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1.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic eye screening programmes have been developed worldwide based on evidence that early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy are crucial to preventing sight loss. However, little is known about the decision-making processes and training needs of diabetic retinal graders, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To provide data for improving evidence-based diabetic retinopathy training to help novice graders process fundus images more like experts. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a mixed-methods qualitative study conducted in southern Vietnam and Northern Ireland. Novice diabetic retinal graders in Vietnam (n = 18) and expert graders in Northern Ireland (n = 5) were selected through a purposive sampling technique. Data were collected from 21st February to 3rd September 2019. The interviewer used neutral prompts during think-aloud sessions to encourage participants to verbalise their thought processes while grading fundus images from anonymised patients, followed by semi-structured interviews. Thematic framework analysis was used to identify themes, supported by illustrative quotes from interviews. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare graders' performance. RESULTS: Expert graders used a more systematic approach when grading images, considered all four images per patient and used available software tools such as red-free filters prior to making a decision on management. The most challenging features for novice graders were intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities and new vessels, which were more accurately identified by experts. CONCLUSION: Taking more time to grade fundus images and adopting a protocol-driven "checklist" approach may help novice graders to function more like experts.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24316, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide school closures, with millions of children confined to online learning at home. As a result, children may be susceptible to anxiety and digital eye strain, highlighting a need for population interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate whether a digital behavior change intervention aimed at promoting physical activity could reduce children's anxiety and digital eye strain while undergoing prolonged homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, homeschooled grade 7 students at 12 middle schools in southern China were recruited through local schools and randomly assigned by the school to receive (1:1 allocation): (1) health education information promoting exercise and ocular relaxation, and access to a digital behavior change intervention, with live streaming and peer sharing of promoted activities (intervention), or (2) health education information only (control). The primary outcome was change in self-reported anxiety score. Secondary outcomes included change in self-reported eye strain and sleep quality. RESULTS: On March 16, 2020, 1009 children were evaluated, and 954 (94.5%) eligible children of consenting families were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Children in the intervention (n=485, 6 schools) and control (n=469, 6 schools) groups were aged 13.5 (SD 0.5) years, and 52.3% (n=499) were male. The assigned interventions were completed by 896 children (intervention: n=467, 96.3%; control: n=429, 91.5%). The 2-week change in square-root-transformed self-reported anxiety scores was greater in the intervention (-0.23, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.20) vs control group (0.12, 95% CI 0.09-0.16; unadjusted difference -0.36, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.08; P=.02). There was a significant reduction in square-root-transformed eye strain in the intervention group (-0.08, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.06) compared to controls (0.07, 95% CI 0.05-0.09; difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.03; P=.02). Change in sleep quality was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This digital behavior change intervention reduced children's anxiety and eye strain during COVID-19-associated online schooling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04309097; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04309097.

3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the impact of distance cataract surgical wet laboratory training on surgical competency of ophthalmology residents at a tertiary-level ophthalmic training center in Trujillo, Peru. METHODS: Three five-week distance wet lab courses were administered through Cybersight, Orbis International's telemedicine platform. Weekly lectures and demonstrations addressed specific steps in phacoemulsification surgery. Each lecture had two accompanying wet lab assignments, which residents completed and recorded in their institution's wet lab and uploaded to Cybersight for grading. Competency was assessed through anonymous grading of pre- and post-training surgical simulation videos, masked as to which occurred before and after training, using a standardized competency rubric adapted from the Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (OSCAR, scale of 0-32). Day one best-corrected post-operative visual acuity (BVCA) was assessed in the operative eye on the initial consecutive 4-6 surgeries conducted by the residents as per the norms of their residency training. An anonymous post-training satisfaction survey was administered to trainees'. RESULTS: In total, 21 ophthalmic residents participated in the courses, submitting a total of 210 surgical videos. Trainees' average competency score increased 6.95 points (95%CI [4.28, 9.62], SD = 5.01, p < 0.0001, two sample t-test) from 19.3 (95%CI [17.2, 21.5], SD = 4.04) to 26.3 (95%CI [24.2, 28.3], SD = 3.93). Visual acuity for 92% of post-training resident surgeries (n = 100) was ≥20/60, meeting the World Health Organization's criterion for good quality. CONCLUSIONS: Structured distance wet lab courses in phacoemulsification resulted in significantly improved cataract surgical skills. This model could be applicable to locations where there are obstacles to traditional in-person training, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/educação , Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência , Oftalmologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Laboratórios , Oftalmologia/educação , Peru
4.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 8919887211006467, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792435

