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Crit Care Med ; 48(1): e9-e17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the increasing use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to treat severe cardiogenic shock patients, microcirculation data in this context are scarce. We evaluated the venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation impact on macrocirculatory hemodynamics and microcirculation in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock and compared the evolutions of those parameters between patients successfully weaned-off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and those who died on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Academic medical ICU. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with refractory cardiogenic shock (cardiac arrest excluded) who required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and for whom sublingual microcirculation measurements before cannulation were possible. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were followed until death or venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation removal. Microcirculatory and macrocirculatory evaluations were made before, and 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, respectively. Patients weaned-off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were also evaluated 6 hours before and after venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation removal. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen patients (median age, 58 yr [interquartile range, 56-62 yr]; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 14 [12-18]) were included. Acute myocardial infarction (50%) was the main cause of cardiogenic shock. Six patients (33%) were successfully weaned-off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Profound microcirculation parameter changes found before venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation implantation regressed within 12 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation onset. Pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation macrocirculation, echocardiography, arterial blood gases, and microcirculation parameters did not differ between patients who died on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and those successfully weaned. However, perfused small-vessel density, small-vessel density, and percent perfused vessels were consistently higher and then stabilized 48 hours postcannulation for patients successfully weaned-off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Microcirculation is severely impaired in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Inability to rapidly restore microcirculation during the first 24 hours, despite normal global/macrocirculatory hemodynamics, was associated with death on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Further studies are now warranted to better determine the relevant microcirculation determinants during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, before future routine use of this promising tool in clinical practice.

3.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): 83-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000-2017). SETTING: Thirty-one French ICUs. PATIENTS: The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were "definite thyroid storm," as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46; p = 0.025) and cardiogenic shock within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77-50.12; p = 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841577

RESUMO

Importance: The role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation on morbidity and mortality in patients in the intensive care unit requiring mechanical ventilation remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether preemptive treatment with intravenous acyclovir reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 16 intensive care units in France. Participants included 239 adults (age, >18 years) who received mechanical ventilation for at least 96 hours and continued to receive mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more, with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Patients were enrolled between February 2, 2014, and February 22, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive intravenous acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days or a matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was ventilator-free days from randomization to day 60. Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality at 60 days. Main analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Of 239 patients enrolled and randomized, 1 patient withdrew consent, leaving 238 patients, with 119 patients in both the acyclovir and placebo (control) groups (median [IQR] age, 61 [50-70] years; 76 [32%] women) available for primary outcome measurement. On day 60, the median (IQR) numbers of ventilator-free days were 35 (0-53) for acyclovir recipients and 36 (0-50]) for controls (P = .17 for between-group comparison). Among secondary outcomes, 26 patients (22%) and 39 patients (33%) had died at day 60 (risk difference, 0.11, 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.22, P = .06). The adverse event frequency was similar for both groups (28% in the acyclovir group and 23% in the placebo group, P = .40), particularly acute renal failure post randomization affecting 3 acyclovir recipients (3%) and 2 controls (2%). Four patients (3%) in the acyclovir group vs none in the placebo group stopped the study drug for treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients receiving mechanical ventilation for 96 hours or more with HSV reactivation in the throat, use of acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days, did not increase the number of ventilator-free days at day 60, compared with placebo. These findings do not appear to support routine preemptive use of acyclovir in this setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02152358.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heart transplantation in patients supported by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been associated with poor prognosis. A specific protocol for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management encompassing patient selection, implantation strategy, and preoperative and perioperative treatment is applied at our institution. Our aim was to compare posttransplant outcomes of patients supported or not by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at the time of heart transplantation. DESIGN: A large observational single-center retrospective study was conducted. The primary endpoint was overall survival after heart transplantation. Secondary endpoints included death-censored rejection-free survival and the frequency of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-related complications. SETTING: One heart transplantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation high-volume center. PATIENTS: All consecutive patients over 18 years old with a first noncombined heart transplantation performed between 2012 and 2016 were included. INTERVENTIONS: None (retrospective observational study). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among the 415 transplanted patients, 118 (28.4%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at the time of transplantation (peripheral, 94%; intrathoracic, 6%). Median time on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before heart transplantation was 9 days (interquartile range, 5-15 d) and median follow-up post heart transplantation was 20.7 months. Posttransplant survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (1-yr survival = 85.5% and 80.7% in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation vs nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.43-1.11; p = 0.12, respectively). Donor age, body mass index, creatinine clearance, and ischemic time were independently associated with overall mortality, but not extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at the time of heart transplantation. Rejection-free survival also did not significantly differ between groups (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23; p = 0.39). Local wound infection was the most frequent complication after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (37% of patients). CONCLUSIONS: With the implementation of a specific protocol, patients bridged to heart transplantation on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had similar survival compared with those not supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

