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1.
Allergy ; 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has developed a guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for healthcare professionals to support the transitional care of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with allergy and/or asthma. The goal of this work was to ensure that the draft recommendations are also important for patients. METHODS: We surveyed patients aged 11-25 years with allergy and/or asthma and their parents across Europe between 17th February and 16th March 2020. The multilingual survey was distributed through national allergy and asthma patient organisations in Europe as well as through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1210 responses from 24 European countries were collected. There were 415 (34.3%) AYA and 795 (65.7%) parents. The majority of AYA (72.3%) and parents (81.9%) were female. Patients had a history of asthma (61.1%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (54.1%), food allergy (53.8%), atopic eczema (42.6%), and anaphylaxis (28.8%). All recommendations achieved the median score of either 'important' or 'very important'. The least supported recommendations were the use of joint clinics with both paediatric and adult physicians attending and the use of web-based or mobile technologies for communication with the AYA. The most supported recommendation was checking that the AYA is knowledgeable and compliant with their prescribed medication. Qualitative analysis revealed conditional approval for some recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was agreement from patients and parents on the importance of the draft recommendations on transitional care for adolescents and young adults with allergy and/or asthma and their parents. The recommendations now need to be implemented into clinical practice across Europe.

2.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1107-1120, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. We assessed persistent symptoms in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed potential risk factors. METHODS: Data were collected from patients discharged from 4 hospitals in Moscow, Russia between 8 April and 10 July 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using an ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study questionnaire. RESULTS: 2,649 of 4755 (56%) discharged patients were successfully evaluated, at median 218 (IQR 200, 236) days post-discharge. COVID-19 diagnosis was clinical in 1291 and molecular in 1358. Most cases were mild, but 902 (34%) required supplemental oxygen and 68 (2.6%) needed ventilatory support. Median age was 56 years (IQR 46, 66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. Persistent symptoms were reported by 1247 (47.1%) participants, with fatigue (21.2%), shortness of breath (14.5%) and forgetfulness (9.1%) the most common symptoms and chronic fatigue (25%) and respiratory (17.2%) the most common symptom categories. Female sex was associated with any persistent symptom category OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.17) with association being strongest for dermatological (3.26, 2.36 to 4.57) symptoms. Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease were not associated with persistent symptoms overall, but asthma was associated with neurological (1.95, 1.25 to 2.98) and mood and behavioural changes (2.02, 1.24 to 3.18), and chronic pulmonary disease was associated with chronic fatigue (1.68, 1.21 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of adults admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 reported persistent symptoms 6 to 8 months after discharge. Fatigue and respiratory symptoms were most common, and female sex was associated with persistent symptoms.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371920

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response against pathogens by acting on the major cellular subsets and inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In some cases, this action is accompanied by a direct antimicrobial effect, as evidenced in the specific case of lactoferrin. Furthermore, nutraceuticals act through complex molecular mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by the activation of the immune system against pathogens, reducing the oxidative damage, influencing the antigen presentation, enhancing the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, driving the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets, and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we review the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the immunomodulatory function of nutraceuticals, focusing on the most relevant aspects for the prevention and treatment of viral infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
4.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted with confirmed Covid-19. Children admitted to the hospital between April 2, 2020 and August 26, 2020, were included. Telephone interview using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) Covid-19 Health and Wellbeing paediatric follow-up survey. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. FINDINGS: 518 of 853 (61%) of eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 3-15.2) and 270 (52.1%) were girls; median follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%,) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (odds ratio 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 5.75) and "12-18 years" (2.68, 1.41 to 5.4); and a history of allergic diseases (1.67, 1.04 to 2.67). INTERPRETATION: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalization with acute covid-19 infection, with almost one in ten experiencing multi-system involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3546-3567, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153517

