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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647310

RESUMO

Aims Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-shortening condition. The European Cardiac and Respiratory Societies (ESC/ERS) and REVEAL 2.0 risk score calculator identify thresholds to predict 1-year mortality. This study evaluates whether cardiac-MRI thresholds can be identified and used to aid risk stratification and facilitate decision making. Methods Consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=438) undergoing cardiac-MRI were identified from the ASPIRE-MRI database. Thresholds were identified from a discovery cohort and evaluated in a test cohort. Results A right ventricular-end-systolic-volume-index-%predicted threshold of 227% or a left ventricular-end-diastolic-volume-index of 58ml/m2 identified patients at low (<5%) and high (>10%) risk of 1-year mortality. These metrics identified 63% and 34% of patients as low risk, respectively. A right ventricular ejection fraction >54%, 37-54% and <37% identified 21%, 43% and 36% of patients at low, intermediate and high-risk of 1-year mortality, respectively. At follow-up cardiac-MRI patients who improved to, or were maintained in a low risk group had a one-year mortality <5%. Right ventricular-end-systolic-volume-index-%predicted independently predicted outcome and when used in conjunction with the REVEAL 2.0 risk score calculator or a modified French Pulmonary Hypertension registry approach improved risk stratification for one-year mortality. Conclusion Cardiac-MRI can be used to risk stratify patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension using a threshold approach. Right ventricular-end-systolic-volume-index-%predicted can identify a high percentage of patients at low-risk of one-year mortality and when used in conjunction with current risk stratification approaches it can improve risk stratification. This study supports further evaluation of cardiac-MRI in risk stratification in PAH.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently, rare heterozygous mutations in GDF2 were identified in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). GDF2 encodes the circulating bone morphogenetic protein, BMP9, which is a ligand for the BMP type 2 receptor (BMPR2). Here we determine the functional impact of GDF2 mutations and characterised plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels in patients with idiopathic PAH. METHODS: Missense BMP9 mutant proteins were expressed in vitro and the impact on BMP9 protein processing and secretion, endothelial signalling and functional activity was assessed. Plasma BMP9 and BMP10 levels and activity were assayed in PAH patients with GDF2 mutations, and controls. Levels were also measured in a larger cohort of controls (n=120) and idiopathic PAH patients (n=260). MAIN RESULTS: We identified novel rare variation at the GDF2 and BMP10 loci, including copy number variation. In vitro, BMP9 missense proteins demonstrated impaired cellular processing and secretion. PAH patients carrying these mutations exhibited reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and reduced BMP activity. Unexpectedly, plasma BMP10 levels were also markedly reduced in these individuals. Although overall BMP9 and BMP10 levels did not differ between PAH patients and controls, BMP10 levels were lower in PAH females. A subset of PAH patients had markedly reduced plasma levels of BMP9 and BMP10 in the absence of GDF2 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that GDF2 mutations result in BMP9 loss-of-function and are likely causal. These mutations lead to reduced circulating levels of both BMP9 and BMP10. These findings support therapeutic strategies to enhance BMP9 or BMP10 signalling in PAH.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923185

RESUMO

While traffic and air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality in numerous diseases, its association with disease severity and outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unknown.Exposure to particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and indirect measures of traffic-related air pollution (distance to main road and length of roads within buffer zones surrounding residential addresses) were estimated for 301 patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH recruited in the UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH. Associations with transplant-free survival and pulmonary haemodynamic severity at baseline were assessed, adjusting for confounding variables defined a prioriHigher estimated exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher risk of death or lung transplant (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.68 (95% CI 1.11-6.47) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.028). This association remained similar when adjusted for potential confounding variables (HR 4.38 (95% CI 1.44-13.36) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.009). No associations were found between NO2 exposure or other traffic pollution indicators and transplant-free survival. Conversely, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within the 500-1000 m buffer zones correlated with the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society risk categories as well as pulmonary haemodynamics at baseline. This association was strongest for pulmonary vascular resistance.In idiopathic/heritable PAH, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution were associated with disease severity at baseline, whereas higher PM2.5 exposure may independently predict shorter transplant-free survival.

