially contributing variants and molecular diagnoses in 16 families (44%), including 11 families with likely damaging variants in known genes and five families with predicted deleterious variants in disease genes (IGSF10, MND1, MRPS22, and SOHLH1) not previously associated with POI. Of the 16 families, 2 (13%) had evidence for potentially pathogenic variants at more than one locus. Absence of heterozygosity consistent with identity-by-descent mediated recessive disease burden contributes to molecular diagnosis in 15 of 16 (94%) families. GeneMatcher allowed identification of additional families from diverse genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: ES analysis of a POI cohort further characterized locus heterogeneity, reaffirmed the association of genes integral to meiotic recombination, demonstrated the likely contribution of genes involved in hypothalamic development, and documented multilocus pathogenic variation suggesting the potential for oligogenic inheritance contributing to the development of POI.

9.
Neuropsychobiology ; 78(2): 104-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggested the possible association of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene variants in bipolar disorder (BPD). OBJECTIVE: Given the need of refinement of the findings obtained in large but poorly phenotyped samples, this study investigated the possible role of variants within FKBP5 in a small but deeply phenotyped BPD sample. METHODS: A sample (N = 131) of bipolar patients were investigated with 10 polymorphisms within the FKBP5 gene. A control sample (N = 65) was also used for the analyses. Treatment response and remission of symptoms were evaluated using of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). The same analyses were also performed on the depressive subsample of BPD (D.BPD). RESULTS: rs3800373 was associated with disorder risk in the depressive BPD subsample with the G allele being more frequent in subjects with a D.BPD phenotype. This was the only association that survived statistical correction. CONCLUSIONS: rs3800373 FKBP5 may increase the risk of developing predominantly depressed BPD, probably through the creation of an enhancer consensus sequence in the 3'UTR of the gene, thus potentially increasing its expression. This finding seems to be partially supported by literature data, which evidenced increased levels of FKBP5 in psychiatric subjects.

10.
J Hepatol ; 71(2): 366-370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial condition and the most common liver disease worldwide, affecting more than one-third of the population. So far there have been no reports on mendelian inheritance in families with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed whole-exome or targeted next-generation sequencing on patients with autosomal dominant NAFLD. RESULTS: We report a heritable form of NAFLD and/or dyslipidemia due to monoallelic ABHD5 mutations, with complete clinical expression after the fourth decade of life, in 7 unrelated multiplex families encompassing 39 affected individuals. The prevalence of ABHD5-associated NAFLD was estimated to be 1 in 1,137 individuals in a normal population. CONCLUSION: We associate a Mendelian form of NAFLD and/or dyslipidemia with monoallelic ABHD5 mutations. LAY SUMMARY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common multifactorial disorder with a strong genetic component. Inherited forms of NAFLD have been suspected but, their molecular pathogenesis has not been disclosed. Here we report a heritable form of NAFLD with clinical expression after 40 years of age, associated with monoallelic ABHD5 mutations.

11.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2059-2069, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs. RESULTS: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.

12.
Mol Vis ; 25: 155-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820151

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the genetic basis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a cohort of Jewish patients from Caucasia. Methods: Patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation, including funduscopic examination, visual field testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electrophysiological tests, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Genetic analysis was performed with a combination of whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the WES results was performed via a customized pipeline. Pathogenicity of the identified intronic variant was evaluated in silico using the web tool Human Splicing Finder, and in vitro, using a minigene-based splicing assay. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was used to demonstrate a founder effect, and the decay of LD over generations around the mutation in Caucasus Jewish chromosomes was modeled to estimate the age of the most recent common ancestor. Results: In eight patients with RP from six unrelated families, all of Caucasus Jewish ancestry, we identified a novel homozygous intronic variant, located at position -9 of PDE6B intron 15. The c.1921-9C>G variant was predicted to generate a novel acceptor splice site, nine bases upstream of the original splice site of intron 15. In vitro splicing assay demonstrated that this novel acceptor splice site is used instead of the wild-type site, leading to an 8-bp insertion into exon 16, which is predicted to cause a frameshift. The presence of a common ancestral haplotype in mutation-bearing chromosomes was compatible with a founder effect. Conclusions: The PDE6B c.1921-9C>G intronic mutation is a founder mutation that accounts for at least 40% (6/15 families) of autosomal recessive RP among Caucasus Jews. This result is highly important for molecular diagnosis, carrier screening, and genetic counseling in this population.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Judeus , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/deficiência , Eletrorretinografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Éxons , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Íntrons , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/etnologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Sibéria/etnologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 90(4): 227-248, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655633