7.
Trials ; 20(1): 726, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Artificial Kidney Initiation in Kidney Injury (AKIKI) trial showed that a delayed renal replacement therapy (RRT) strategy for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients was safe and associated with major reduction in RRT initiation compared with an early strategy. The five criteria which mandated RRT initiation in the delayed arm were: severe hyperkalemia, severe acidosis, acute pulmonary edema due to fluid overload resulting in severe hypoxemia, serum urea concentration > 40 mmol/l and oliguria/anuria > 72 h. However, duration of anuria/oliguria and level of blood urea are still criteria open to debate. The objective of the study is to compare the delayed strategy used in AKIKI (now termed "standard") with another in which RRT is further delayed for a longer period (termed "delayed strategy"). METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, two-arm randomized trial. The study is composed of two stages (observational and randomization stages). At any time, the occurrence of a potentially severe condition (severe hyperkalemia, severe metabolic or mixed acidosis, acute pulmonary edema due to fluid overload resulting in severe hypoxemia) suggests immediate RRT initiation. Patients receiving (or who have received) intravenously administered catecholamines and/or invasive mechanical ventilation and presenting with AKI stage 3 of the KDIGO classification and with no potentially severe condition are included in the observational stage. Patients presenting a serum urea concentration > 40 mmol/l and/or an oliguria/anuria for more than 72 h are randomly allocated to a standard (RRT is initiated within 12 h) or a delayed RRT strategy (RRT is initiated only if an above-mentioned potentially severe condition occurs or if the serum urea concentration reaches 50 mmol/l). The primary outcome will be the number of RRT-free days at day 28. One interim analysis is planned. It is expected to include 810 patients in the observational stage and to randomize 270 subjects. DISCUSSION: The AKIKI2 study should improve the knowledge of RRT initiation criteria in critically ill patients. The potential reduction in RRT use allowed by a delayed RRT strategy might be associated with less invasive care and decreased costs. Enrollment is ongoing. Inclusions are expected to be completed by November 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03396757. Registered on 11 January 2018.

8.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease defined by thrombotic events that can require ICU admission because of organ dysfunction related to macrovascular and/or microvascular thrombosis. Critically ill patients with thrombosis and APS were studied to gain insight into their prognoses and in-hospital mortality-associated factors. METHODS: This French national, multicenter, retrospective study included all patients with APS and any new thrombotic manifestations admitted to 24 ICUs (January 2000-September 2018). RESULTS: During the study period, 134 patients (male/female ratio, 0.4) with 152 APS episodes were admitted to the ICU (mean age at admission, 46.0 ± 15.1 years). In-hospital mortality of their 134 last episodes was 35 of 134 (26.1%). The Cox multivariable model retained certain factors (hazard ratio [95% CI]: age ≥ 40 years, 11.4 [3.1-41.5], P < .0001; mechanical ventilation, 11.0 [3.3-37], P < .0001; renal replacement therapy, 2.9 [1.3-6.3], P = .007; and in-ICU anticoagulation, 0.1 [0.03-0.3], P < .0001) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. For the subgroup of definite/probable catastrophic APS, the Cox bivariable model (including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score) retained double therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant, 0.2 [0.07-0.6]; P = .005) but not triple therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant + IV immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis: hazard ratio, 0.3 [0.1-1.1]; P = .07) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-ICU anticoagulation was the only APS-specific treatment independently associated with survival for all patients. Double therapy was independently associated with better survival of patients with definite/probable catastrophic APS. In these patients, further studies are needed to determine the role of triple therapy.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670793