RESUMO

Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunization efforts. We convened a multidisciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis composed of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the World Health Organizstion (WHO) global coronavirus database, and the gray literature (inception, March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases per million (n = 41,000,000 vaccinations; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the incidence of 0.15 cases per million patient-years (95% CI 0.11-0.2), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor, although specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(5): 1327-1337, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The psychological effects from the COVID-19 pandemic and response are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To understand the effects of the pandemic and response on anxiety and health utility in a nationally representative sample of US adults. DESIGN: A de-identified, cross-sectional survey was administered at the end of April 2020. Probability weights were assigned using estimates from the 2018 American Community Survey and Integrated Public Use Microdata Series Estimates. PARTICIPANTS: US adults 18-85 years of age with landline, texting-enabled cellphone, or internet access. INTERVENTION: Seven split-half survey blocks of 30 questions, assessing demographics, COVID-19-related health attitudes, and standardized measures of generalized self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, personality, and generic health utility. MAIN MEASURES: State/Trait anxiety scores, EQ-5D-3L Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, and demographic predictors of these scores. KEY RESULTS: Among 4855 respondents, 56.7% checked COVID-19-related news several times daily, and 84.4% at least once daily. Only 65.7% desired SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for themselves, and 70.1% for their child. Mean state anxiety (S-anxiety) score was significantly higher than mean trait anxiety (T-anxiety) score (44.9, 95%CI 43.5-46.3 vs. 41.6, 95%CI 38.7-44.5; p = 0.03), with both scores significantly higher than previously published norms. In an adjusted regression model, less frequent news viewing was associated with significantly lower S-anxiety score. Mean EQ-5D-3L VAS score for the population was significantly lower vs. established US normative data (71.4 CI 67.4-75.5, std. error 2 vs. societal mean 80, std. error 0.1; p < 0.001). EQ-5D-3L VAS score was bimodal (highest with hourly and no viewing) and significantly reduced with less media viewership in an adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Among a nationally representative sample, there were higher S-anxiety and lower EQ-5D-3L VAS scores compared to non-pandemic normative data, indicative of a potential detrimental acute effect of the pandemic. More frequent daily media viewership was significantly associated with higher S-anxiety but also predictive of higher health utility, as measured by EQ-5D-3L VAS scores.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(2): 128-134, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620881

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that can involve the entire bronchial tree. Increasing evidence shows that ventilation heterogeneity and small airway dysfunction are relevant factors in the pathogenesis of asthma and represent a hallmark in adults with persistent asthma. Little is known about the contribution of peripheral airway impairment in paediatric asthma, mainly due to the inaccessibility to evaluation by noninvasive techniques, which have only been widely available in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence suggests that small airways are affected from the early stages of the disease in childhood-onset asthma. Conventional lung function measurement, using spirometry, is unable to sensitively evaluate small airway function and may become abnormal only once there is a significant burden of disease. Recent studies suggest that chronic inflammation and dysfunction in the small airways, as detected with new advanced techniques, are risk factors for asthma persistence, asthma severity, worse asthma control and loss of pulmonary function with age, both in adults and children. Knowing the extent of central and peripheral airway involvement is clinically relevant to achieve asthma control, reduce bronchial hyper-responsiveness and monitor response to asthma treatment. SUMMARY: This review outlines the recent evidence on the role of small airway dysfunction in paediatric asthma development and control, and addresses how the use of new diagnostic techniques available in outpatient clinical settings, namely impulse oscillometry and multiple breath washout, could help in the early detection of small airway impairment in children with preschool wheezing and school-age asthma and potentially guide asthma treatment.

9.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(2): 151-158, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620882

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fractional concentration of Nitric Oxide in the exhaled air (FeNO) is a moderately good biomarker of type-2 airway inflammation, and its measurement is feasible also in children. The available evidence is still not enough to support the routine use of FeNO to diagnose or manage asthma in every patient in clinical practice. However, its role in identifying asthma with eosinophilic inflammation is of particular interest in the management of severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: In healthy subjects, FeNO levels increase with age and height, particularly in males, and are also influenced by ethnicity. FeNO measurement can support asthma diagnosis and help in predicting asthma development later in life in young children with recurrent wheezing. FeNO-guided asthma management is effective in reducing asthma exacerbations but may result in a higher daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids. FeNO can also be used as a marker to evaluate adherence to asthma treatment and predict response to different biologicals, especially Omalizumab and Dupilumab. SUMMARY: This review outlines recent data on the application of FeNO in childhood-onset asthma diagnosis and management, as well as in phenotyping subjects with severe asthma who may benefit from monoclonal antibodies administration.