7.
Circ Res ; 124(6): 904-919, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661465

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence implicates inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and therapies targeting immunity are under investigation, although it remains unknown if distinct immune phenotypes exist. OBJECTIVE: Identify PAH immune phenotypes based on unsupervised analysis of blood proteomic profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective observational study of group 1 PAH patients evaluated at Stanford University (discovery cohort; n=281) and University of Sheffield (validation cohort; n=104) between 2008 and 2014, we measured a circulating proteomic panel of 48 cytokines, chemokines, and factors using multiplex immunoassay. Unsupervised machine learning (consensus clustering) was applied in both cohorts independently to classify patients into proteomic immune clusters, without guidance from clinical features. To identify central proteins in each cluster, we performed partial correlation network analysis. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were subsequently compared across clusters. Four PAH clusters with distinct proteomic immune profiles were identified in the discovery cohort. Cluster 2 (n=109) had low cytokine levels similar to controls. Other clusters had unique sets of upregulated proteins central to immune networks-cluster 1 (n=58; TRAIL [tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand], CCL5 [C-C motif chemokine ligand 5], CCL7, CCL4, MIF [macrophage migration inhibitory factor]), cluster 3 (n=77; IL [interleukin]-12, IL-17, IL-10, IL-7, VEGF [vascular endothelial growth factor]), and cluster 4 (n=37; IL-8, IL-4, PDGF-ß [platelet-derived growth factor beta], IL-6, CCL11). Demographics, PAH clinical subtypes, comorbidities, and medications were similar across clusters. Noninvasive and hemodynamic surrogates of clinical risk identified cluster 1 as high-risk and cluster 3 as low-risk groups. Five-year transplant-free survival rates were unfavorable for cluster 1 (47.6%; 95% CI, 35.4%-64.1%) and favorable for cluster 3 (82.4%; 95% CI, 72.0%-94.3%; across-cluster P<0.001). Findings were replicated in the validation cohort, where machine learning classified 4 immune clusters with comparable proteomic, clinical, and prognostic features. CONCLUSIONS: Blood cytokine profiles distinguish PAH immune phenotypes with differing clinical risk that are independent of World Health Organization group 1 subtypes. These phenotypes could inform mechanistic studies of disease pathobiology and provide a framework to examine patient responses to emerging therapies targeting immunity.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(3): 227-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the contribution of common genetic variation to disease risk and natural history is poorly characterised. We tested for genome-wide association for pulmonary arterial hypertension in large international cohorts and assessed the contribution of associated regions to outcomes. METHODS: We did two separate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These GWAS used data from four international case-control studies across 11 744 individuals with European ancestry (including 2085 patients). One GWAS used genotypes from 5895 whole-genome sequences and the other GWAS used genotyping array data from an additional 5849 individuals. Cross-validation of loci reaching genome-wide significance was sought by meta-analysis. Conditional analysis corrected for the most significant variants at each locus was used to resolve signals for multiple associations. We functionally annotated associated variants and tested associations with duration of survival. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint in survival analyses. FINDINGS: A locus near SOX17 (rs10103692, odds ratio 1·80 [95% CI 1·55-2·08], p=5·13 × 10-15) and a second locus in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 (collectively referred to as HLA-DPA1/DPB1 here; rs2856830, 1·56 [1·42-1·71], p=7·65 × 10-20) within the class II MHC region were associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The SOX17 locus had two independent signals associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (rs13266183, 1·36 [1·25-1·48], p=1·69 × 10-12; and rs10103692). Functional and epigenomic data indicate that the risk variants near SOX17 alter gene regulation via an enhancer active in endothelial cells. Pulmonary arterial hypertension risk variants determined haplotype-specific enhancer activity, and CRISPR-mediated inhibition of the enhancer reduced SOX17 expression. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 rs2856830 genotype was strongly associated with survival. Median survival from diagnosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with the C/C homozygous genotype was double (13·50 years [95% CI 12·07 to >13·50]) that of those with the T/T genotype (6·97 years [6·02-8·05]), despite similar baseline disease severity. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to report that common genetic variation at loci in an enhancer near SOX17 and in HLA-DPA1/DPB1 is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Impairment of SOX17 function might be more common in pulmonary arterial hypertension than suggested by rare mutations in SOX17. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping and survival, and to determine whether HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping improves risk stratification in clinical practice or trials. FUNDING: UK NIHR, BHF, UK MRC, Dinosaur Trust, NIH/NHLBI, ERS, EMBO, Wellcome Trust, EU, AHA, ACClinPharm, Netherlands CVRI, Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of UMC, Netherlands OHRD and RNAS, German DFG, German BMBF, APH Paris, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, and French ANR.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(22): 2778-2788, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497564