RESUMO

Sensory impairments, such as visual and hearing impairments, and cognitive decline are prevalent among mid-age and older adults in China. With 4-year longitudinal data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, we assessed the association between self-reported sensory impairments and episodic memory. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the association of baseline sensory impairment in 2011-2012 with cognitive decline at 2- and 4-year follow-up visits. Among the 13,097 participants, longitudinal associations were identified between having hearing loss (ß = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05), having both poor hearing and vision (ß = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.04) and decline in immediate word recall over 4 years, compared to those without self-reported sensory impairment. In addition, these associations were more significant among those aged 60 and older and among women. Further research is needed to investigate these associations in the longer term, providing evidence to support interventions that can prevent or delay sensory impairments and preserve cognitive functions in older adults.

5.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between falls, physical activity, and other socio-demographic and visual factors among cataract patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and November 2018. Patients presenting to two hospitals with age-related unilateral or bilateral cataract, aged ≥50 years, literate, and scheduled for a first-eye cataract surgery were recruited. The International Physical Activity Questionnaires short form was used to measure physical activity. Visual disability score was self-reported using the Catquest-9SF. The number of falls in the last 12 months prior to data collection were self-reported. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured using standard protocols. RESULTS: A total of 340 patients had complete data, the majority of whom were women (62.4%), living with a spouse (66.5%), had an education level of Grade 5 or below (68.2%), and a monthly income from medium to high (58.5%). Average age was 65.7 years. A total of 135 falls were reported in the last 12 months with 27.6% reporting ≥1 fall and 7.1% ≥2 falls. Persons with high (adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.2, 4.7) and low (aPR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.2, 4.6) physical activity levels had more falls compared to those with moderate levels. Women (aPR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.04, 2.7) and those with medium income (aPR = 2.9, 95%CI = 1.2, 6.9) were more likely to fall. Poor binocular logMAR visual acuity with habitual correction (aPR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.1, 4.6) and poor visual disability scores (aPR = 1.4, 95%CI = 1.02, 2.0) were associated with falling. CONCLUSION: Patients with a moderate level of physical activity were less likely to fall compared to those with low or high levels although this U-shape relationship needs to be further investigated in prospective interventional trials. Men and those with high monthly income, better visual acuity and visual disability score were also less likely to fall. Cataract patients might be advised to maintain a moderate level of physical activity while waiting for surgery. Strategies to prevent falls may also prioritise cataract surgery for women and those with lower income.

6.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576772

RESUMO

Importance: More than 1 billion people worldwide have vision impairment or blindness from potentially preventable or correctable causes. Quality of life, an important measure of physical, emotional, and social well-being, appears to be negatively associated with vision impairment, and increasingly, ophthalmic interventions are being assessed for their association with quality of life. Objective: To examine the association between vision impairment or eye disease and quality of life, and the outcome of ophthalmic interventions on quality of life globally and across the life span, through an umbrella review or systematic review of systematic reviews. Evidence Review: The electronic databases MEDLINE, Ovid, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Proquest Dissertations, and Theses Global were searched from inception through June 29, 2020, using a comprehensive search strategy. Systematic reviews addressing vision impairment, eye disease, or ophthalmic interventions and quantitatively or qualitatively assessing health-related, vision-related, or disease-specific quality of life were included. Article screening, quality appraisal, and data extraction were performed by 4 reviewers working independently and in duplicate. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal and data extraction forms for umbrella reviews were used. Findings: Nine systematic reviews evaluated the association between quality of life and vision impairment, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, or mendelian eye conditions (including retinitis pigmentosa). Of these, 5 were reviews of quantitative observational studies, 3 were reviews of qualitative studies, and 1 was a review of qualitative and quantitative studies. All found an association between vision impairment and lower quality of life. Sixty systematic reviews addressed at least 1 ophthalmic intervention in association with quality of life. Overall, 33 unique interventions were investigated, of which 25 were found to improve quality of life compared with baseline measurements or a group receiving no intervention. These interventions included timely cataract surgery, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for age-related macular degeneration, and macular edema. Conclusions and Relevance: There is a consistent association between vision impairment, eye diseases, and reduced quality of life. These findings support pursuing ophthalmic interventions, such as timely cataract surgery and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, for common retinal diseases, where indicated, to improve quality of life for millions of people globally each year.