RESUMO

The modern clinical research on prostatitis started with the work of Stamey and coworkers who developed the basic principles we are still using. They established the segmented culture technique for localizing the infections in the males to the urethra, the bladder, or the prostate and to differentiate the main categories of prostatitis. Such categories with slight modifications are still used according to the NIH classification: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) and asymptomatic prostatitis. Prostatic inflammation is considered an important factor in influencing both prostatic growth and progression of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Chronic inflammation/neuroinflammation is a result of a deregulated acute phase response of the innate immune system affecting surrounding neural tissue at molecular, structural and functional levels. Clinical observations suggest that chronic inflammation correlates with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an history of clinical chronic prostatitis significantly increases the odds for prostate cancer. The NIHNIDDK classification based on the use of the microbiological 4- glasses localization test or simplified 2-glasses test, is currently accepted worldwide. The UPOINT system identifies groups of clinicians with homogeneous clinical presentation and is used to recognize phenotypes to be submitted to specific treatments. The UPOINTS algorithm implemented the original UPOINT adding to the urinary domains (U), psycho-social (P), organspecific (O), infection (I), neurological (N), muscle tension and tenderness (T) a further domain related to sexuality (S). In fact sexual dysfunction (erectile, ejaculatory, libido loss) has been described in 46-92% of cases with a high impact on the quality of life of patients with CP/CPPS. Prostatic ultrasound represents the most popular imaging test in the work-up of either acute and chronic prostatitis although no specific hypo-hyperechoic pattern has been clearly associated with chronic bacterial prostatitis and CPPS. Use of a digital-processing software to calculate the extension of prostatic calcification area at ultrasound demonstrated a higher percentage of prostatic calcification in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) is the current state-of-the art imaging modality in the assessment of patients with prostate cancer although a variety of benign conditions, including inflammation, may mimic prostate cancer and act as confounding factors in the discrimination between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Bacteria can infect prostate gland by: ascending the urethra, reflux of urine into the prostatic ducts, direct inoculation of bacteria through inserted biopsy needles or hematogenous seeding. Enterobacteriaceae are the predominant pathogens in acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, but an increasing role of Enterococci has been reported. Many strains of these uropathogens exhibit the ability to form biofilm and multidrug- resistance. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) agents, in particular Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, have been also considered as causative pathogens of chronic bacterial prostatitis. On the contrary the effective role in genital diseases of other "genital mycoplasmas" is still a much debated issue. Sexually Transmitted Infections agents should be investigated by molecular methods in both patient and sexual partner. "Next generation" investigations, such as cytokine analysis, cytological typing of immune cells could help stratifying the immune response. Epigenetic dysregulation of inflammatory factors should be investigated according to systemic and compartment-specific signals. The search for biomarkers should also include evaluation of hormonal pathways, as measurement of estrogen levels in semen. Antimicrobials are the first line agents for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis. The success of antimicrobial treatment depends on the antibacterial activity and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug which must reach high concentrations in prostate secretion and prostate tissue. Acute bacterial prostatitis can be a serious infection with a potential risk for urosepsis For iInitial treatment of severely ill patients, intravenous administration of high doses of bactericidal antimicrobials, such as broad-spectrum penicillins, third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones, is recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside. Use of piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem is justified in presence of multiresistant gramnegative pathogens. The antibiotic treatment of chronic prostatitis is currently based on the use of fluoroquinolones that, given for 2 to 4 weeks, cured about 70% of men with chronic bacterial prostatitis. For the treatment of Chlamydial prostatitis macrolides were shown to be more effective than fluoroquinolones, whereas no differences were observed in microbiological and clinical efficacy between macrolides and tetracyclines for the treatment of infections caused by intracellular pathogens. Aminoglycosides and fosfomycin could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of quinolone resistant prostatitis. Use of alpha-blockers in CP/CPPS patients with urinary symptoms and analgesics +/- non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), in presence of pain demonstrated a reduction of symptoms reduction and an improvement of quality of life, although long term use of NSAID is limited by side effect profile. However, the multimodal therapeutic regimen by contemporary use of alphablockers, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory showed a better control of prostatitis symptoms than single drug treatment. Novel therapeutic substances for the treatment of pain, such as the cannabinoid anandamide would be highly interesting to test. An alternative for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is phytotherapy, as primary therapy or in association with other drugs. Quercetin, pollen extract, extract of Serenoa repens and other mixtures of herbal extracts showed a positive effect on symptoms and quality of life without side effects. The association of CP/CPPS with alterations of intestinal function has been described. Diet has its effects on inflammation by regulation of the composition of intestinal flora and direct action on the intestinal cells (sterile inflammation). Intestinal bacteria (microbiota) interacts with food influencing the metabolic, immune and inflammatory response of the organism. The intestinal microbiota has protective function against pathogenic bacteria, metabolic function by synthesis of vitamins, decomposition of bile acids and production of trophic factors (butyrate), and modulation of the intestinal immune system. The alteration of the microbiota is called "dysbiosis" causing invasive intestinal diseases pathologies (leaky gut syndrome and food intolerances, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic inflammatory bowel diseases) and correlating with numerous systemic diseases including acute and chronic prostatitis. Administration of live probiotics bacteria can be used to regulate the balance if intestinal flora. Sessions of hydrocolontherapy can represent an integration to this therapeutic approach. Finally, microbiological examination of sexual partners can offer supplementary information for treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pélvica , Prostatite/fisiopatologia
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481285

