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J Child Neurol ; 33(10): 642-650, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882456


Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders that affect the glial-axonal unit. As more patients with unsolved leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies undergo next generation sequencing, causative mutations in genes leading to central hypomyelination are being identified. Two such individuals presented with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, and central hypomyelination with early respiratory failure. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene: homozygous c.1163G>C (p.Arg388Pro) and compound heterozygous c.967T>C (p.Cys323Arg) and c.319C>T (p.Arg107*). Sural nerve and quadriceps muscle biopsies demonstrated progressive, severe onion bulb and axonal pathology. By ultrastructural evaluation, septate axoglial paranodal junctions were absent from nodes of Ranvier. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed hypomyelination, progressive atrophy, and reduced diffusion in the globus pallidus in both patients. These 2 families illustrate severe progressive peripheral demyelinating neuropathy due to the absence of septate paranodal junctions and central hypomyelination with neurodegeneration in CNTNAP1-associated arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

Genetics ; 185(3): 811-22, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20439780


The Drosophila melanogaster Chd3 gene encodes a member of the CHD group of SNF2/RAD54 ATPases. CHD proteins are conserved from yeast to man and many are subunits of chromatin-remodeling complexes that facilitate transcription. Drosophila CHD3 proteins are not found in protein complexes, but as monomers that remodel chromatin in vitro. CHD3 colocalize with elongating RNA polymerase II on salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Since the role of Chd3 in development was unknown, we isolated and characterized the essential genes within the 640-kb region of the third chromosome (polytene chromosome region 76B-D) that includes Chd3. We recovered mutations in 24 genes that are essential for zygotic viability. We found that transposon-insertion mutants for 46% of the essential genes are included in the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project collection. None of the essential genes that we identified are in a 200-kb region that includes Chd3. We generated a deletion of Chd3 by targeted gene replacement. This deletion had no effect on either viability or fertility.

Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia