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1.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392387

RESUMO

Nationwide hip fracture incidence in the Austrian population was assessed over a period of 30 years (1989-2018), including 20 years data from a previous study and a recent 10 years follow-up. While absolute numbers in men continued to increase, absolute numbers in women and age-standardized incidences in both men and women decreased. PURPOSE: In the Austrian population ≥ 50 years, nationwide hip fracture incidences over a period of 20 years (1989-2008) have shown an initial steep increase, followed by a leveling-off during the last few years of observation. The purpose of the present study was to follow up on hip fracture incidences for another 10 years (2009-2018) and to analyze trends over the entire period of 30 years. METHODS: ICD-10 code classes S72.0, S72.1, and S72.2 were applied. All data were retrieved from the Statistics Austria database and its hospital discharge register. Annual absolute numbers, crude and age-standardized incidences, and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were stratified by sex and 5-year age intervals, and calculated by using a correction factor for multiple registrations. RESULTS: Total number of hip fracture cases increased from 13,984 (2009) to 14,640 (2015), and decreased thereafter to 14,457 (2018), despite a persistent increase in men. Age-standardized incidences peaked at 476/100,000 (2010), followed by a decrease to 408/100,000 (2018). The observed overall decrease was mainly driven by the female population. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) yielded a statistically significant average annual decrease of age-standardized incidences in both women and men (∆IRR 0.984; 0.981-0.987). CONCLUSION: While absolute numbers of hip fracture in women showed a slight decrease during the last 10 years of observation, numbers in men continued to increase. Age-standardized incidences nevertheless decreased in both men and women, which may be interpreted as a trend in the right direction. However, due to the rapid aging of the population, it cannot be precluded that this trend will be compromised during the next few decades.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
5.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103371, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic implications of blood cholesterol may differ at different stages of life. This cohort study compares the value of total cholesterol (TC) readings earlier versus later in life for the prediction of coronary atherosclerosis, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular death. METHODS: In a cardiovascular observation study (CVOS) we performed coronary angiography and prospectively recorded cardiovascular events in 1090 patients over up to 19 years. These patients had participated in a health survey (HS) 15 years prior to the CVOS baseline. TC was measured twice, first at the earlier HS and then later at CVOS recruiting. FINDINGS: Patients in the highest versus the lowest TC-category of the HS had an OR of 4.30 [2.41-7.65] for significant CAD at angiography, a HR of 1.74 [1.10-2.76] for cardiovascular events, and a HR of 7.55 [1.05-54.49] for cardiovascular death after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, TC as measured at the baseline of the CVOS was neither significantly associated with significant CAD (OR= 0.75 [0.49-1.13]) nor with cardiovascular events or death during follow-up (HR= 0.86 [0.62-1.18] and 0.79 [0.41-1.53], respectively). Moreover, the ESC/EAS-SCORE was found to be more powerful in predicting cardiovascular mortality when using earlier instead of later TC, with a continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.301 (p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: Early measurement not only enables early intervention in keeping with the concept of lifelong exposure to atherogenic lipoproteins. These data also suggest that cardiovascular risk prediction is more accurate if using earlier in life TC readings. FUNDING: The present study did not receive any particular funding.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
6.
Maturitas ; 148: 46-53, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serum markers that can be used to estimate the risk of bone fractures are rare, and findings for one candidate marker, uric acid, are heterogeneous. Our aim was to investigate the potential of serum uric acid (SUA) to predict hip fractures occurring in people aged 50 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: During a medical prevention program over the period 1985-2005 in Vorarlberg, baseline data were collected on SUA levels and covariates (age, BMI, blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes, triglycerides and cholesterol) from 185,397 individuals, of whom 42,488 women and 35,908 men met the inclusion criteria of this population-based cohort study. Information on incident cancer and end-stage kidney disease was acquired from registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident hip fracture occurring in participants aged 50 years and over during the observation period 2003-2013. RESULTS: SUA was associated with a rise in female hip fracture risk by 6% per unit increase (HR 1.06, 95 %-CI 1.01-1.10), and risk in the highest vs. lowest SUA quartile was significantly increased (HR 1.17, 95 %-CI 1.01-1.35), but not at hyperuricemic (>5.7 mg/dl) vs. normouricemic (≤5.7 mg/dl) levels. In men, hip fracture risk rose by 15 % per unit increase (HR 1.15, 95 %-CI 1.08-1.22), and risk was significantly higher in the highest vs. lowest SUA quartile (HR 1.50, 95 %-CI 1.17-1.91) as well as at hyperuricemic (>7.0 mg/dl) vs. normouricemic (≤7.0 mg/dl) levels (HR 1.48, 95 %-CI 1.19-1.84). CONCLUSIONS: Our results link SUA with increased risk of hip fractures, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico/sangue
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212612, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787913

