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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936179

RESUMO

Materials from the WO3-Nb2O5 system, presenting bronze-type crystal structures, display outstanding functional properties for several applications as thermoelectric materials, lithium-ion battery electrodes, or catalysts. In this work, a series of W-Nb-O oxide bronzes have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method (with Nb/(W + Nb) ratios in the range of 0-1). A combination of bulk and surface characterisation techniques has been applied to get further insights into: (i) the effect of thermal treatments on as-prepared materials and (ii) the surface chemical nature of W-Nb-O oxide bronzes. Thermal treatments promote the following structural changes: (i) loss of emerging long-range order and (ii) the elimination of NH4+ and H2O species from the structural channels of the as-synthesized materials. It has been observed that W-Nb-O bronzes with Nb at% of ca. 50% are able to retain a long-range order after heat-treatments, which is attributed to the presence of a Cs0.5[W2.5Nb2.5O14]-type structure. Increasing amounts of Nb5+ in the materials (i) promote a phase transition to pseudocrystalline phases ordered along the c-axis; (ii) stabilize surface W5+ species (elucidated by XPS); and (iii) increase the proportion of surface Lewis acid sites (as determined by the FTIR of adsorbed CO). Results suggest that pseudocrystalline oxides (with a Nb at% ≥ 50%) are closely related to NbO7 pentagonal bipyramid-containing structures. The stabilisation of Lewis acid sites on these pseudocrystalline materials leads to a higher yield of heavy compounds, at the expense of acrolein formation, in the gas-phase dehydration of glycerol.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786735

RESUMO

Understanding and tuning the catalytic properties of metals atomically dispersed on oxides are major stepping-stones toward a rational development of single-atom catalysts (SACs). Beyond individual showcase studies, the design and synthesis of structurally regular series of SACs opens the door to systematic experimental investigations of performance as a function of metal identity. Herein, a series of single-atom catalysts based on various 4d (Ru, Rh, Pd) and 5d (Ir, Pt) transition metals has been synthesized on a common MgO carrier. Complementary experimental (X-ray absorption spectroscopy) and theoretical (Density Functional Theory) studies reveal that, regardless of the metal identity, metal cations occupy preferably octahedral coordination MgO lattice positions under step-edges, hence highly confined by the oxide support. Upon exposure to O2-lean CO oxidation conditions, FTIR spectroscopy indicates the partial deconfinement of the monatomic metal centers driven by CO at precatalysis temperatures, followed by the development of surface carbonate species under steady-state conditions. These findings are supported by DFT calculations, which show the driving force and final structure for the surface metal protrusion to be metal-dependent, but point to an equivalent octahedral-coordinated M4+ carbonate species as the resting state in all cases. Experimentally, apparent reaction activation energies in the range of 96 ± 19 kJ/mol are determined, with Pt leading to the lowest energy barrier. The results indicate that, for monatomic sites in SACs, differences in CO oxidation reactivity enforceable via metal selection are of lower magnitude than those evidenced previously through the mechanistic involvement of adjacent redox centers on the oxide carrier, suggesting that tuning of the oxide surface chemistry is as relevant as the selection of the supported metal.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583951

RESUMO

Preparation of supported metal catalysts with uniform particle size and coordination environment is a challenging and important topic in materials chemistry and catalysis. In this work, we report the regioselective generation of single-site Ir atoms and their evolution into stabilized subnanometric Ir clusters in MWW zeolite, which are located at the 10MR window connecting the two neighboring 12MR supercages. The size of the subnanometric Ir clusters can be controlled by the post-synthesis treatments and maintain below 1 nm even after being reduced at 650 °C, which cannot be readily achieved with samples prepared by conventional impregnation methods. The high structure sensitivity, size-dependence, of catalytic performance in the alkane hydrogenolysis reaction of Ir clusters in the subnanometric regime is evidenced.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5806-5815, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903674

RESUMO

Realizing the full potential of oxide-supported single-atom metal catalysts (SACs) is key to successfully bridge the gap between the fields of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Here we show that the one-pot combination of Ru1 /CeO2 and Rh1 /CeO2 SACs enables a highly selective olefin isomerization-hydrosilylation tandem process, hitherto restricted to molecular catalysts in solution. Individually, monoatomic Ru and Rh sites show a remarkable reaction specificity for olefin double-bond migration and anti-Markovnikov α-olefin hydrosilylation, respectively. First-principles DFT calculations ascribe such selectivity to differences in the binding strength of the olefin substrate to the monoatomic metal centers. The single-pot cooperation of the two SACs allows the production of terminal organosilane compounds with high regio-selectivity (>95 %) even from industrially-relevant complex mixtures of terminal and internal olefins, alongside a straightforward catalyst recycling and reuse. These results demonstrate the significance of oxide-supported single-atom metal catalysts in tandem catalytic reactions, which are central for the intensification of chemical processes.

