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1.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(9): 1595-1597, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478605
2.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378452

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) can be measured at multiple skeletal sites using various technologies to aid clinical decision-making in bone and mineral disorders. BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has a critical role in predicting risk of fracture, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and monitoring patients. In clinical practice, DXA remains the most available and best validated tool for monitoring patients. A quality baseline DXA scan is essential for comparison with all subsequent scans. Monitoring patients with serial measurements requires technical expertise and knowledge of the least significant change in order to determine when follow-up scans should be repeated. Prior ISCD Official Positions have clarified how and when repeat DXA is useful as well as the interpretation of results. The 2019 ISCD Official Positions considered new evidence and clarifies if and when BMD should be repeated. There is good evidence showing that repeat BMD measurement can identify people who experience bone loss, which is an independent predictor of fracture risk. There is good evidence showing that the reduction in spine and hip fractures with osteoporosis medication is proportional to the change in BMD with treatment. There is evidence that measuring BMD is useful following discontinuation of osteoporosis treatment. There is less documentation addressing the effectiveness of monitoring BMD to improve medication adherence, whether monitoring of BMD reduces the risk of fracture, or effectively discriminates patients who should and should not recommence treatment following an interruption of medication. Further research is needed in all of these areas.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence are observed in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel index of bone microarchitecture which improves fracture prediction independent of BMD. METHODS: The HIV UPBEAT study is a single centre, prospective cohort study that enrolled subjects with and without HIV from similar sociodemographic backgrounds for annual assessments of bone health. TBS was derived from lumbar spine (LS) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images. Univariate and multivariable linear regression was used to assess relationships between baseline TBS, BMD, sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: 463 subjects (201 HIV positive) were included; PLWH were younger and more likely male, of non-African ethnicity and current smokers. HIV was associated with a mean reduction of 0.037 [-0.060, -0.013] (p = 0.002) in TBS. Lower TBS was also associated with male gender, non-African ethnicity, current smoking status and lower LS BMD. HIV remained associated with lower TBS after adjustment for LS BMD, age, gender and ethnicity. However, adjustment for current smoking significantly attenuated the association between HIV and TBS, with further adjustment for higher bone turnover markers largely explaining any residual association. Among the sub-group of PLWH, exposure to protease inhibitors and lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts were both predictors of lower TBS. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH have lower TBS independent of LS BMD. However, this is largely explained by higher current smoking rates and higher bone turnover in those with HIV. Exposure to PI, but not tenofovir disproxil fumarate, also contributed to lower TBS in those with HIV.

5.
Lancet ; 393(10169): 364-376, 2019 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696576

RESUMO

Fractures resulting from osteoporosis become increasingly common in women after age 55 years and men after age 65 years, resulting in substantial bone-associated morbidities, and increased mortality and health-care costs. Research advances have led to a more accurate assessment of fracture risk and have increased the range of therapeutic options available to prevent fractures. Fracture risk algorithms that combine clinical risk factors and bone mineral density are now widely used in clinical practice to target high-risk individuals for treatment. The discovery of key pathways regulating bone resorption and formation has identified new approaches to treatment with distinctive mechanisms of action. Osteoporosis is a chronic condition and long-term, sometimes lifelong, management is required. In individuals at high risk of fracture, the benefit versus risk profile is likely to be favourable for up to 10 years of treatment with bisphosphonates or denosumab. In people at a very high or imminent risk of fracture, therapy with teriparatide or abaloparatide should be considered; however, since treatment duration with these drugs is restricted to 18-24 months, treatment should be continued with an antiresorptive drug. Individuals at high risk of fractures do not receive adequate treatment and strategies to address this treatment gap-eg, widespread implementation of Fracture Liaison Services and improvement of adherence to therapy-are important challenges for the future.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
6.
JBMR Plus ; 2(5): 247-256, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283906

RESUMO

The survival of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased markedly since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, other morbidities have emerged, including osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures at any site in people living with HIV ranges from 0.1 per 1000 person-years to 8.4 per 1000 person-years: at least twice that of people without HIV. This increased risk seems to be related to HIV itself and its treatment. Risk factors for bone disease in HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects include both classical risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture and factors linked to HIV itself, such as inflammation, reconstitution syndrome, low CD4, ART, and co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. The risk of fractures in these individuals can be at least partially assessed by measurement of BMD and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX™). Only alendronate and zoledronic acid have been studied in HIV+ individuals; both show beneficial effects on BMD, although data on fracture reduction are not available. © 2018 The Authors. JBMR Plus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7838, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777162

RESUMO

The survival of HIV-infected patients has increased with the advent of antiretroviral therapy with the emergence of new comorbidities. Vertebral fracture is a manifestation of reduced bone strength and osteoporosis. This study aims to assess the frequency of spine fractures in HIV-positive men and women aged over 18 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. Studies that evaluated morphometric and/or clinical vertebral fracture were included. In total 488 studies were found, of which 53 had their full texts evaluated. A total of 85,411 HIV positive individuals were identified in 26 studies. The meta-analysis of the prevalence of vertebral fractures included 12 studies with 10,593 subjects. The prevalence was 11.1% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.5%, 25.0%, I2 98.2% p < 0.00001]. When we evaluated independently studies of clinical vertebral fracture and morphometric vertebral fracture, the prevalence was 3.9% (95% CI 0.9, 15.8, I2 96.4% p < 0.00001) and 20.2% (95% CI 15.7%, 25.6%, I2 69.9% p = 0.003) respectively. HIV-infected individuals had an odds ratio of vertebral fractures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.37, 3.85, I2 98.2% p < 0.00001) when compared with HIV-uninfected patients (n = 9 studies). In conclusion, HIV-positive subjects had a higher risk of vertebral fractures when compared with HIV-negative subjects.