10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 32, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immune system are used for the management of COVID-19. The involvement of the immune system also opens the opportunity for the use of nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. MAIN ASPECTS: Nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity are promising therapeutic adjuvants for the treatment of COVID-19, and also for the prevention of viral spreading. In particular, the role of vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin, and zinc is of significant clinical interest, although there are only a few data on their use in COVID-19 patients. Their molecular actions, together with the results of studies performed on other respiratory infections, strongly suggest their potential utility in COVID-19. This article discusses the main properties of these nutritional supplements and their potential applicability in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The supplementation with vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin and zinc could have a role both in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and in mitigating the clinical course in infected patients, contributing in the prevention of immune-mediated organ damage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 36-38, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236420

RESUMO

Oral food challenges remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. Nevertheless, the allergy workup is based on the presence of a clinical history, which is evocative of an immune-allergic reaction, and the first assessment is usually the performance of skin prick tests. Based on these results, allergists are used to evaluate the presence of serum-specific IgE, which are today the most commonly prescribed in vitro test for the evaluation of a possible food allergy. Other in vitro tests include the basophil activation test, that is becoming more and more employed by clinicians and not only by researchers, and the evaluation of serum IgG4, which is still an issue of debate in the allergy community. The present paper reviews the use of these in vitro tests for the diagnosis of food allergy.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014920

RESUMO

Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children, and its pathogenesis involves genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The rapid rise in the prevalence of asthma registered over the last few decades has stressed the need to identify the environmental and modifiable factors associated with the development of the disease. In particular, there is increasing interest in the role of modifiable nutritional factors specific to both the prenatal and post-natal early life as, during this time, the immune system is particularly vulnerable to exogenous interferences. Several dietary factors, including maternal diet during pregnancy, the duration of breastfeeding, the use of special milk formulas, the timing of the introduction of complementary foods, and prenatal and early life supplementation with vitamins and probiotics/prebiotics, have been addressed as potential targets for the prevention of asthma. In this review, we outline recent findings on the potential role of prenatal and perinatal dietary and nutritional interventions for the primary prevention of pediatric asthma. Moreover, we addressed unmet needs and areas for future research in the prevention of childhood-onset asthma.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically-diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow, between April 8 and May 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalised for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age 56 years (interquartile range 45-66). The commonest comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiac disease and diabetes. Half of the patients (n=1728) had a positive RT-PCR while 1748 were negative on RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic CT signs suggestive of COVID-19 infection.No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR.In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality; older age (per 1 year increase) odds ratio [OR] 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 - 1.06); male sex (OR 1.71, 1.24 - 2.37); chronic kidney disease (OR 2.99, 1.89 - 4.64); diabetes (OR 2.1, 1.46 - 2.99); chronic cardiac disease (OR 1.78, 1.24 - 2.57) and dementia (OR 2.73, 1.34 - 5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features were sufficient to diagnoseCOVID-19 infection indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.

15.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10: 40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042515