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the mainstay in screening for pulmonary hypertension (PH). International guidelines suggest echocardiographic parameters for suspecting PH, but these may not apply to many adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). PH is relatively common in ACHD patients and can significantly affect their exercise capacity, quality of life, and prognosis. Identification of patients who have developed PH and who may benefit from further investigations (including cardiac catheterization) and treatment is thus extremely important. A systematic review and survey of experts from the United Kingdom and Ireland were performed to assess current knowledge and practice on echocardiographic screening for PH in ACHD. This paper presents the findings of the review and expert statements on the optimal approaches when using echocardiography to assess ACHD patients for PH, with particular focus on major subgroups: patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, patients with systemic right ventricles, patients with unrepaired univentricular circulation, and patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia.

10.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 20(1): 78, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Native T1 may be a sensitive, contrast-free, non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) marker of myocardial tissue changes in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension. However, the diagnostic and prognostic value of native T1 mapping in this patient group has not been fully explored. The aim of this work was to determine whether elevation of native T1 in myocardial tissue in pulmonary hypertension: (a) varies according to pulmonary hypertension subtype; (b) has prognostic value and (c) is associated with ventricular function and interaction. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a total of 490 consecutive patients during their clinical 1.5 T CMR assessment at a pulmonary hypertension referral centre in 2015. Three hundred sixty-nine patients had pulmonary hypertension [58 ± 15 years; 66% female], an additional 39 had pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease [68 ± 13 years; 60% female], 82 patients did not have pulmonary hypertension [55 ± 18; 68% female]. Twenty five healthy subjects were also recruited [58 ±4 years); 51% female]. T1 mapping was performed with a MOdified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 prognostic value in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension was assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with pulmonary artery hypertension had elevated T1 in the right ventricular (RV) insertion point (pulmonary hypertension patients: T1 = 1060 ± 90 ms; No pulmonary hypertension patients: T1 = 1020 ± 80 ms p < 0.001; healthy subjects T1 = 940 ± 50 ms p < 0.001) with no significant difference between the major pulmonary hypertension subtypes. The RV insertion point was the most successful T1 region for discriminating patients with pulmonary hypertension from healthy subjects (area under the curve = 0.863) however it could not accurately discriminate between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (area under the curve = 0.654). T1 metrics did not contribute to prediction of overall mortality (septal: p = 0.552; RV insertion point: p = 0.688; left ventricular free wall: p = 0.258). Systolic interventricular septal angle was a significant predictor of T1 in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated myocardial native T1 was found to a similar extent in pulmonary hypertension patient subgroups and is independently associated with increased interventricular septal angle. Native T1 mapping may not be of additive value in the diagnostic or prognostic evaluation of patients with pulmonary artery hypertension.

11.
Radiology ; : 180603, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351254

RESUMO

Purpose To derive and test multiparametric cardiac MRI models for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Materials and Methods Images and patient data from consecutive patients suspected of having PH who underwent cardiac MRI and right-sided heart catheterization (RHC) between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Of 2437 MR images identified, 603 fit the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 61 years (range, 18-88 years; mean age of women, 60 years [range, 18-84 years]; mean age of men, 62 years [range, 22-88 years]). In the first 300 patients (derivation cohort), cardiac MRI metrics that showed correlation with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) were used to create a regression algorithm. The performance of the model was assessed in the 303-patient validation cohort by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and χ2 analysis. Results In the derivation cohort, cardiac MRI mPAP model 1 (right ventricle and black blood) was defined as follows: -179 + loge interventricular septal angle × 42.7 + log10 ventricular mass index (right ventricular mass/left ventricular mass) × 7.57 + black blood slow flow score × 3.39. In the validation cohort, cardiac MRI mPAP model 1 had strong agreement with RHC-measured mPAP, an intraclass coefficient of 0.78, and high diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 0.98). The threshold of at least 25 mm Hg had a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI: 89%, 96%), specificity of 79% (95% CI: 65%, 89%), positive predictive value of 96% (95% CI: 93%, 98%), and negative predictive value of 67% (95% CI: 53%, 78%) in the validation cohort. A second model, cardiac MRI mPAP model 2 (right ventricle pulmonary artery), which excludes the black blood flow score, had equivalent diagnostic accuracy (ROC difference: P = .24). Conclusion Multiparametric cardiac MRI models have high diagnostic accuracy in patients suspected of having pulmonary hypertension. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Colletti in this issue.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002102