RESUMO

FBXL3 (F-Box and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein 3) encodes a protein that contains an F-box and several tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRR) domains. FBXL3 is part of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex that binds and leads to phosphorylation dependent degradation of the central clock protein cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) by the proteasome and its absence causes circadian phenotypes in mice and behavioral problems. No FBXL3 related phenotypes have been described in humans. By a combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping, we analyzed two consanguineous families with intellectual disability and identified homozygous LoF (loss-of-function) variants in FBXL3. In the first family, from Pakistan, an FBXL3 frameshift variant (NM_012158.2:c.885delT:p.(Leu295Phefs*25)) was the only segregating variant in five affected individuals in two family loops (LOD score: 3.12). In the second family, from Lebanon, we identified a nonsense variant (NM_012158.2:c.445C>T:p.(Arg149*). In a third patient from Italy, a likely deleterious non-synonymous variant (NM_012158.2:c.1072T>C:p.(Cys358Arg)) was identified in homozygosity. Protein 3D modeling predicted that the Cys358Arg change influences the binding with CRY2 by destabilizing the structure of the FBXL3, suggesting that this variant is also likely to be LoF. The eight affected individuals from the three families presented with a similar phenotype that included intellectual disability, developmental delay, short stature and mild facial dysmorphism, mainly large nose with a bulbous tip. The phenotypic similarity and the segregation analysis suggest that FBXL3 biallelic, loss-of-function variants link this gene with syndromic autosomal recessive developmental delay/intellectual disability.

15.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(12): 2321-2322, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374694

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of Table 1 was incorrect. The corrected Table 1 is given below.