7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 107, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Un-operated cataract is the leading cause of vision loss worldwide, responsible for 33% of visual impairment, and half of global blindness. The study aimed to build a fast evaluation method utilizing Andersen's utilization framework and identify predictors of cataract surgical rate in sub-Saharan Africa and China. METHODS: The study was a cross-over ecological epidemiology study with a total of 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and 31 provinces in China. Information was extracted from public data and published studies. Linear regression and structural equation modeling with Bootstrap were used to analyze predictors of CSR and their pathways to impact in sub-Saharan Africa and China separately. RESULTS: Cataract surgical resources in sub-Saharan Africa were linearly correlated with CSR (ß = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.91), while GDP/P didn't impact cataract surgical resources (ß = 0.29, 95% CI: - 0.12, 0.75). In China, residents' average ability to pay was confirmed as the mediator between GDP/P and CSR (p = 0.32, RMSEA = 0.07; ßCSR-paying = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.90; ßpaying-GDP/P = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: In sub-Saharan Africa, CSR is determined by health care provision. Local economic development may not directly influence CSR. Therefore, international assistance aimed to providing free cataract surgery directly is crucial. In China, CSR is determined principally by health care demand (ability to pay). To increase CSR in underserved areas of China, ability to pay must be enhanced through social insurance, and reduced surgical fees.

8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e418-e430, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of individuals with vision impairment worldwide is increasing because of an ageing population. We aimed to systematically identify studies describing the association between vision impairment and mortality, and to assess the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and Global Health database on Feb 1, 2020, for studies published in English between database inception and Feb 1, 2020. We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies that measured the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality in people aged 40 years or older who were followed up for 1 year or more. In a protocol amendment, we also included randomised controlled trials that met the same criteria as for cohort studies, in which the association between visual impairment and mortality was independent of the study intervention. Studies that did not report age-adjusted mortality data, or that focused only on populations with specific health conditions were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed risk of bias. We graded the overall certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations framework. We did a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate pooled maximally adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality for individuals with a visual acuity of <6/12 versus those with ≥6/12; <6/18 versus those with ≥6/18; <6/60 versus those with ≥6/18; and <6/60 versus those with ≥6/60. FINDINGS: Our searches identified 3845 articles, of which 28 studies, representing 30 cohorts (446 088 participants) from 12 countries, were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis included 17 studies, representing 18 cohorts (47 998 participants). There was variability in the methods used to assess and report vision impairment. Pooled HRs for all-cause mortality were 1·29 (95% CI 1·20-1·39) for visual acuity <6/12 versus ≥6/12, with low heterogeneity between studies (n=15; τ2=0·01, I2=31·46%); 1·43 (1·22-1·68) for visual acuity <6/18 versus ≥6/18, with low heterogeneity between studies (n=2; τ2=0·0, I2=0·0%); 1·89 (1·45-2·47) for visual acuity <6/60 versus ≥6/18 (n=1); and 1·02 (0·79-1·32) for visual acuity <6/60 versus ≥6/60 (n=2; τ2=0·02, I2=25·04%). Three studies received an assessment of low risk of bias across all six domains, and six studies had a high risk of bias in one or more domains. Effect sizes were greater for studies that used best-corrected visual acuity compared with those that used presenting visual acuity as the vision assessment method (p=0·0055), but the effect sizes did not vary in terms of risk of bias, study design, or participant-level factors (ie, age). We judged the evidence to be of moderate certainty. INTERPRETATION: The hazard for all-cause mortality was higher in people with vision impairment compared with those that had normal vision or mild vision impairment, and the magnitude of this effect increased with more severe vision impairment. These findings have implications for promoting healthy longevity and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, National Institutes of Health, Research to Prevent Blindness, the Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, Moorfields Eye Charity, National Institute for Health Research, Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, Sightsavers, the Fred Hollows Foundation, the Seva Foundation, the British Council for the Prevention of Blindness, and Christian Blind Mission.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e489-e551, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607016
10.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary objective is to quantify the lens nuclear opacity using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) and to evaluate its correlations with Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS-III) system and surgical parameters. The secondary objective is to assess the diagnostic performance for hard nuclear cataract. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1222 patients eligible for cataract surgery (1222 eyes). The latest SS-ASOCT (CASIA-2) was used to obtain high-resolution lens images, and the average nuclear density (AND) and maximum nuclear density (MND) were measured by a custom ImageJ software. Spearman's correlations analysis was used to assess associations of AND/MND with LOCS-III nuclear scores, visual acuity and surgical parameters. The subjects were then split randomly (9:1) into the training dataset and validating dataset. Receiver operating characteristic curves and calibration curves were constructed for the classification on hard nuclear cataract. RESULTS: The AND and MND from SS-ASOCT images were significantly correlated with nuclear colour scores (AND: r=0.716; MND: r=0.660; p<0.001) and nuclear opalescence scores (AND: r=0.712; MND: r=0.655; p<0.001). The AND by SS-ASOCT images had the highest values of Spearman's r for preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (r=0.3131), total ultrasonic time (r=0.3481) and cumulative dissipated energy (r=0.4265). The nuclear density had good performance in classifying hard nuclear cataract, with area under the curves of 0.859 (0.831-0.886) for AND and 0.796 (0.768-0.823) for MND. CONCLUSION: Objective and quantitative evaluation of the lens nuclear density using SS-ASOCT images enable accurate diagnosis of hard nuclear cataract.