RESUMO

Background: Transition from parent-delivered to self-management is a vulnerable time for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with allergy and asthma. There is currently no European guideline available for healthcare professionals (HCPs) on transition of these patients and local/national protocols are also mostly lacking. Methods: European HCPs working with AYA with allergy and asthma were invited to complete an online survey assessing challenges of working with these patients, current transition practices and access to specific healthcare resources. Results: A total of 1179 responses from 41 European countries were collected. Most HCPs (86%) reported a lack of a transition guideline and a lack of a transition process (20% paediatric HCPs, 50% of adult HCPs, 56% HCP seeing all ages). Nearly half (48%) acknowledged a lack of an established feedback system between paediatric and adult medical services. Many respondents never routinely asked about mental health issues such as self-harm or depression and are not confident in asking about self-harm (66.6%), sexuality (64%) and depression (43.6%). The majority of HCPs (76%) had not received specific training in the care of AYA although 87% agreed that transition was important for AYA with allergy and asthma. Conclusion: Although there was agreement that transition is important for AYA with allergy and asthma, there are crucial limitations and variations in the current provision of transition services across Europe. Standardisation of AYA management and specific training are required. This should improve management and continuity of care during adolescence and into adulthood to achieve the best healthcare outcomes.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760404

RESUMO

Novel methods in immunological research and microbiome evaluation have dramatically changed several paradigms associated with the pathogenesis of allergic asthma (AAS). Ovalbumin and house dust mite-induced AAS in germ-free or specific pathogen-free mice are the two leading experimental platforms that significantly contribute to elucidate the relationship between AAS and gut microbiota. Beyond the exacerbation of T helper (Th) 2 responses, a complex network of immunological interaction driven by gut microbiota could modulate the final effector phase. Regulatory T cells are abundant in gastrointestinal mucosa and have been shown to be pivotal in AAS. The gut microbiota could also influence the activity of other T cell subsets such as Th9, Th17, and populations of effector/memory T lymphocytes. Furthermore, gut microbiota metabolites drive the hematopoietic pattern of dendritic cells and ameliorate lung Th2 immunity in AAS models. The administration of probiotics has shown conflicting results in AAS, and limited evidence is available on the immunological pathways beyond their activity. Moreover, the impact of early-life gut dysbiosis on AAS is well-known both experimentally and clinically, but discrepancies are observed between preclinical and clinical settings. Herein, our aim is to elucidate the most relevant preclinical and clinical scenarios to enlighten the potential role of the gut microbiota in modulating T lymphocytes activity in AAS.


Assuntos
Asma/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/microbiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Camundongos , Probióticos
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e20955, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially had a negative impact on the mental health and well-being of individuals and families. Anxiety levels and risk factors within particular populations are poorly described. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate confidence, understanding, trust, concerns, and levels of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population and assess risk factors for increased anxiety. METHODS: We launched a cross-sectional online survey of a large Russian population between April 6 and 15, 2020, using multiple social media platforms. A set of questions targeted confidence, understanding, trust, and concerns in respondents. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure anxiety. Multiple linear regressions were used to model predictors of COVID-19-related anxiety. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 23,756 out of 53,966 (44.0% response rate) unique visitors; of which, 21,364 were residing in 62 areas of Russia. State Anxiety Scale (S-Anxiety) scores were higher than Trait Anxiety Scale scores across all regions of Russia (median S-Anxiety score 52, IQR 44-60), exceeding published norms. Time spent following news on COVID-19 was strongly associated with an increased S-Anxiety adjusted for baseline anxiety level. One to two hours spent reading COVID-19 news was associated with a 5.46 (95% CI 5.03-5.90) point difference, 2-3 hours with a 7.06 (95% CI 6.37-7.74) point difference, and more than three hours with an 8.65 (95% CI 7.82-9.47) point difference, all compared to less than 30 minutes per day. Job loss during the pandemic was another important factor associated with higher S-Anxiety scores (3.95, 95% CI 3.31-4.58). Despite survey respondents reporting high confidence in information regarding COVID-19 as well as an understanding of health care guidance, they reported low overall trust in state and local authorities, and perception of country readiness. CONCLUSIONS: Among Russian respondents from multiple social media platforms, there was evidence of higher levels of state anxiety associated with recent job loss and increased news consumption, as well as lower than expected trust in government agencies. These findings can help inform the development of key public health messages to help reduce anxiety and raise perceived trust in governmental response to this current national emergency. Using a similar methodology, comparative surveys are ongoing in other national populations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
Minerva Pediatr ; 72(5): 372-382, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686924