5.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 426-432, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833371

RESUMO

We first report the systematic control of the reactivity of H2O vapor in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Pt nanocrystals (NCs) through ligand functionalization. We successfully synthesized Pt NCs covered with a water-stable MOF, UiO-66 (Pt@UiO-66), having different metal ions or functionalized ligands. The ligand functionalization of UiO-66 significantly affected the catalytic performance of the water-gas shift reaction, and the replacement of Zr4+ ions with Hf4+ ions in UiO-66 had no impact on the catalytic activity. The introduction of a -Br group lowered the reactivity of Pt@UiO-66 by nearly half, whereas the substitution of -Br with a -Me2 group triply enhanced the activity. The origin of the enhanced catalytic activity was found to be the change in H2O activity in the UiO-66 pores by the ligand functionalization, which was investigated using H2O sorption, solid-state NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and in situ IR measurements. This work opens a new prospect to develop MOFs as a platform to activate H2O.

6.
ACS Catal ; 9(12): 10626-10639, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840008

RESUMO

Identification of active sites in heterogeneous metal catalysts is critical for understanding the reaction mechanism at the molecular level and for designing more efficient catalysts. Because of their structural flexibility, subnanometric metal catalysts, including single atoms and clusters with a few atoms, can exhibit dynamic structural evolution when interacting with substrate molecules, making it difficult to determine the catalytically active sites. In this work, Pt catalysts containing selected types of Pt entities (from single atoms to clusters and nanoparticles) have been prepared, and their evolution has been followed, while they were reacting in a variety of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, including selective hydrogenation reactions, CO oxidation, dehydrogenation of propane, and photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. By in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in situ IR spectroscopy, and high-resolution electron microscopy techniques, we will show that some characterization techniques carried out in an inadequate way can introduce confusion on the interpretation of coordination environment of highly dispersed Pt species. Finally, the combination of catalytic reactivity and in situ characterization techniques shows that, depending on the catalyst-reactant interaction and metal-support interaction, singly dispersed metal atoms can rapidly evolve into metal clusters or nanoparticles, being the working active sites for those abovementioned heterogeneous reactions.

7.
ACS Catal ; 9(12): 11530-11541, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840009

RESUMO

The catalytic subnanometric metal clusters with a few atoms can be regarded as an intermediate state between single atoms and metal nanoparticles (>1 nm). Their molecule-like electronic structures and flexible geometric structures bring rich chemistry and also a different catalytic behavior, in comparison with the single-atom or nanoparticulate counterparts. In this work, by combination of operando IR spectroscopy techniques and electronic structure calculations, we will show a comparative study on Pt catalysts for CO + NO reaction at a very low temperature range (140-200 K). It has been found that single Pt atoms immobilized on MCM-22 zeolite are not stable under reaction conditions and agglomerate into Pt nanoclusters and particles, which are the working active sites for CO + NO reaction. In the case of the catalyst containing Pt nanoparticles (∼2 nm), the oxidation of CO to CO2 occurs in a much lower extension, and Pt nanoparticles become poisoned under reaction conditions because of a strong interaction with CO and NO. Therefore, only subnanometric Pt clusters allow NO dissociation at a low temperature and CO oxidation to occur well on the surface, while CO interaction is weak enough to avoid catalyst poisoning, resulting in a good balance to achieve enhanced catalytic performance.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(49): 19304-19311, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774282

RESUMO

Ruthenium nanoparticles with a core-shell structure formed by a core of metallic ruthenium and a shell of ruthenium carbide have been synthesized by a mild and easy hydrothermal treatment. The dual structure and composition of the nanoparticles have been determined by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. According to depth profile synchrotron XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, metallic ruthenium species predominate in the inner layers of the material, ruthenium carbide species being located on the upper surface layers. The ruthenium carbon catalysts presented herein are able to activate both CO2 and H2, exhibiting exceptional high activity for CO2 hydrogenation at low temperatures (160-200 °C) with 100% selectivity to methane, surpassing by far the most active Ru catalysts reported up to now. On the basis of catalytic studies and isotopic 13CO/12CO2/H2 experiments, the active sites responsible for this unprecedented activity can be associated with surface ruthenium carbide (RuC) species, which enable CO2 activation and transformation to methane via a direct CO2 hydrogenation mechanism. Both the high activity and the absence of CO in the gas effluent confer relevance to these catalysts for the Sabatier reaction, a chemical process with renewed interest for storing surplus renewable energy in the form of methane.