11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300946

RESUMO

Importance: Incision-related Descemet membrane detachment (DMD) is a common complication of cataract surgery. Most postoperative severe DMD that leads to corneal decompensation originates from intraoperative incision-related DMD. It is important to determine the incidence, extent, and associated risk factors of intraoperative DMD at each step of surgery to help in formulating precise and effective prevention strategies. Objectives: To investigate the intraoperative development of incision-site DMD associated with a 2.2-mm clear corneal incision during cataract surgery and to analyze its associated factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, consecutive, prospectively enrolled 133 patients with cataract 50 to 90 years of age (133 eyes) undergoing coaxial 2.2-mm clear corneal microincision phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation between January 1 and March 31, 2019, at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, were studied. Exposures: Coaxial 2.2-mm clear corneal microincision phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Real-time incidence and extent of intraoperative incision-related DMD at each step of surgery. Results: Among 133 patients with cataracts (mean [SD] age, 72.3 [8.1] years; 77 [57.9%] female), DMD was encountered in 125 eyes (94.0%), occurring at the following steps: capsulorrhexis (2 [1.6%]), hydrodissection (7 [5.6%]), phacoemulsification (69 [55.2%]), irrigation-aspiration (44 [35.2%]), and IOL implantation (3 [2.4%]). The extent of DMD increased during the operation (mean [SD] difference between final and initial relative DMD length, 22.8% [1.4%]; 95% CI, 20.0-25.6; P < .001). Associations for the extent of DMD found in multivariate stepwise analyses included time of ultrasonography (ß = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17-0.50; P < .001), equivalent mean ultrasonic power (ß = 87.8; 95% CI, 19.1-156.4; P = .01), and the presence of DMD at the anterior and posterior wound margins (coefficient = 16.7; 95% CI, 6.4-26.9; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this case series suggest that friction of surgical instruments has the greatest association with incisional DMD. Decreasing ultrasonic energy and phacoemulsification time may reduce the severity of incisional DMD.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259555

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness, vision impairment and cataract surgery coverage among Rohingya refugees aged ≥ 50 years residing in camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. METHODS: We used the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology to select 76 clusters of 50 participants aged ≥ 50 years with probability proportionate to size. Demographic and cataract surgery data were collected using questionnaires, visual acuity was assessed per World Health Organization criteria and examinations were conducted by torch, and with direct ophthalmoscopy in eyes with pinhole-corrected vision <6/12. RAAB software was used for data entry and analysis. RESULTS: We examined 3,629 of 3800 selected persons (95.5%). Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (<3/60), severe visual impairment (SVI; >3/60 to ≤6/60), moderate visual impairment (MVI; >6/60 to ≤6/18), and early visual impairment (EVI; >6/18 to ≤6/12) were 2.14%, 2.35%, 9.68% and 14.7% respectively. Cataract was responsible for 75.0% of blindness and 75.8% of SVI, while refractive error caused 47.9% and 90.9% of MVI and EVI respectively. Most vision loss (95.9%) was avoidable. Cataract surgical coverage among the blind was 81.2%. Refractive error was detected in 17.1% (n = 622) of participants and 95.2% (n = 592) of these did not have spectacles. In the full Rohingya cohort of 76,692, approximately 10,000 surgeries are needed to correct all eyes impaired (<6/18) by cataract, 12,000 need distance glasses and 73,000 require presbyopic correction. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of blindness was lower than expected for a displaced population, in part due to few Rohingya being ≥60 years and the camp's good access to cataract surgery. We suggest the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees include eye care among recommended health services for all refugees with long-term displacement.