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and exposure to tobacco smoke has been long recognized as a risk factor for its onset as well as for exacerbations and poor disease control. Since the early 2000s, electronic cigarettes have been marketed worldwide as a non-harmful electronic alternative to combustible cigarettes and as a device likely to help stop smoking, and their use is continuously rising, particularly among adolescents. However, several studies have shown that vape contains many different well-known toxicants, causing significant cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects on the airways in-vitro and in animal models. In humans, a variety of harmful lung effects related to vaping, ranging from bronchoconstriction to severe respiratory distress has been already reported. To investigate the potential effects of vaping in pediatric asthma, we searched relevant published studies in the MEDLINE/PubMed database by combining the adequate Medical Subject Headings terms and key words. At the end of our study selection process, five cross-sectional studies focusing on electronic cigarettes use in adolescents and self-reported asthma and/or other respiratory symptoms, one study focusing on the effects of electronic cigarettes second-hand exposure and one case report were retrieved. These preliminary data support a likely detrimental effect of vaping in asthmatic adolescents. Currently available evidence supports that electronic cigarettes are a potential threat to respiratory health, particularly in adolescents with asthma. High-quality studies on larger population assessing the long-term effects of vape exposure, are urgently needed.

19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(4): 440-446.e1, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a noninvasive biomarker of type 2 asthma that can predict response to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Little is known regarding the magnitude of FeNO reduction after an oral corticosteroid (OCS) course, and less is known whether there are differential responses based on race in children with mild-to-moderate asthma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a short course of OCS on FeNO in children with asthma and to determine whether the effect is influenced by race. METHODS: Children presenting with an acute asthma exacerbation, who had a FeNO measurement within the past 6 months when clinically stable, were enrolled. Spirometry and FeNO were obtained at the time of exacerbation and after a short course of prednisone. RESULTS: A total of 92 children were identified (aged 11 ± 3.3 years; white, n = 46 [50%], Hispanics, n = 30 [33%], African Americans [AAs], n = 16 [7%]). At baseline, AAs were more atopic and had higher mean FeNO values than both white (48.9 vs 25.6 ppb; P < .05) and Hispanic children (22.5 ppb; P < .05), despite being prescribed similar inhaled corticosteroid doses. During the exacerbation, AAs had the highest FeNO values, whereas there was no difference in lung function between AAs and non-AAs. After prednisone therapy, there was a 56.6% reduction in FeNO, and although AAs maintained the highest FeNO levels, the relative reduction was similar between AAs and non-AAs (53.9% vs 57.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: FeNO levels reduced by more than 50% after an OCS course. African American children had a greater degree of type 2-driven airway inflammation at baseline, during an exacerbation and after a short course of OCS, compared with non-AAs, although the relative reduction in FeNO was similar between the groups.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/etnologia , Criança , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico
20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(8): 2156-2169, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is major physiological component of the extracellular matrix, which, in its high molecular weight form (HMW-HA) has anti-inflammatory properties. The diffusion of many different medical devices for inhalation therapy containing HA has led to an increase in their prescription, also in children. Here, we systematically review the published evidence on the efficacy and safety of HA for the treatment of upper and lower airway diseases in childhood. METHODS: Relevant published studies (randomized controlled trials) for the efficacy of HA inhalation in children with upper airways diseases, asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and non-CF bronchiectasis were searched in Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases by combining the adequate Medical Subject Headings terms and keywords, with no limit for the year of publication. RESULTS: We identified seven relevant publications for upper airways diseases, one for asthma, and five for CF, while we found no clinical trial including children with non-CF bronchiectasis. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the heterogeneity of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence of HA efficacy in the treatment of the upper and lower airways is still limited in children. Available data suggest that inhaled HMW-HA could be useful in the treatment of recurrent upper respiratory infections and chronic or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear and adenoids as well as of the lower airways in cystic fibrosis in association with hypertonic saline solution. Studies on larger populations and on the different formulations and nebulization methods, especially in pediatric age, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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