RESUMO

AIMS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) despite conventional resuscitation is common and has poor outcomes. Adding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (extracorporeal-CPR) is increasingly used in an attempt to improve outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed a prospective registry of 13 191 OHCAs in the Paris region from May 2011 to January 2018. We compared survival at hospital discharge with and without extracorporeal-CPR and identified factors associated with survival in patients given extracorporeal-CPR. Survival was 8% in 525 patients given extracorporeal-CPR and 9% in 12 666 patients given conventional-CPR (P = 0.91). By adjusted multivariate analysis, extracorporeal-CPR was not associated with hospital survival [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.8-2.1; P = 0.24]. By conditional logistic regression with matching on a propensity score (including age, sex, occurrence at home, bystander CPR, initial rhythm, collapse-to-CPR time, duration of resuscitation, and ROSC), similar results were found (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P = 0.41). In the extracorporeal-CPR group, factors associated with hospital survival were initial shockable rhythm (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.3; P = 0.005), transient ROSC before ECMO (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7; P = 0.03), and prehospital ECMO implantation (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based registry, 4% of OHCAs were treated with extracorporeal-CPR, which was not associated with increased hospital survival. Early ECMO implantation may improve outcomes. The initial rhythm and ROSC may help select patients for extracorporeal-CPR.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726013

RESUMO

Ventilator-induced lung injury remains a key contributor to the morbidity and mortality of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Efforts to minimize this injury are typically limited by the need to preserve adequate gas exchange. In the most severe forms of the syndrome, extracorporeal life support is increasingly being deployed for severe hypoxemia or hypercapnic acidosis refractory to conventional ventilator management strategies. Data from a recent randomized controlled trial, a post-hoc analysis of that trial, a meta-analysis, and a large, international, multicenter observational study, all suggest that extracorporeal life support, when combined with lower tidal volumes and airway pressures than the current standard of care, may improve outcomes compared with conventional management in patients with the most severe forms of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. These findings raise important questions not only about the optimal ventilator strategies for patients receiving extracorporeal support, but how various mechanisms of lung injury in the acute respiratory distress syndrome may potentially be mitigated by ultra-lung-protective ventilation strategies when gas exchange is sufficiently managed with the extracorporeal circuit. Additional studies are needed to more precisely delineate the best strategies for optimizing invasive mechanical ventilation in this patient population.

11.
Metabolism ; 100S: 153944, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610849

RESUMO

Air pollution affects 90% of the world's population and has caused 9 million deaths in 2015, becoming the most important cause of premature deaths in the world. Exposure to fine particulate matter, a major component of urban air pollution, has been associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk and associated mortality. Impact of fine particles on the cardiovascular system includes inflammation, activation of prothrombotic pathways, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction and remodeling, and neurological dysfunction. Genetic and epigenetic factors might also increase the susceptibility to air pollution. Consequently, epidemiologic studies have identified correlations between air particulate matter concentrations and acute coronary events, ischemic cardiomyopathy, acute heart failure, and stroke. Interestingly, these effects are present even for fine particulate matter concentrations below current US and EU regulatory standards, and seems to be more harmful in the most fragile population such as low-income or elderly subjects, or patients with previous cardiovascular disease. This review aims to summarize recent data on the pathophysiology and epidemiology of cardiovascular disease after particulate matter exposure. It will also discuss potential strategies to reduce the impact of air pollution on current and future populations' health.