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the gold standard treatment for operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, a proportion of patients with operable disease decline surgery. There are currently no published data on this patient group. The aim of this study was to identify outcomes and prognostic factors in a large cohort of consecutive patients with CTEPH.Data were collected for consecutive, treatment-naive CTEPH patients at the Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital (Sheffield, UK) between 2001 and 2014.Of 550 CTEPH patients (mean±sd age 63±15 years, follow-up 4±3 years), 49% underwent surgery, 32% had technically operable disease and did not undergo surgery (including patient choice n=72 and unfit for surgery n=63), and 19% had inoperable disease due to disease distribution. The 5-year survival was superior in patients undergoing PEA (83%) versus technically operable disease who did not undergo surgery (53%) and inoperable due to disease distribution (59%) (p<0.001). Survival was superior in patients following PEA compared with those offered but declining surgery (55%) (p<0.001). In patients offered PEA, independent prognostic factors included mixed venous oxygen saturation, gas transfer and patient decision to proceed to surgery.Outcomes in CTEPH following PEA are excellent and superior to patients declining surgery, and strongly favour consideration of a surgical intervention in eligible patients.

13.
Radiology ; 289(1): 61-68, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969067

RESUMO

Purpose To assess interventricular septal (IVS) angle in the identification of combined pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-sided heart disease. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive, incident patients suspected of having PH underwent same-day right-sided heart catheterization (RHC) and MRI at a PH referral center between April 2012 and April 2017. The diagnostic accuracy of the IVS angle to identify Cpc-PH in patients with pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) greater than 15 mmHg was assessed by using receiver operator characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values. IVS angle also was assessed as a predictor of all-cause mortality by using Cox uni- and multivariable proportional hazards regression. Results A total of 708 patients underwent same-day MRI and RHC, and 171 patients had PAWP greater than 15 mmHg. Mean age was 70 years (range, 21-90 years) (women: mean age, 69 years; range, 21-88 years) (men: mean age, 71 years; range, 43-90 years). Systolic IVS angle correlated with diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) (r = 0.739, P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed septal angle enabled identification of Cpc-PH (DPG ≥ 7), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.911 (P < .001). A 160° threshold, derived from the first half of patients with raised PAWP, enabled identification of a DPG of at least 7 mmHg with 67% sensitivity and 93% specificity (P < .001) in the second cohort of patients with raised PAWP. IVS angle was predictive of all-cause mortality (standardized univariable hazard ratio, 1.615; P < .01). Conclusion The systolic interventricular septal angle is elevated in patients with combined pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension and enables one to predict those patients who have PH due to left-sided heart disease who have an increased risk of death. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977892

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing interest in screening for and diagnosing pulmonary hypertension earlier in the course of disease. However, there is limited data on cardiopulmonary abnormalities in patients with pulmonary hypertension newly diagnosed in World Health Organization Function Class (WHO FC) I. Methods: Data were retrieved from the ASPIRE registry (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a REferral center) for consecutive treatment naïve patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension by cardiac catheterization between 2001 and 2010 who underwent incremental shuttle walk exercise testing. Results: Eight hundred and ninety-five patients were diagnosed with Group 1-5 pulmonary hypertension. Despite the absence of symptoms, patients in WHO FC I (n = 9) had a significant reduction in exercise capacity (Incremental shuttle walk distance percent predicted (ISWD%pred) 65 ± 13%, Z score -1.77 ± 1.05), and modest pulmonary hypertension with a median (interquartile range) pulmonary artery pressure 31(20) mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance 2.1(8.2) Wood Units, despite a normal diffusion of carbon monoxide adjusted for age and sex (DLco)%pred 99 ± 40%. Compared to patients in WHO FC I, patients in WHO FC II (n = 162) had a lower ISWD%pred 43 ± 22 and lower DLco%pred 65 ± 21%. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary hypertension with no or minimal symptomatic limitation have a significant reduction of exercise capacity.