13.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the disease burden due to intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) and evaluate contributions of various risk factors to IOFB-associated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). METHODS: Global, regional and country-level number, rate and age-standardised rate of DALYs due to IOFBs were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database. The Human Development Index (HDI) and other region and country-level data were obtained from open databases. Time trends for number, rate and age-standardised rate of DALYs due to IOFBs were calculated. Regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between age-standardised rate of DALYs and potential predictors. RESULTS: Global DALYs due to IOFBs rose by 43.7% between 1990 (139 (95% CI 70.8 to 233) thousand) and 2017 (202 (95% CI 105 to 335) thousand). The DALY rate remained stable while the age-standardised rate decreased during this period. Higher disease burden due to IOFBs was associated with higher glaucoma prevalence (ß=0.006, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.09, p<0.001), lower refractive error prevalence (ß=-0.0005, 95% CI -0.0007 to -0.0002, p<0.001), and lower income (ß=-0.020, 95% CI -0.035 to -0.006, p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Predictors of a greater burden of IOFB disability generally point to lower socioeconomic level. The association with glaucoma may reflect a complication of IOFB, increasing risk of vision loss and disability.

14.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a patient decision aid on the quality of decision-making for patients with age-related cataracts. METHODS: 773 patients with cataracts aged 50-80 years were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention decision aid (including standard information, quantitative information on the possible outcomes of cataract surgery and a value clarification exercise) or the control booklet (including standard information). The primary outcome was informed choice (defined as adequate knowledge and congruency between attitudes and surgical intentions), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via a telephone interview. RESULTS: The decision aid increased the proportion of participants making an informed choice, from 5.68 % in the control group to 27.7 % in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Compared with controls, more participants in the intervention group had adequate overall knowledge about cataract surgery (36.8 % vs. 8.79 % in controls; P < 0.001), and fewer participants intended to undergo surgery (22.5 % vs. 34.1 % in controls; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Use of the patient decision aid may increase the proportion of patients making informed choices. Importantly, it might also reduce the acceptance of operations. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Patient decision aids represent a simple and low-cost tool to facilitate informed choice among patients with cataracts.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe changes in the prevalence of visual impairment and glasses ownership with age and as associated with income and population density for visual impairment among rural and urban migrant Chinese students. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of 12 cross-sectional, school-based studies conducted between 2012 and 2017. SETTING: Rural and urban migrant schools in seven Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 83 273 rural and urban migrant Chinese students aged 6-17 years. RESULTS: Prevalence of visual impairment (uncorrected visual acuity ≤6/12 in either eye) rose from 19.0% at age 6 to 66.9% at 17, with the overall age-adjusted prevalence higher for girls (35.8%) than for boys (30.1%, p<0.001). The rate of glasses ownership among students who needed them increased from 13.0% at age 6 to 63.9% (p<0.001) at 17 and was significantly higher for girls (37.0%) than boys (34.7%, p<0.001). The unmet need for glasses as a proportion of the student population peaked in junior high school (31.8%). A 1% increase in per capita gross domestic product was associated with a 4.45% rise in uncorrected visual acuity (R2=0.057, p=0.020). Population density was significantly associated with glasses ownership among children (R2=0.359, p=0.012). A 1% population density increase was associated with an increase in the glasses ownership rate of 6.83%. CONCLUSION: Efforts are needed to improve vision screening coverage in China's schools, particularly junior high schools, as this is when many rural children leave school and glasses coverage is lowest.

16.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 5(1): e000572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083554

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effect of free eyeglasses provision on visual acuity among middle school students in northwestern rural China. Methods and analysis: Among 31 middle schools randomly selected from 47 middle schools in northwestern rural China, students were randomly allocated by school to one of two interventions: free eyeglasses (intervention group), and eyeglasses prescriptions given only to the parents (control group). The main outcome of this study is uncorrected visual acuity after 9 months, adjusted for baseline visual acuity. Results: Among 2095 students from 31 middle schools, 995 (47.5%) failed the visual acuity screening, 515 (51.8%, 15 schools) of which were randomly assigned to the intervention group, with the remaining 480 students (48.2%, 16 schools) assigned to the control group. Among these, a total of 910 students were followed up and analysed. Endline eyeglasses wear in the intervention group was 44%, and 36% in the control group. Endline visual acuity of students in the intervention group was significantly better than students in the control group, adjusting for other variables (0.045 LogMAR units, 95% CI 0.006 to 0.084, equivalent to 0.45 lines, p=0.027), and insignificantly better only for baseline visual acuity (difference of 0.008 LogMAR units, 95% CI -0.018 to 0.034, equivalent to 0.08 lines). Conclusion: We found no evidence that receiving free eyeglasses worsened visual acuity among middle school students in northwestern rural China. Trial registration number: ISRCTN17141957.