12.
Crit Care Med ; 47(11): 1505-1512, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ventilator settings for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are currently set arbitrarily. The impact on serum and pulmonary biotrauma markers of the transition to ultra-protective ventilation settings following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation implantation, and different mechanical ventilation strategies while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were investigated. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTINGS: Nine-month monocentric study. PATIENTS: Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. INTERVENTIONS: After starting extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, patients were switched to the bi-level positive airway pressure mode with 1 second of 24 cm H2O high pressure and 2 seconds of 12 cm H2O low pressure for 24 hours. A computer-generated allocation sequence randomized patients to receive each of the following three experimental steps: 1) high pressure 24 cm H2O and low pressure 20 cm H2O (very high positive end-expiratory pressure-very low driving pressure); 2) high pressure 24 cm H2O and low pressure 5 cm H2O (low positive end-expiratory pressure-high driving pressure); and 3) high pressure 17 cm H2O and low pressure 5 cm H2O (low positive end-expiratory pressure-low driving pressure). Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products, plasma interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were sampled preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation and after 12 hours at each step. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen patients on ECMO after 7 days (1-11 d) of mechanical ventilation were included. "Ultra-protective" mechanical ventilation settings following ECMO initiation were associated with significantly lower plasma sRAGE, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations. Plasma sRAGE and cytokines were comparable within each on-ECMO experimental step, but the lowest bronchoalveolar lavage sRAGE levels were obtained at minimal driving pressure. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO allows ultra- protective ventilation, which combines significantly lower plateau pressure, tidalvolume, and driving pressure. This ventilation strategy significantly limited pulmonary biotrauma, which couldtherefore decrease ventilator-induced lung injury. However, the optimal ultra-protective ventilation strategy once ECMO is initiated remains undetermined and warrants further investigations. (Crit Care Med 2019; 47:1505-1512).

13.
Thorax ; 74(12): 1179-1181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409646

RESUMO

Retrospective analysis of the SUPERNOVA trial exploring the hypothesis that efficacy and safety of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) to facilitate reduction of tidal volume (VT) to 4 mL/kg in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may differ between systems with lower (area of membrane length 0.59 m2; blood flow 300-500 mL/min) and higher (membrane area 1.30 m2; blood flow between 800 and 1000 mL/min) CO2 extraction capacity. Ninety-five patients with moderate ARDS were included (33 patients treated with lower and 62 patients treated with higher CO2 extraction devices). We found that (1) VT of 4 mL/kg was reached by 55% and 64% of patients with the lower extraction versus 90% and 92% of patients with higher extraction devices at 8 and 24 hours from baseline, respectively (p<0.001), and (2) percentage of patients experiencing episodes of ECCO2R-related haemolysis and bleeding was higher with lower than with higher extraction devices (21% vs 6%, p=0.045% and 27% vs 6%, p=0.010, respectively). Although V T of 4 mL/kg could have been obtained with all devices, this was achieved frequently and with a lower rate of adverse events by devices with higher CO2 extraction capacity.