15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 53, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938208

RESUMO

Purpose: It is postulated that ILD causes PA dilatation independent of the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), so the use of PA size to screen for PH is not recommended. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of PA size with the presence and severity of ILD and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PA size for detecting PH. Methods: Incident patients referred to a tertiary PH centre underwent baseline thoracic CT, MRI and right heart catheterisation (RHC). Pulmonary artery diameter was measured on CT pulmonary angiography and pulmonary arterial areas on MRI. A thoracic radiologist scored the severity of ILD on CT from 0 to 4, 0 = absent, 1 = 1-25%, 2 = 26-50%, 3 = 51-75%, and 4 = 76-100% extent of involvement. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and linear regression were employed to assess diagnostic accuracy and independent associations of PA size. Results: 110 had suspected PH due to ILD (age 65 years (SD 13), M:F 37:73) and 379 had suspected PH without ILD (age 64 years (SD 13), M:F 161:218). CT derived main PA diameter was accurate for detection of PH in patients both with and without ILD - AUC 0.873, p =< 0.001, and AUC 0.835, p =< 0.001, respectively, as was MRI diastolic PA area, AUC 0.897, p =< 0.001, and AUC 0.857, p =< 0.001, respectively Significant correlations were identified between mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and PA diameter in ILD (r = 0.608, p < 0.001), and non-ILD cohort (r = 0.426, p < 0.001). PA size was independently associated with mPAP (p < 0.001) and BSA (p = 0.001), but not with forced vital capacity % predicted (p = 0.597), Transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO) % predicted (p = 0.321) or the presence of ILD on CT (p = 0.905). The severity of ILD was not associated with pulmonary artery dilatation (r = 0.071, p = 0.459). Conclusions: Pulmonary arterial pressure elevation leads to pulmonary arterial dilation, which is not independently influenced by the presence or severity of ILD measured by FVC, TLCO, or disease severity on CT. Pulmonary arterial diameter has diagnostic value in patients with or without ILD and suspected PH.

16.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 5(1): e000281, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955362

RESUMO

The following is a summary of the recommendations and good practice points for the BTS Guideline for the initial outpatient management of pulmonary embolism. Please refer to the full guideline for full information about each section.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928642

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension, although an accurate prevalence is challenging. PH-LHD includes PH due to systolic or diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, mitral or aortic valve disease and congenital left heart disease. In recent years a new and distinct phenotype of "combined post-capillary and pre-capillary PH," based on diastolic pulmonary gradient and pulmonary vascular resistance, has been recognized. The roles of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular compliance in PH-LHD have also been elucidated recently and they appear to have significant clinical implications. Echocardiography continues to play a seminal role in diagnosis of PH-LHD and heart failure with preserved LV ejection fraction, as it can identify valve disease and help to distinguish PH-LHD from pre-capillary PH. Right, and occasionally left heart catheterization, remains the gold-standard for diagnosis and phenotyping of PH-LHD, although Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging is emerging as a useful alternative tool in non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic assessment of PH-LHD. In this review, the latest evidence for more recent advances will be discussed, including the role of fluid challenge and exercise during cardiac catheterization to unravel occult post-capillary and the role of vasoreactivity testing. The use of many or all of these diagnostic techniques will undoubtedly provide key information about sub-groups of patients with PH-LHD that might benefit from medical therapy previously considered to be only suitable for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 175, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928643

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) develops in 7-12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with a 3 year survival of 52%. Early detection by screening is therefore recommended for all patients with SSc. Historically, screening has been performed using echocardiography and measurement of gas transfer. More recently the DETECT protocol, using a combination of biomarkers (including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) and clinical parameters, has been developed. The optimal method of screening for PAH with high sensitivity and specificity is, however, not clear. Protein expression differences between different SSc disease phenotypes have been reported, and include alterations in concentration of NT-proBNP, endoglin, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, placenta growth factor, growth differentiation factor-15, vascular endothelial growth factor alpha, resistin-like molecule beta, and soluble thrombomodulin. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these protein changes in patients with SSc and PAH.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1416, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650961

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder with a poor prognosis. Deleterious variation within components of the transforming growth factor-ß pathway, particularly the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2), underlies most heritable forms of PAH. To identify the missing heritability we perform whole-genome sequencing in 1038 PAH index cases and 6385 PAH-negative control subjects. Case-control analyses reveal significant overrepresentation of rare variants in ATP13A3, AQP1 and SOX17, and provide independent validation of a critical role for GDF2 in PAH. We demonstrate familial segregation of mutations in SOX17 and AQP1 with PAH. Mutations in GDF2, encoding a BMPR2 ligand, lead to reduced secretion from transfected cells. In addition, we identify pathogenic mutations in the majority of previously reported PAH genes, and provide evidence for further putative genes. Taken together these findings contribute new insights into the molecular basis of PAH and indicate unexplored pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Aquaporina 1/química , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/genética , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adulto , Aquaporina 1/genética , Aquaporina 1/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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