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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633497

RESUMO

This study derives methane emission rates from 92 airborne observations collected over 23 facilities including 5 refineries, 10 landfills, 4 wastewater treatment plants (POTWs), 2 composting operations, and 2 dairies in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission rates are measured using an airborne mass-balance technique from a low-flying aircraft. Annual measurement-based sectorwide methane emissions are 19,000 ± 2300 Mg for refineries, 136,700 ± 25,900 Mg for landfills, 11,900 ± 1,500 Mg for POTWs, and 11,100 ± 3,400 Mg for composting. The average of measured emissions for each refinery ranges from 4 to 23 times larger than the corresponding emissions reported to regulatory agencies, while measurement-derived landfill and POTW estimates are approximately twice the current inventory estimates. Significant methane emissions at composting facilities indicate that a California mandate to divert organics from landfills to composting may not be an effective measure for mitigating methane emissions unless best management practices are instituted at composting facilities. Complementary evidence from airborne remote sensing imagery indicates atmospheric venting from refinery hydrogen plants, landfill working surfaces, composting stockpiles, etc., to be among the specific source types responsible for the observed discrepancies. This work highlights the value of multiple measurement approaches to accurately estimate facility-scale methane emissions and perform source attribution at subfacility scales to guide and verify effective mitigation policy and action.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(8): 5112-5120, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281379

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas activities are large and poorly quantified, with onshore studies showing systematic inventory underestimates. We present aircraft measurements of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms collected over the U.S. Gulf of Mexico in January 2018. Flights sampled individual facilities as well as regions of 5-70 facilities. We combine facility-level samples, production data, and inventory estimates to generate an aerial measurement-based inventory of CH4 emissions for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. We compare our inventory and the Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) with regional airborne estimates. The new inventory and regional airborne estimates are consistent with the GHGI in deep water but appear higher for shallow water. For the full U.S. Gulf of Mexico our inventory estimates total emissions of 0.53 Tg CH4/yr [0.40-0.71 Tg CH4/yr, 95% CI] and corresponds to a loss rate of 2.9% [2.2-3.8%] of natural gas production. Our estimate is a factor of 2 higher than the GHGI updated with 2018 platform counts. We attribute this disagreement to incomplete platform counts and emission factors that both underestimate emissions for shallow water platforms and do not account for disproportionately high emissions from large shallow water facilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Golfo do México , Gás Natural/análise , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
3.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 100-105, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905240

RESUMO

von Willebrand disease is a common bleeding disorder, but diagnosis can be difficult in young children who have not had bleeding challenges. We sought to evaluate the correlation between bleeding and von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels in children undergoing surgical challenge with tonsillectomy. Children ages 0 to 18 undergoing tonsillectomy without a personal or family history of bleeding were enrolled prospectively following informed consent and institutional review board approval. VWF levels were obtained at the time of surgery. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF activity (VWF:GPIbM) were tested via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bleeding score was calculated using the International Society of Hematology bleeding assessment tool (BAT). Surgical and postoperative bleeding were determined using questionnaires filled out by the surgeon and patient/family. A total of 1399 subjects were enrolled with evaluable data, with a median age of 5 years. The median VWF:Ag was 85 IU/dL and the median VWF:GPIbM was 100 U/dL. Median BAT for the entire population was 0, including those with postoperative bleeding. There was no difference in VWF level between those who experienced postoperative bleeding and those who did not, with median VWF:Ag 85 vs 85 (P = .89) and mean VWF:GPIbM 98 vs 100 (P = .5). Interestingly, there was a difference in VWF levels with age, with median VWF:Ag 81 for those younger than 3 years, 82 for those 3 to 6 years, 90 for those 7 to 10 years, and 100 for those 11 to 18 years. A similar trend was noted for VWF:GPIbM. Of the 2 to 6 year olds, 5% had VWF:Ag <50, which would meet criteria for low VWF, but only 1.8% had an abnormal BAT at study entry and only 2.5% bled after surgery. Only 1 subject with low VWF had an elevated postoperative BAT >2. These data suggest that low VWF levels do not correlate with bleeding in children undergoing tonsillectomy. In addition, VWF levels outside the adult normal range in young children may be more common than previously thought and do not necessarily predict surgical bleeding.