RESUMO

Importance: It is unknown whether the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index as a measure of insulin resistance is associated with the risk of developing end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Because individuals who are overweight or obese often develop insulin resistance, mediation of the association between body mass index (BMI) and ESKD risk through the TyG index seems plausible but has not been investigated. Objective: To evaluate whether the TyG index is associated with ESKD risk and, if so, to what extent the TyG index mediates the association between BMI and ESKD. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 176 420 individuals were recruited during routine health examinations to participate in the Austrian Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Program (VHM&PP), a prospective, population-based cohort study with participant enrollment between January 1, 1988, and June 30, 2005, and a mean follow-up of 22.7 years. Data analysis was conducted from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. Exposures: Body mass index and the logarithmized product of fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations (TyG index), as determined during the baseline health examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: End-stage kidney disease, as indicated by initiation of kidney replacement therapy, either dialysis or kidney transplantation. Results: Of the 176 420 participants, 94 885 were women (53.8%); mean (SD) age was 42.5 (15.4) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 22.7 (6.9) years, 454 (0.3%) participants developed ESKD and 35 234 (20.0%) died. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the TyG index was significantly associated with the risk of ESKD, both with (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increase, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.56-1.82) and without (HR per 1-SD increase, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66-1.93) the inclusion of BMI as a covariate. Mediation analysis using a newly proposed 2-stage regression method for survival data showed that a 5-point increase in BMI increased the risk of ESKD by 58% (HR [total association], 1.58; 95% CI, 1.43-1.75), and that 41.7% of the total association (95% CI, 31.6%-51.8%) was mediated through the TyG index (HR [indirect association], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the TyG index appeared to be associated with ESKD risk and mediates nearly half of the total association between BMI and ESKD in the general population. Public health efforts aiming at the reduction of body weight might decrease the kidney sequelae of insulin resistance and the burden of ESKD.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Previsões , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 66-74, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634882

RESUMO

To explore the largely unknown etiology of small intestine cancer, we examined metabolic factors and risk of small intestine cancer overall and by subtypes. Among 404 220 women and 403 265 men in six European cohorts, we applied Cox regression with adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI), to calculate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of small intestine cancer by levels of BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We also calculated HRs for these factors combined (metabolic score; MetS) and used Wald test statistics to investigate pairwise interactions between metabolic factors on risk. We also performed analyses separately per subtype (neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and adenocarcinomas). During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 144 women and 195 men were diagnosed with small intestine cancer, including 184 NETs and 99 adenocarcinomas. Among men, no main associations or interactions between metabolic factors were observed in relation to the risk of small intestine cancer. Among women, triglycerides were positively and linearly associated with risk (HR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.46), and a positive association was also observed for the MetS (HR per SD: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). Positive interactions were observed among women between triglycerides and cholesterol (P = .0005), and between MAP and glucose (P = .009), on risk. Glucose was positively associated with adenocarcinomas among women. This large, prospective study suggests that elevated triglycerides, and metabolic factors in interaction, confer an increased risk of small intestine cancer among women, but not among men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
12.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012774

RESUMO

Background Obesity and its health consequences will dominate health care systems in many countries during the next decades. However, the body mass index (BMI) optimum in relation to all-cause mortality is still a matter of debate.Material and Methods Data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP, 1985-2005) and data provided by the Main Association of Austrian Social Security Institutions (MAASSI, 2005-2015) were analyzed. Information was available on age, sex, smoking status, measured height and weight, and mortality. Generalized additive models were used to model mortality as a function of BMI, calendar time, age, and follow-up.Results In MAASSI (N=282,216, 46.0% men), men and women were on average 2.7 years older than in VHM&PP (N=185,361, 46.1% men). Average BMI was slightly higher in men (26.1 vs. 25.7 kg/m2) but not in women (24.6 vs. 24.7 kg/m2).We found an interactive effect of age and follow-up on the BMI optimum. Over age 35 in men and 55 years in women, the BMI optimum decreased with length of follow-up. While keeping covariates fixed, BMI optimum increased slightly between 1985 and 2015 in men and women, 24.9 (95%-CI, 23.9-25.9) to 26.4 (25.3-27.3), and 22.4 (21.7-23.1) to 23.3 (22.6-24.5) kg/m2, respectively.Conclusion Age and length of follow-up have a pronounced effect on the BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. After controlling for age and length of follow-up, the BMI optimum increased slightly over 30 years in this large study sample.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7578, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371883