14.
JAMA ; 322(6): 557-568, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408142

RESUMO

Importance: The substantial growth over the last decade in the use of extracorporeal life support for adults with acute respiratory failure reveals an enthusiasm for the technology not always consistent with the evidence. However, recent high-quality data, primarily in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, have made extracorporeal life support more widely accepted in clinical practice. Observations: Clinical trials of extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory failure in adults in the 1970s and 1990s failed to demonstrate benefit, reducing use of the intervention for decades and relegating it to a small number of centers. Nonetheless, technological improvements in extracorporeal support made it safer to use. Interest in extracorporeal life support increased with the confluence of 2 events in 2009: (1) the publication of a randomized clinical trial of extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory failure and (2) the use of extracorporeal life support in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome during the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. In 2018, a randomized clinical trial in patients with very severe acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrated a seemingly large decrease in mortality from 46% to 35%, but this difference was not statistically significant. However, a Bayesian post hoc analysis of this trial and a subsequent meta-analysis together suggested that extracorporeal life support was beneficial for patients with very severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the evidence supporting the use of extracorporeal life support increases, its indications are expanding to being a bridge to lung transplantation and the management of patients with pulmonary vascular disease who have right-sided heart failure. Extracorporeal life support is now an acceptable form of organ support in clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: The role of extracorporeal life support in the management of adults with acute respiratory failure is being redefined by advances in technology and increasing evidence of its effectiveness. Future developments in the field will result from technological advances, an increased understanding of the physiology and biology of extracorporeal support, and increased knowledge of how it might benefit the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(9): 1219-1230, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the variability and determinants of the effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) on tidal volume (Vt), driving pressure (ΔP), and mechanical power (PowerRS) and to determine whether highly responsive patients can be identified for the purpose of predictive enrichment in ECCO2R trial design. METHODS: Using data from the SUPERNOVA trial (95 patients with early moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome), the independent effects of alveolar dead space fraction (ADF), respiratory system compliance (Crs), hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2), and device performance (higher vs lower CO2 extraction) on the magnitude of reduction in Vt, ΔP, and PowerRS permitted by ECCO2R were assessed by linear regression. Predicted and observed changes in ΔP were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Hypothetical trials of ECCO2R, incorporating predictive enrichment and different target CO2 removal rates, were simulated in the SUPERNOVA study population. RESULTS: Changes in Vt permitted by ECCO2R were independently associated with ADF and device performance but not PaO2/FiO2. Changes in ΔP and PowerRS were independently associated with ADF, Crs, and device performance but not PaO2/FiO2. The change in ΔP predicted from ADF and Crs was moderately correlated with observed change in ΔP (R2 0.32, p < 0.001); limits of agreement between observed and predicted changes in ΔP were ± 3.9 cmH2O. In simulated trials, restricting enrollment to patients with a larger predicted decrease in ΔP enhanced the average reduction in ΔP, increased predicted mortality benefit, and reduced sample size and screening size requirements. The increase in statistical power obtained by restricting enrollment based on predicted ΔP response varied according to device performance as specified by the target CO2 removal rate. CONCLUSIONS: The lung-protective benefits of ECCO2R increase with higher alveolar dead space fraction, lower respiratory system compliance, and higher device performance. ADF and Crs, rather than severity of hypoxemia, should be the primary factors determining whether to enroll patients in clinical trials of ECCO2R.