4.
Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210

RESUMO

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , California , Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Metano/química , Metano/metabolismo , Gás Natural , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/métodos , Petróleo , Águas Residuárias
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 8976-8984, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283190

RESUMO

Current research efforts on the atmospheric impacts of natural gas (NG) have focused heavily on the production, storage/transmission, and processing sectors, with less attention paid to the distribution and end use sectors. This work discusses 23 flights at 14 natural gas-fired power plants (NGPPs) using an aircraft-based mass balance technique and methane/carbon dioxide enhancement ratios (ΔCH4/ΔCO2) measured from stack plumes to quantify the unburned fuel. By comparing the ΔCH4/ΔCO2 ratio measured in stack plumes to that measured downwind, we determined that, within uncertainty of the measurement, all observed CH4 emissions were stack-based, that is, uncombusted NG from the stack rather than fugitive sources. Measured CH4 emission rates (ER) ranged from 8 (±5) to 135 (±27) kg CH4/h (±1σ), with the fractional CH4 throughput lost (loss rate) ranging from -0.039% (±0.076%) to 0.204% (±0.054%). We attribute negative values to partial combustion of ambient CH4 in the power plant. The average calculated emission factor (EF) of 5.4 (+10/-5.4) g CH4/million British thermal units (MMBTU) is within uncertainty of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EFs. However, one facility measured during startup exhibited substantially larger stack emissions with an EF of 440 (+660/-440) g CH4/MMBTU and a loss rate of 2.5% (+3.8/-2.5%).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gás Natural , Dióxido de Carbono , Metano , Centrais Elétricas
6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease characterized by the growth of papillomas in the airway and especially the larynx. The clinical course is highly variable among individuals and there is poor understanding of the factors that drive an aggressive vs an indolent course. METHODS: A convenience cohort of 339 affected subjects with papillomas positive for only HPV6 or HPV11 and clinical course data available for 1 year or more, from a large multicenter international study were included. Exploratory data analysis was conducted followed by inferential analyses with frequentist and Bayesian statistics. RESULTS: We examined 339 subjects: 82% were diagnosed prior to the age of 18 years, 65% were infected with HPV6, and 69% had an aggressive clinical course. When comparing age at diagnosis with clinical course, the probability of aggressiveness is high for children under five years of age then drops rapidly. For patients diagnosed after the age of 10 years, an indolent course is more common. After accounting for confounding between HPV11 and young age, HPV type was minimally associated with aggressiveness. Fast and Frugal Trees (FFTs) were utilized to determine which algorithms yield the highest accuracy to classify patients as having an indolent or aggressive clinical course and consistently created a branch for diagnostic age at ~5 years old. There was no reliable strong association between clinical course and socioeconomic or parental factors. CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort of its type, we have identified a critical age at diagnosis which demarcates a more aggressive from less aggressive clinical course.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 11/fisiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 6/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/cirurgia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/cirurgia
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(6): 2961-2970, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821440

RESUMO

Rapid increase in atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratios over the past century is attributable to the intensification of human activities. Information on spatially explicit source contributions is needed to develop efficient and cost-effective CH4 emission reduction and mitigation strategies to addresses near-term climate change. This study collected long-term ambient CH4 measurements at Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) in Los Angeles, California, to estimate the annual CH4 emissions from the portion of Los Angeles County that is within the South Coast Air Basin (SCLA). The measurement-based CH4 emission estimates for SCLA ranged from 3.95 to 4.89 million metric tons (MMT) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per year between 2012 and 2016. Source apportionment of CH4, CO, CO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements were used to evaluate source categories that contributed to ambient CH4 mixing ratio enhancements (ΔCH4) at SCLA between 2014 and 2016. Results suggested ΔCH4 contributions of 56-79% from natural gas sources, 7-31% from landfills, and 4-15% from transportation sources. The SCLA-specific CH4 emission estimate made using a research grade gridded CH4 emission inventory suggested contributions of 47% from natural gas sources and 50% from landfills. Subsequent airborne measurements determined that CH4 emissions from two major CH4 sources in SCLA were significantly smaller in magnitude than previously thought. This study highlights the importance of studying the variabilities of CH4 emissions across California for policy makers and stakeholders alike.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Los Angeles , Gás Natural
8.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 69(1): 71-88, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204538