RESUMO

Little is known about sex- and age-specific variations and temporal trends in serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic risk factors in the general population. Between January 1, 1985 and June 30, 2005 146,873 participants (42% women) were recruited. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was estimated applying a common (SUA > 360 µmol/L) and sex-specific cut-off points (women > 340 µmol/L, men > 420 µmol/L). At baseline, mean age was 41.2 years in men and 51.5 years in women, mean SUA concentration was 314.8 µmol/L and 243.6 µmol/L, respectively. Applying a common cut-off point, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 18.5% in men and 4.4% in women and by sex-specific cut-off points it was 15.1% and 13.8%, respectively. SUA levels increased by 6.7 µmol/L per decade in men, but remained constant in women until the age of 50 years with a sharp increase by approximately 22 µmol/L per decade thereafter. In men and women, hyperuricemia was associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase. With increasing age SUA levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia rise in a sex-specific manner. Above the age of 65 years, the sex-specific prevalence of hyperuricemia in women outreaches that in men.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Bone Rep ; 12: 100244, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970265

RESUMO

To explore the association of incident hip fractures with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its single components, we designed a prospective cohort study of hip fracture incidence among 117,053 participants of a population-based health surveillance program in Vorarlberg, the westernmost Austrian province. Incident hip fractures were recorded between 5 and 10 years after inclusion at baseline from 2003 to 2009. Applying Cox proportional hazard models for each MetS component and for a composite z-score for MetS, hazards for fracture were estimated in quintiles, as continuous z-score variables, and as pathological cut off values. Mean age was 50.1 ± 15.6 years at baseline, 5-10 years after which 947 incident hip fractures occurred. An association of a higher composite MetS score with decreased hip fracture risk was observed in women (HR 0.80, 95%-CI 0.88-0.96, p < 0.01) which disappeared upon adjustment for BMI. BMI was inversely associated with hip fracture risk in women and men (HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile: 0.83 (95%-CI: 0.63-1.10, p trend < 0.05) and 0.55 (95%-CI: 0.38-0.79, p trend < 0.001), respectively). Only in women, hip fracture risk was reduced at high cholesterol levels (HR for the highest relative to the lowest quintile: 0.64, 95%-CI: 0.48-0.84, p trend < 0.05) and in hypercholesterolemic patients (HR 0.82, 95%-CI: 0.67-0.99, p < 0.05), but elevated in hyperglycemic patients (HR 1.33, 95%-CI: 1.05-1.70, p < 0.05). Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with increased male hip fracture risk (HR 1.33, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.72, p < 0.05). The inverse association between the MetS and hip fracture risk is mainly driven by one single component, namely BMI.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 193-204, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of insulin resistance as a mediator in the association of body mass index (BMI) with site-specific cancer risk has, to our knowledge, never been systematically quantified. METHODS: Altogether 510 471 individuals from six European cohorts, with a mean age of 43.1 years, were included. We used the triglyceride glucose product (TyG index) as a surrogate measure for insulin resistance. We fitted Cox models, adjusted for relevant confounders, to investigate associations of TyG index with 10 common obesity-related cancers, and quantified the proportion of the effect of BMI mediated through TyG index on the log-transformed hazard ratio (HR) scale. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 17.2 years, 16 052 individuals developed obesity-related cancers. TyG index was associated with the risk of cancers of the kidney HR per one standard deviation increase 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.20], liver (1.13, 1.04 to 1.23), pancreas (1.12, 1.06 to 1.19), colon (1.07, 1.03 to 1.10) and rectum (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14). Substantial proportions of the effect of BMI were mediated by TyG index for cancers of the pancreas (42%), rectum (34%) and colon (20%); smaller proportions for kidney (15%) and liver (11%). Little or no mediation was observed for breast (postmenopausal), endometrial and ovarian cancer. Results were similar for males and females, except for pancreatic cancer where the proportions mediated were 20% and 91%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index was associated with increased risk of cancers of the digestive system and substantially mediated the effect of BMI, suggesting that insulin resistance plays a promoting role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(5): 628-635, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562125