16.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(8-9): 485-493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the long-term outcome of heart transplantation in patients with a ventricular assist device (VAD) are scarce. AIM: To evaluate long-term outcome after heart transplantation in patients with a VAD compared with no mechanical circulatory support. METHODS: Consecutive all-comers who underwent heart transplantation were included at a single high-volume centre from January 2005 until December 2012, with 5 years of follow-up. Clinical and biological characteristics, operative results, outcomes and survival were recorded. Regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of 1-year and 5-year mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with bridge to transplantation by VAD (VAD group) and 289 patients transplanted without a VAD (standard group) were enrolled. The mean age was 46±11 years in the VAD group compared with 51±13 years in the standard group (P=0.01); 17% of the VAD group and 25% of the standard group were women (P=0.21). Ischaemic time was longer in the VAD group (207±54 vs 169±60minutes; P<0.01). There was no difference in primary graft failure (33% vs 25%; P=0.22) or 1-year mortality (17% vs 28%; P=0.12). In the multivariable analysis, preoperative VAD was an independent protective factor for 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.97; P=0.04). Independent risk factors for 1-year mortality were recipient age>60 years, recipient creatinine, body surface area mismatch and ischaemic time. The VAD and standard groups had similar long-term survival, with 5-year mortality rates of 35% and 40%, respectively (P=0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Bridge to transplantation by VAD was associated with a reduction in 1-year mortality, leading critically ill patients to similar long-term survival compared with patients who underwent standard heart transplantation. This alternative strategy may benefit carefully selected patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Crit Care Med ; 47(10): 1346-1355, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize physicians' practices and attitudes toward the initiation, limitation, and withdrawal of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure and evaluate factors associated with these attitudes. DESIGN: Electronic, cross-sectional, scenario-based survey. SETTING: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers affiliated with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization and the International Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Network. SUBJECTS: Attending-level physicians with experience managing adult patients receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five-hundred thirty-nine physicians in 39 countries across six continents completed the survey. Factors that influenced the decision to limit extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation included older patient age (46.9%), additional organ failures (37.7%), and prolonged mechanical ventilation (35.1%). Patient comorbidities (70.5%), patient's wishes (56.0%), and etiology of respiratory failure (37.7%) were factors that influenced the decision to withdraw extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with increased odds of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies included pulmonary fibrosis, stroke, surrogate's desire to withdraw, lack of knowledge regarding patient's or surrogate's wishes in the setting of fibrosis, not initiating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the baseline scenario, and respondent religiosity. Factors associated with decreased odds of withdrawal included practicing in an environment where it is not legally possible to make decisions against patient or surrogate wishes. Most respondents (90.5%) involved other physicians in treatment decisions for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, whereas only 53.2%, 45.3%, and 29.5% of respondents involved surrogates, awake patients, or bedside nurses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patient and physician-level factors were associated with decision-making regarding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation and withdrawal, including patient prognosis and knowledge of patient or surrogate wishes. Respondents reported low rates of engaging in shared decision-making when managing patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

19.
J Autoimmun ; 103: 102292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), the most severe manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is characterised by simultaneous thromboses in multiple organs. Diagnosing CAPS can be challenging but its early recognition and management is crucial for a favourable outcome. This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequencies, distributions and ability to predict mortality of "definite/probable" or "no-CAPS" categories of thrombotic APS patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This French national multicentre retrospective study, conducted from January 2000 to September 2018, included all APS patients with any new thrombotic manifestation(s) admitted to 24 ICUs. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (male/female ratio: 0.4; mean age at admission: 45.4 ±â€¯15.0 years), who experienced 152 CAPS episodes, required ICU admission. The numbers of definite, probable or no-CAPS episodes, respectively, were: 11 (7.2%), 60 (39.5%) and 81 (53.3%). No histopathological proof of microvascular thrombosis was the most frequent reason for not being classified as definite CAPS. Overall, 35/152 (23.0%) episodes were fatal, with comparable rates for definite/probable CAPS and no CAPS (23% vs. 28.8% respectively, p = 0.4). The Kaplan-Meier curve of estimated probability of survival showed no between-group survival difference (log-rank test p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CAPS criteria were not associated with mortality of thrombotic APS patients requiring ICU admission. Further studies are need evaluate the adequacy of CAPS criteria for critically-ill APS patients.

20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 69, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197492

RESUMO

Fifteen recommendations and a therapeutic algorithm regarding the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at the early phase in adults are proposed. The Grade of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology has been followed. Four recommendations (low tidal volume, plateau pressure limitation, no oscillatory ventilation, and prone position) had a high level of proof (GRADE 1 + or 1 -); four (high positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] in moderate and severe ARDS, muscle relaxants, recruitment maneuvers, and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) a low level of proof (GRADE 2 + or 2 -); seven (surveillance, tidal volume for non ARDS mechanically ventilated patients, tidal volume limitation in the presence of low plateau pressure, PEEP > 5 cmH2O, high PEEP in the absence of deleterious effect, pressure mode allowing spontaneous ventilation after the acute phase, and nitric oxide) corresponded to a level of proof that did not allow use of the GRADE classification and were expert opinions. Lastly, for three aspects of ARDS management (driving pressure, early spontaneous ventilation, and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal), the experts concluded that no sound recommendation was possible given current knowledge. The recommendations and the therapeutic algorithm were approved by the experts with strong agreement.

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