8.
Endocrine ; 61(1): 7-16, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691807

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Following initiation of oral glucocorticoids, rapid bone loss occurs, and fracture risk increases within a few months in a dose-dependent manner. These adverse effects are due to inhibition of bone formation accompanied by an early but transient increase in bone resorption. Multiple mechanisms underlie these changes in bone remodeling; direct effects include upregulation of PPARγR2, increased expression of sclerostin and increased RANKL/OPG ratio, whilst hypogonadism, altered renal and intestinal calcium handling, and reduced production of insulin-like growth factor 1 also contribute. Fracture risk assessment should be performed as soon as possible after glucocorticoids are initiated and bone protective therapy started promptly in individuals at high-risk, with calcium and vitamin D supplements where appropriate. Oral bisphosphonates are currently regarded as first line options on the grounds of their low cost. However, teriparatide has been shown to be superior in its effects on BMD and vertebral fracture risk in glucocorticoid-treated individuals with osteoporosis and should be considered as an alternative first line option in high-risk patients.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(12): 2321, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084375
12.
Maturitas ; 106: 97-98, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803757
15.
AIDS ; 31(5): 643-652, 2017 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28060010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in HIV, changes in BMD over time remain unclear. We aimed to compare rates of, and factors associated with, BMD change between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. METHODS: In a prospective, 3-year cohort, HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients provided annual demographic and clinical data, fasting bloods, and dual x-ray absorptiometry. Using longitudinal mixed models we compared and determined predictors of rate of change in BMD. RESULTS: Of 384 study participants (45.8% HIV positive), 120 contributed two and 264 contributed three BMD measurements. Those with HIV were younger [median interquartile range 39 (34-46) vs. 43 (35-50) years; P = 0.04], more often men (61 vs. 46%; P = 0.003), and less likely Caucasian (61 vs. 82%; P < 0.001). Although BMD was lower in those with HIV, BMD declined in both groups, with nonsignificant between-group difference in rate of BMD change over time. Within the HIV group, starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 3 months of enrolment was associated with greater BMD decline at all anatomical sites (all P < 0.001). Age more than 30 years, Caucasian ethnicity, and not being on ART during follow-up were associated with greater decline and higher parathyroid hormone associated with a smaller decline in BMD at the femoral neck. We found no association between BMD change and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or protease inhibitors. CONCLUSION: We observed no difference in rate of BMD decline regardless of HIV status and in HIV-positive patient, having started ART within the previous 3 months was the only factor associated with greater BMD decline at all three sites.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(2): 197, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125170
17.
J Clin Densitom ; 20(1): 8-24, 2017 Jan - Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956123

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been associated with antiresorptive therapy in both oncology and osteoporosis patients. This debilitating condition is very rare and advances in diagnosis and management may now effectively reduce the risk of its development and offer valuable treatment options for affected patients. This paper provides a case-based review of ONJ and application of the International Task Force on ONJ (referred to as the "Task Force") recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ONJ. The Task Force was supported by 14 international societies and achieved consensus from representatives of these multidisciplinary societies on key issues pertaining to the diagnosis and management of ONJ. The frequency of ONJ in oncology patients receiving oncology doses of bisphosphonate (BP) or denosumab is estimated at 1%-15%, and the frequency in the osteoporosis patient population receiving much lower doses of BP or denosumab is estimated at 0.001%-0.01%. Although the diagnosis of ONJ is primarily clinical, imaging may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and staging. In those with multiple risk factors for ONJ for whom major invasive oral surgery is being planned, interruption of BP or denosumab therapy (in cancer patients) is advised, if possible, before surgery, until the surgical site heals. Major oral surgery in this context could include multiple extractions if surgical extractions are required, not simple forceps extractions. ONJ development may be reduced by optimizing oral hygiene and postoperatively using topical and systemic antibiotics as appropriate. Periodontal disease should be managed before starting oncology doses of BP or denosumab. Local debridement may be successful in disease unresponsive to conservative therapy. Successful surgical intervention has been reported in those with stage 3 disease; less severe disease is best managed conservatively. Teriparatide may be helpful in healing ONJ lesions and may be considered in osteoporosis patients at a high fracture risk in the absence of contraindications. Resumption of BP or denosumab therapy following healing of ONJ lesions is recommended, and there have not been reports of subsequent local recurrence.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/epidemiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Comitês Consultivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/terapia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Desbridamento , Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
18.
19.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 16(Suppl 6): s121-s124, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956452

RESUMO

In the past three decades, there have been major advances in our understanding of bone biology and these have been -accompanied by a significant improvement in the management of osteoporosis. Fracture risk prediction algorithms using -clinical risk factors, with or without measurement of bone mineral density, have enabled more accurate targeting of treatment and a range of cost-effective pharmacological interventions is available to reduce fracture risk. Despite these advances, a number of challenges remain. In particular, treatment rates in high-risk individuals are low and adherence to treatment is poor. Addressing this treatment gap through measures such as fracture liaison services, which provide a coordinated and cost-effective strategy for secondary fracture prevention, is an important future priority.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Difosfonatos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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