17.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 57(5): 333-339, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a process for identifying birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) screening guidelines in Mongolia. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in a tertiary care hospital in Ulaanbataar, Mongolia, of 193 premature infants with GA of 36 weeks or younger and/or BW of 2,000 g or less) with regression analysis to determine associations between BW and GA and the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). RESULTS: As BW and GA decreased, the relative risk of developing ROP increased. The relative risk of developing any stage of ROP in infants born at 29 weeks or younger was 2.91 (95% CI: 1.55 to 5.44; P < .001] compared to older infants. The relative risk of developing any type of ROP in infants with BW of less than 1,200 g was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.35 to 4.29; P = .003] and developing type 2 or worse ROP was 2.05 (95% CI: 0.99 to 4.25; P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Infants in Mongolia with heavier BW and older GA who fall outside of current United States screening guidelines of GA of 30 weeks or younger and/or BW of 1,500 g or less developed clinically relevant ROP. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020;57(5):333-339.].

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036689, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895273

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vision impairment (VI) places a burden on individuals, health systems and society in general. In order to support the case for investing in eye health services, an updated cost of illness study that measures the global impact of VI is necessary. To perform such a study, a systematic review of the literature is needed. Here we outline the protocol for a systematic review to describe and summarise the costs associated with VI and its major causes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically search in Medline (Ovid) and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database which includes the National Health Service Economics Evaluation Database. No language or geographical restriction will be applied. Additional literature will be identified by reviewing the references in the included studies and by contacting field experts. Grey literature will be considered. The review will include any study published from 1 January 2000 to November 2019 that provides information about costs of illness, burden of disease and/or loss of well-being in participants with VI due to an unspecified cause or due to one of the seven leading causes globally.Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant data from included studies. Methodological quality of economic studies will be assessed based on the British Medical Journal checklist for economic submissions adapted to costs of illness studies. This protocol has been prepared following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis protocols and has been published prospectively in Open Science Framework. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required, as primary data will not be collected in this review. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, stakeholder meetings and inclusion in the ongoing Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health. REGISTRATION DETAILS: https://osf.io/9au3w (DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/6F8VM).

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038647, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic is a major public health concern globally, with the highest-burden in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes, and if left untreated can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of sight-threatening DR is decreasing in high-income countries due to improved treatments and management of DM; however, these trends are not replicated in LMICs. In this paper, we outline a scoping review protocol that aims to identify which LMICs have included DR in their national DM, non-communicable disease or prevention of blindness plans. The scoping review also aims to assess gaps when implementing national DR screening programmes in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Review guidelines. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature will be conducted from October 1989 (St. Vincent Declaration) to February 2020. Studies will be identified from electronic databases; Medline, Embase and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library). To identify further relevant articles, a hand search will be conducted using the reference lists of included studies. Two reviewers will independently screen records for relevant data and disagreements about eligibility will be resolved through consensus or arbitration by a third reviewer. A quantitative analysis will be performed to highlight key findings and thematic analysis will be used to identify emerging themes and subthemes from included studies. The key themes will highlight countries progress in terms of national-level DR service planning and screening implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required because the scoping review methodology aims to synthesise information from publicly available resources. The results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publication.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e037648, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vision impairment and eye disease are major global health concerns and have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and lower quality of life. Quality of life, whether generic, vision-specific or disease-specific, is an important measure of the impact of eye health on people's daily activities, well-being and visual function, and is increasingly used to evaluate the impact of ophthalmic interventions and new devices. While many studies and reviews have examined the relationship between vision or eye health and quality of life across different contexts, there has yet to be a synthesis of the impact of vision impairment, eye disease and ophthalmic interventions on quality of life globally and across the lifespan. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An umbrella review of systematic reviews will be conducted to address these two questions: (1) What is the association of vision impairment and eye disease with quality of life? (2) What is the impact of ophthalmic interventions on quality of life? A search of related literature will be performed on the 11 February 2020 in Medline Ovid, Embase.com, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global, and the grey literature, and repeated at the synthesis stage. Title/abstract and full-text screening, methodological quality assessment and data extraction will be conducted by reviewers working independently and in duplicate. Assessment of methodological quality and data extraction will be performed using Joanna Briggs Institute standard forms. Findings from the systematic reviews and their methodological quality will be summarised qualitatively in the text and using tables. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required. Results of this umbrella review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and summarised in the Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This protocol was registered in the Open Science Framework Registries (https://osf.io/qhv9g/).

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