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine whether bone mineral density (BMD) is predictive of breast cancer risk and mortality in a population of early postmenopausal women participating in a medical prevention program in western Austria. Patients and Methods: Between May 1991 and February 1999, lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (N = 1163, mean age 56.9 ± 5.7 years) or quantitative computed tomography (N = 2283, mean age 56.8 ± 5.4 years) in 3446 women aged ≥50 years. Data on medication and lifestyle factors were collected by questionnaire. Participants were prospectively followed up for breast cancer incidence, and breast cancer patients were followed up for mortality. To calculate risk of breast cancer and mortality, Cox proportional hazards models were applied. Results: During median follow-up of 20.7 years, 185 invasive breast cancer cases and 22 deaths due to breast cancer occurred. Risk of breast cancer in the highest versus the lowest BMD quartile was nonsignificantly reduced, in particular when follow-up was restricted to 10 years (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.25-1.12). There was no risk reduction when follow-up began 10 years after BMD measurement. There was no association between BMD and all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality among breast cancer patients, but a trend toward reduced mortality risk in the highest BMD quartile. Conclusions: We hypothesize that BMD is not reflective of estrogen exposure and not predictive of breast cancer risk, at least in young postmenopausal women. Confounders such as vitamin D might underlie low breast cancer risk at high BMD, thus mirroring better health status.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Absorciometria de Fóton , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Vértebras Lombares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Environ Int ; 120: 163-171, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults. METHODS: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m3 of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13;3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I2 = 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88;3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I2 = 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5_S but not PM10_S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197830, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is suggested to underlie development of other metabolic aberrations, but longitudinal relationships between metabolic factors at various ages has not been studied in detail. METHODS: Data from 27,379 men and 32,275 women with in total 122,940 health examinations in the Västerbotten Intervention Project, Sweden and the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Prevention Programme, Austria were used to investigate body mass index (BMI), mid-blood pressure, and fasting levels of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol at baseline in relation to 10-year changes of these factors and weight. We included paired examinations performed 10±2 years apart and used them for longitudinal analysis with linear regression of changes between the ages 30 and 40, 40 and 50, or 50 and 60 years. RESULTS: Higher levels of BMI were associated with increases in glucose and mid-blood pressure as well as triglycerides levels, and, to a lesser extent, decreases in cholesterol levels. For instance, per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI at age 40, glucose at age 50 increased by 0.24 mmol/l (95%CI: 0.22-0.26) and mid-blood pressure increased by 1.54 mm Hg (95%CI: 1.35-1.74). The strongest association observed was between BMI at age 30 and mid-blood pressure, which was 2.12 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.79-2.45) increase over ten years per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI level. This association was observed at an age when blood pressure levels on average remained stable. Other associations than those with BMI at baseline were much weaker. However, triglyceride levels were associated with future glucose changes among individuals with elevated BMI, particularly in the two older age groups. CONCLUSION: BMI was most indicative of long-term changes in metabolic factors, and the strongest impact was observed for increases in blood pressure between 30 and 40 years of age. Our study supports that lifestyle interventions preventing metabolic aberrations should focus on avoiding weight increases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7729, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769597

RESUMO

Knowledge of metabolic risk factors for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the general population is limited when considering the competing event death in risk analysis. The aim of our prospective observational study was to investigate how blood pressure and metabolic factors might influence the risks for ESKD and death before ESKD in a large Austrian population-based cohort with long-term follow-up. 177,255 participants (53.8% women; mean age 42.5 years) were recruited between 1988 and 2005 and linked to the Austrian Dialysis and Transplant Registry and the National Mortality Registry. Over a mean follow-up of 16 years 358 participants reached ESKD and 19,512 participants died. Applying fully adjusted cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models elevated fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertrigylceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were associated with a higher relative risk for ESKD than for death before ESKD, whereas elevated γ-glutamyltransferase was associated with an increased relative risk of death but not ESKD. Results were similar using continuous or categorical exposure variable measures in the general cohort but differed in selected high-risk populations. These findings might help improve the design of renal risk factor modification trials and kidney disease awareness and prevention programs in the general population, which may ultimately decrease the burden of ESKD.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(7): 1632-1643, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696642

RESUMO

Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PMcoarse ), PM2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305,551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.38 (95% CI 0.99; 1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95% CI 0.62; 1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 [1.30; 3.01]) as compared to women (HR 0.85 [0.5; 1.45]). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
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