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1.
Infez Med ; 24(3): 201-9, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668900

RESUMO

Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS). Data from all patients included were used to identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I during ICU stays, from admission to discharge, using uni- and multivariable analysis (Poisson regression) to check that the sample to be used to develop the predictive models was representative of standard critical care population. To identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I on ICU admission and to develop prediction models, multivariable logistic regression analysis were then performed only on those admitted in 2010 (n=16950, 2/3 for analysis and 1/3 for subsequent validation). We found that, in the period 2006-2010, 1046 patients were MRSA-C/I. Independent risk factors for MRSA-C/I in ICU were: age>65, trauma or medical patient, high APACHE-II score, admitted from a long-term care facility, urinary catheter, previous antibiotic treatment and skin-soft tissue or post-surgical superficial skin infections. Colonisation with several different MDRs significantly increased the risk of MRSA-C/I. Risk factors on ICU admission were: male gender, trauma critical patient, urgent surgery, admitted from other ICUs, hospital ward or long-term facility, immunosuppression and skin-soft tissue infection. Although the best model to identify carriers of MRSA had a good discrimination (AUC-ROC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.82), sensitivity was 67% and specificity 76.5%. Including more complex variables did not improve prediction capability. Our conclusion is that clinical-demographic risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA should not be used to accurately identify patients who would benefit from empirical anti-MRSA treatment or from specific preventive measures. Independent risk factors for MRSA colonisation/infection during ICU stay and on ICU admission are described. The latter should be considered in future studies for MRSA prediction.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Admissão do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
2.
Telemed J E Health ; 19(1): 7-12, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23186084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in information technology and telecommunications have provided the option of making it easier to diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using telemedicine techniques. This study assessed the feasibility and reliability of respiratory polygraphy and prescription of treatment by pressure adjustment with auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) systems, both being transmitted telematically to the Sleep Unit, with teleconsultation as a support method. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty patients were studied from a population 80 km from the Sleep Unit using respiratory polygraphy transmitted in real time. They were divided into two groups: one was seen by conventional consultation, and the other was seen using teleconsultation. We also estimated satisfaction with this system and its costs. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 53 ± 10.3 years, with a body mass index of 31 ± 6.2 kg/m(2) and an Epworth score of 12 ± 5.3. In total, 35 patients were diagnosed with OSAS, with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index of ≥10, and CPAP treatment was started in 16 of them. The agreement in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index, total apneas and hypopneas, mean oxygen saturation, and time with an oxygen saturation <90% was greater than 90% between the studies transmitted in real time and those stored in the polygraph. The level of compliance with CPAP treatment was 85% for the patients who were seen in a conventional clinic and 75% in those seen by teleconsultation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of telematic techniques is useful to establish a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for OSAS with the creation of a Wide Core Sleep Laboratory as a process controller.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Telemedicina/normas , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
3.
Metab Brain Dis ; 28(1): 21-4, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23160835

RESUMO

Biochemical and metabolic analysis of ischemic cerebral tissue is central in stroke investigation and is usually performed in animal stroke models, such as the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in the rat that we have used. To be sure that the sample is from infarct tissue, it is differentiated from the surrounding normal tissue by staining, usually with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), but staining can hamper biochemical colorimetric analysis. We performed this study to avoid this obstacle. A cerebral infarct was provoked in a sample of 10 rats and the brain was cut in coronal sections that were stained with TTC so that the unstained, infarct areas could be delineated in a template of each section in which areas with infarct in all animals were delineated. We calculated infarct coordinates and depth so that the infarct tissue can be sampled without staining. For more precision, the ischemic cortex can be delimited staining its surface before sectioning and cortical tissue into which TTC diffuses can be afterwards discarded, as we had previously measured the TTC diffusion depth in rat brains.


Assuntos
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico , Sais de Tetrazólio , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Coloração e Rotulagem
4.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 90(2): 173-8, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22257103

RESUMO

Increased oxidative stress and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity have been reported in cancer, but their relationship with chemotherapy remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine wether the chemotherapy treatments used in colorectal cancer had an additional effect on oxidative stress and on IDO activity. Plasma samples were collected from 27 colorectal cancer patients on cytostatic treatment, 27 with cytostatic drugs plus monoclonal antibodies (cytostatic-Mabs) and 15 non-treated patients. All patients with colorectal cancer had high plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), thioredoxin (Trx) levels, and elevated IDO activity in plasma (IDOp) and in dendritic cells (IDOc). This study shows that treatment with cytostatics have an effect on oxidative stress by increasing MDA levels and by decreasing Trx levels and IDO activity. However, treatment with cytostatic-Mabs showed no effect on MDA levels but decreased Trx levels, and the IDO activity showed values similar to the healthy group. Significant correlations between plasma IDO activity and the levels of Trx (r = 0.2062, p < 0.05) and MDA (r = 0.2873, p < 0.005) were observed. Furthermore, our study suggests that IDO activity measured as kynurenine levels could be used as a marker of the response to the chemotherapy treatments, although further studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/sangue , Tiorredoxinas/sangue , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 38(2): 1315-20, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20563851