9.
Nat Mater ; 18(8): 866-873, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263227

RESUMO

Subnanometric metal species (single atoms and clusters) have been demonstrated to be unique compared with their nanoparticulate counterparts. However, the poor stabilization of subnanometric metal species towards sintering at high temperature (>500 °C) under oxidative or reductive reaction conditions limits their catalytic application. Zeolites can serve as an ideal support to stabilize subnanometric metal catalysts, but it is challenging to localize subnanometric metal species on specific sites and modulate their reactivity. We have achieved a very high preference for localization of highly stable subnanometric Pt and PtSn clusters in the sinusoidal channels of purely siliceous MFI zeolite, as revealed by atomically resolved electron microscopy combining high-angle annular dark-field and integrated differential phase contrast imaging techniques. These catalysts show very high stability, selectivity and activity for the industrially important dehydrogenation of propane to form propylene. This stabilization strategy could be extended to other crystalline porous materials.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(34): 11731-11736, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267626

RESUMO

We first studied the reactivity of H2 O vapor in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Pt nanocrystals (NCs) through the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. A water-stable MOF, UiO-66, serves as a highly effective support material for the WGS reaction compared with ZrO2 . The origin of the high catalytic performance was investigated using in situ IR spectroscopy. In addition, from a comparison of the catalytic activities of Pt on UiO-66, where Pt NCs are located on the surface of UiO-66 and Pt@UiO-66, where Pt NCs are coated with UiO-66, we found that the competitive effects of H2 O condensation and diffusion in the UiO-66 play important roles in the catalytic activity of Pt NCs. A thinner UiO-66 coating further enhanced the WGS reaction activity of Pt NCs by minimizing the negative effect of slow H2 O diffusion in UiO-66.

11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(4): 1095-1149, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624450

RESUMO

This review addresses the recent developments and trends in tailoring the nature and local properties of active sites in zeolite-based catalysts, with a special focus on novel extra-large pore, layered (2D), nanocrystalline, and hierarchical (mesoporous) zeolites with enhanced pore accessibility. In the first part of the review, we discuss the latest achievements in the bottom-up (direct synthesis) and top-down (post-synthesis) approaches for isomorphous substitution in zeolites enabling control over the type (Brønsted, Lewis, or both), amount, strength, and location of acid sites. The benefits in catalysis provided by such zeolites with tuned acidity and improved accessibility are shown for different acid-catalyzed reactions involving bulky molecules, as in the synthesis of fine chemicals and biomass transformations. The incorporation of metal species of different sizes (increasing from single atoms to clusters and to nanoparticles) in zeolites allows expanding the set of reactions catalyzed by these materials. The main preparation strategies for designing metal-zeolite catalysts, especially those offering control over the size of the metal species, and their catalytic behaviour in industrially relevant and emerging sustainable catalytic processes are dealt with in the second part of the review. Particular attention is paid to the stabilization of size-controlled small metal clusters and nanoparticles through their encapsulation in the voids of zeolite frameworks as well as to the dynamic behaviour of the metal species under reactive environments with important implications in catalysis. The need for using advanced operando spectroscopic and imaging tools to unveil the precise nature and functioning of the active sites in working zeolites is emphasized. The information gathered in this review is expected to provide guidance for developing more efficient zeolite-based catalysts for existing and new applications.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(9): 3215-3218, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460623

RESUMO

The reactive nature of carbenes can be modulated, and ultimately reversed, by receiving additional electron density from a metal. Here, it is shown that Au nanoparticles (NPs) generate an electron-rich carbene on surface after transferring electron density to the carbonyl group of an in situ activated diazoacetate, as assessed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the observed experimental values and unveil the participation of at least three different Au atoms during carbene stabilization. The surface stabilized carbene shows an extraordinary stability against nucleophiles and reacts with electrophiles to give new products. These findings showcase the ability of catalytic Au NPs to inject electron density in energetically high but symmetrically allowed valence orbitals of sluggish molecules.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 574, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422522

RESUMO

Understanding the behavior and dynamic structural transformation of subnanometric metal species under reaction conditions will be helpful for understanding catalytic phenomena and for developing more efficient and stable catalysts based on single atoms and clusters. In this work, the evolution and stabilization of subnanometric Pt species confined in MCM-22 zeolite has been studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By correlating the results from in situ TEM studies and the results obtained in a continuous fix-bed reactor, it has been possible to delimitate the factors that control the dynamic agglomeration and redispersion behavior of metal species under reaction conditions. The dynamic reversible transformation between atomically dispersed Pt species and clusters/nanoparticles during CO oxidation at different temperatures has been elucidated. It has also been confirmed that subnanometric Pt clusters can be stabilized in MCM-22 crystallites during NO reduction with CO and H2.