17.
Fitoterapia ; 130: 210-218, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213759

RESUMO

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae) is a valuable medicinal plant utilized for silymarin production. However, only fragmentary and contradictory information about silymarin localization within S. marianum fruit are available. In this work, a twofold research approach was adopted in order to investigate the distribution and quantification of silymarin and of other phenolic compounds within the different fruit regions (pericarp, seed integument, cotyledon). Two S. marianum wild accessions with contrasting silymarin chemotype (A and B) and a mutant line (C) with an altered fruit colour were analysed. Fruits of Cynara cardunculus were studied as a reference. Firstly, the fruit morpho-anatomy was reviewed by means of light microscopy digital imaging and, secondly, a comprehensive histolocalization of the different classes of polyphenols within the fruit was carried out. The experimental evidences confirmed that silymarin, and its precursor taxifolin, are only accumulated in the seed integuments. The dark colour of fully-ripened fruits is due to the accumulation of condensed tannins in the pericarp subepidermal cell layer. On the contrary, the studied mutant line shows reduced condensed tannin content that probably result from impairment at the level of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Condensed tannins content is comparatively low in S. marianum fruits and very low in the identified mutant line. This could represent an advantage for the possible employment of S. marianum fruits and of silymarin extraction by-products in the feed and food sector.


Assuntos
Cardo Mariano/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Silimarina/isolamento & purificação , Cor , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação
18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heritable thoracic aortic disease can result from null variants in MYLK, which encodes myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). Data on which MYLK missense variants are pathogenic and information to guide aortic disease management are limited. METHODS: Clinical data from 60 cases with MYLK pathogenic variants were analyzed (five null and two missense variants), and the effect of missense variants on kinase activity was assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-three individuals (39%) experienced an aortic event (defined as aneurysm repair or dissection); the majority of these events (87%) were aortic dissections. Aortic diameters were minimally enlarged at the time of dissection in many cases. Time-to-aortic-event curves showed that missense pathogenic variant (PV) carriers have earlier-onset aortic events than null PV carriers. An MYLK missense variant segregated with aortic disease over five generations but decreases MYLK kinase acitivity marginally. Functional Assays fail to identify all pathogenic variants in MYLK. CONCLUSION: These data further define the aortic phenotype associated with MYLK pathogenic variants. Given minimal aortic enlargement before dissection, an alternative approach to guide the timing of aortic repair is proposed based on the probability of a dissection at a given age.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2105, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844444

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) is a rare clinical condition in which production of insulin-like growth factor 1 is blunted and, consequently, postnatal growth impaired. Autosomal-recessive mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5B), the key signal transducer for GH, cause severe GHIS with additional characteristics of immune and, often fatal, pulmonary complications. Here we report dominant-negative, inactivating STAT5B germline mutations in patients with growth failure, eczema, and elevated IgE but without severe immune and pulmonary problems. These STAT5B missense mutants are robustly tyrosine phosphorylated upon stimulation, but are unable to nuclear localize, or fail to bind canonical STAT5B DNA response elements. Importantly, each variant retains the ability to dimerize with wild-type STAT5B, disrupting the normal transcriptional functions of wild-type STAT5B. We conclude that these STAT5B variants exert dominant-negative effects through distinct pathomechanisms, manifesting in milder clinical GHIS with general sparing of the immune system.

20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(6): 1427-1437, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498070

RESUMO

The photosynthetic, optical, and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with 2 green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching. When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space. As a consequence, canopy-scale gross primary production and ecosystem respiration were comparable between the Chl-deficient mutant and the green variety. However, total biomass production was lower in the mutant, which indicates that processes other than steady state photosynthesis caused a reduction in biomass accumulation over time. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching relaxation and gas exchange in Chl-deficient and green leaves after transitions from high to low light conditions suggested that dynamic photosynthesis might be responsible for the reduced biomass production in the Chl-deficient mutant under field conditions.

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