RESUMO

To evaluate the KRAS, BRAF, EGFR, and HER2 gene status in colorectal cancer by novel techniques and evaluate whether anti-HER2 therapies could be offered in the treatment of these patients. There are conflicting data on the prevalence of BRAF mutations and EGFR and HER2 gene amplification in colorectal KRAS wild type patients. In our study we tried to evaluate these expressions and their relationship to future treatment assays. Clinical-pathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 186 patients who underwent colorectal resections at General Yagüe Hospital in Burgos, Spain. KRAS and BRAF status was analyzed by real-time PCR in all patients. EGFR and HER2/NEU gene amplification was detected using fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique (FISH) in 38 KRAS and BRAF wild type patients. KRAS mutations were present in 48% of the colorectal cancer patients. BRAF mutations were present in 6.25% of the KRAS wild type patients. EGFR and HER2 gene amplification was observed in 5.3% and 26.3%, respectively, of KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer patients. HER2, but not EGFR gene amplification, was frequently observed in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer patients. These data indicate that HER2 amplification could be one of the genes to be considered in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Receptores ErbB/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/biossíntese , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 38(2): 1347-51, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20571907

RESUMO

The objective of the work was to study PIK3CA mutations in wild type KRAS and BRAF colorectal cancer. Clinicopathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected on 73 patients who underwent colorectal resections at General Yagüe Hospital in Burgos. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA status were analyzed by real-time PCR in all patients. PIK3CA mutations were present in 8.22% of wild type KRAS and BRAF colorectal cancers. The most frequent mutation is E545K/D in exon 9 which represents 83.3% of all mutations. By contrast, we did not found any tumour harbouring H1047R mutation in exon 20. Among the patients who undergo a curative resection of colorectal cancer, PIK3CA mutation is present in an important percentage of KRAS and BRAF wild type tumours. PIK3CA mutation may be considered as it could be a hypothetic reason to be not responder to anti-EGFR antibodies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Cetuximab , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Estudos de Coortes , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
7.
Med Inform Internet Med ; 31(1): 59-66, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16754368

RESUMO

UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports one multidisciplinary community of doctoral students, who receive most of the courses on the network. The evident advantages of distance learning by Internet, in terms of costs, comfort, etc., require a previous evaluation of the system, focusing on the learning outcomes of the student. The aim was to evaluate the real learning of the students of doctorate courses, by comparing the effectiveness of distance learning in UniNet with traditional classroom-based teaching. Five doctorate courses were taught simultaneously to two independent groups of students in two ways: one, through the UniNet Network, and the other in a traditional classroom. The academic knowledge of students was evaluated at the beginning and end of each course. The difference in score was considered as a knowledge increase. The comparison was made using Student's t-test for independent groups. There were no significant statistical differences in the outcomes of the two groups of students. This suggests that both teaching systems were equivalent in increasing the knowledge of the students. Both educational methods, the traditional system and the online system in a thematic network, are effective and similar for increasing knowledge.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Internet , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensino/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada , Avaliação Educacional , Espanha
8.
Hum Resour Health ; 3: 4, 2005 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16042778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. METHODS: In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. RESULTS: Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. CONCLUSION: The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices.

9.
Rev. esp. patol ; 36(2): 149-158, abr. 2003.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-26198

RESUMO

Las nuevas tecnologías de telecomunicaciones, y especialmente Internet, son nuevas oportunidades en beneficio de la Patología y los patólogos, que permiten el desarrollo y creación de foros y Comunidades Virtuales de Usuarios Patólogos integrando los diversos recursos temáticos telemáticos. Una de las actividades más relevantes es la telepatología en Internet. Este trabajo describe la creación y desarrollo del Foro Pat-UniNet de diagnóstico por imagen, al que acceden cerca de un millar de profesionales en su mayoría patólogos y su rentabilidad científica y profesional. Se revisan someramente otros recursos semejantes, y se analizan los resultados obtenidos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Patologia/tendências , Telemedicina/métodos , Telepatologia/métodos , Citodiagnóstico/tendências , Saúde Global , Internet , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Grupo Associado
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