14.
15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(72): 9998-10001, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832691

RESUMO

A convenient method for the synthesis of borasiloxanes from silanes and pinacolboranes using Cu3(BTC)2 as a heterogeneous catalyst in acetonitrile at 70 °C is reported. This procedure is more convenient than Ru and Pd based homogeneous catalysts because it avoids the use of noble metals, easy handling of starting materials and the catalyst can be reused.

17.
Nat Mater ; 16(1): 132-138, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669051

RESUMO

Single metal atoms and metal clusters have attracted much attention thanks to their advantageous capabilities as heterogeneous catalysts. However, the generation of stable single atoms and clusters on a solid support is still challenging. Herein, we report a new strategy for the generation of single Pt atoms and Pt clusters with exceptionally high thermal stability, formed within purely siliceous MCM-22 during the growth of a two-dimensional zeolite into three dimensions. These subnanometric Pt species are stabilized by MCM-22, even after treatment in air up to 540 °C. Furthermore, these stable Pt species confined within internal framework cavities show size-selective catalysis for the hydrogenation of alkenes. High-temperature oxidation-reduction treatments result in the growth of encapsulated Pt species to small nanoparticles in the approximate size range of 1 to 2 nm. The stability and catalytic activity of encapsulated Pt species is also reflected in the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 10(1): 234-244, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27730763

RESUMO

The design of suitable catalysts for the one-pot conversion of glycerol into acrylic acid (AA) is a complex matter, as only fine-tuning of the redox and acid properties makes it possible to obtain significant yields of AA. However, fundamental understanding behind the catalytic phenomenon is still unclear. Structure-reactivity correlations are clearly behind these results, and acid sites are involved in the dehydration of glycerol into acrolein with vanadium as the main (or only) redox element. For the first time, we propose an in-depth study to shed light on the molecular-level relations behind the overall catalytic results shown by several types of V-containing catalysts. Different multifunctional catalysts were synthesized, characterized (>X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia), and tested in a flow reactor. Combining the obtained results with those acquired from an in situ FTIR spectroscopy study with acrolein (a reaction intermediate), it was possible to draw conclusions on the role played by the various physicochemical features of the different oxides in terms of the adsorption, surface reactions, and desorption of the reagents and reaction products.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/química , Glicerol/química , Óxidos/química , Vanádio/química , Acroleína/química , Catálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Oxirredução , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Água/química
19.
ChemSusChem ; 9(15): 1963-71, 2016 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314221

RESUMO

The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions is explored for the {Mo6 Br(i) 8 }(4+) cluster core based unit starting from (TBA)2 [Mo6 Br(i) 8 F(a) 6 ] (TBA=tetra-n-butylammonium; "i" and "a" refer to the face-capping inner and terminal apical ligand, respectively). The catalytic activity of {Mo6 Br(i) 8 }(4+) is enhanced by the in situ generation of [Mo6 Br(i) 8 F(a) 5 (OH)(a) ](2-) , [Mo6 Br(i) 8 F(a) 3 (OH)(a) 3 ](2-) , and [Mo6 Br(i) 8 (OH)(a) 6 ](2-) , which are identified by ESIMS, luminescence, and NMR techniques. Full substitution of F(-) by OH(-) leads to the formation of (H3 O)2 [Mo6 Br(i) 8 (OH)(a) 6 ]⋅10 H2 O; its structure was determined by single-crystal XRD. The immobilization of the active {Mo6 Br(i) 8 }(4+) onto graphene oxide (GO) surfaces enhances its stability under catalytic conditions. The catalytic activity of the resulting (TBA)2 Mo6 Br(i) 8 @GO material is improved with respect to GO, but is reduced compared to the activity under homogeneous conditions because of changes in the GO semiconducting properties as well as lower activity and/or accessibility of the anchored cluster.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Molibdênio/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Água/química , Compostos de Amônio/química , Catálise , Grafite/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(13): 2725-8, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26759085

RESUMO

Cu3(BTC)2 is an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the dehydrogenative coupling of silanes with alcohols. Activity data and CO adsorption suggest that Cu(II) and in situ generated Cu(I) are the active species. Other MOFs such as Fe(BTC), MIL-101(Cr) and UiO-66(Zr) are unable to promote this cross-coupling.

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