RESUMO

Novel aerial methane (CH4) detection technologies were used in this study to identify anomalously high-emitting oil and gas (O&G) facilities and to guide ground-based "leak detection and repair" (LDAR) teams. This approach has the potential to enable a rapid and effective inspection of O&G facilities under voluntary or regulatory LDAR programs to identify and mitigate anomalously large CH4 emissions from a disproportionately small number of facilities. This is the first study of which the authors are aware to deploy, evaluate, and compare the CH4 detection volumes and cost-effectiveness of aerially guided and purely ground-based LDAR techniques. Two aerial methods, the Kairos Aerospace infrared CH4 column imaging and the Scientific Aviation in situ aircraft CH4 mole fraction measurements, were tested during a 2-week period in the Fayetteville Shale region contemporaneously with conventional ground-based LDAR. We show that aerially guided LDAR can be at least as cost-effective as ground-based LDAR, but several variable parameters were identified that strongly affect cost-effectiveness and which require field research and improvements beyond this pilot study. These parameters include (i) CH4 minimum dectectable limit of aerial technologies, (ii) emission rate size distributions of sources, (iii) remote distinction of fixable versus nonfixable CH4 sources ("leaks" vs. CH4 emissions occurring by design), and (iv) the fraction of fixable sources to total CH4 emissions. Suggestions for future study design are provided. Implications: Mitigation of methane leaks from existing oil and gas operations currently relies on on-site inspections of all applicable facilities at a prescribed frequency. This approach is labor- and cost-intensive, especially because a majority of oil and gas-related methane emissions originate from a disproportionately small number of facilities and components. We show for the first time in real-world conditions how aerial methane measurements can identify anomalously high-emitting facilities to enable a rapid, focused, and directed ground inspection of these facilities. The aerially guided approach can be more cost-effective than current practices, especially when implementing the aircraft deployment improvements discussed here.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Metano/análise , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/normas , Ar/análise , Ar/normas , Aeronaves , Análise Custo-Benefício , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
9.
Sci Adv ; 4(9): eaau7373, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214941

RESUMO

Maaz et al. argue that inconsistencies across scales of observation undermine our working hypothesis that soil NO x emissions have been substantially overlooked in California; however, the core issues they raise are already discussed in our manuscript. We agree that point measurements cannot be reliably used to estimate statewide soil NO x emissions-the principal motivation behind our new modeling/airplane approach. Maaz et al.'s presentation of fertilizer-based emission factors (a nonmechanistic scaling of point measures to regions based solely on estimated nitrogen fertilizer application rates) includes no data from California or other semiarid sites, and does not explicitly account for widely known controls of climate, soil, and moisture on soil NO x fluxes. In contrast, our model includes all of these factors. Finally, the fertilizer sales data that Maaz et al. highlight are known to suffer from serious errors and do not offer a logically more robust pathway for spatial analysis of NO x emissions from soil.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8947-8953, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989804

RESUMO

We performed an infrared optical gas imaging (OGI) survey by helicopter of hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken formation of North Dakota. One year after an earlier survey of 682 well pads in September of 2014, the same helicopter crew resurveyed 353 well pads in 2015 to examine the persistence of emissions. Twenty-one newly producing well pads were added in the same sampling blocks. An instrumented aircraft was also used to quantify emissions from 33 plumes identified by aerial OGI. Well pads emitting methane and ethane in 2014 were far more likely to be emitting in 2015 than would be expected by chance; Monte Carlo simulations suggest >5σ deviation ( p < 0.0001) from random assignment of detectable emissions between survey years. Scaled up using basin-wide leakage estimates, the emissions quantified by aircraft are sufficient to explain previously observed basin-wide emissions of methane and ethane.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Etano , Gás Natural , North Dakota
11.
Sci Adv ; 4(1): eaao3477, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399630

RESUMO

Nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO2) are a primary component of air pollution-a leading cause of premature death in humans and biodiversity declines worldwide. Although regulatory policies in California have successfully limited transportation sources of NO x pollution, several of the United States' worst-air quality districts remain in rural regions of the state. Site-based findings suggest that NO x emissions from California's agricultural soils could contribute to air quality issues; however, a statewide estimate is hitherto lacking. We show that agricultural soils are a dominant source of NO x pollution in California, with especially high soil NO x emissions from the state's Central Valley region. We base our conclusion on two independent approaches: (i) a bottom-up spatial model of soil NO x emissions and (ii) top-down airborne observations of atmospheric NO x concentrations over the San Joaquin Valley. These approaches point to a large, overlooked NO x source from cropland soil, which is estimated to increase the NO x budget by 20 to 51%. These estimates are consistent with previous studies of point-scale measurements of NO x emissions from the soil. Our results highlight opportunities to limit NO x emissions from agriculture by investing in management practices that will bring co-benefits to the economy, ecosystems, and human health in rural areas of California.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(21): 13008-13017, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039181

RESUMO

Airborne measurements of methane emissions from oil and gas infrastructure were completed over two regions of Alberta, Canada. These top-down measurements were directly compared with region-specific bottom-up inventories that utilized current industry-reported flaring and venting volumes (reported data) and quantitative estimates of unreported venting and fugitive sources. For the 50 × 50 km measurement region near Red Deer, characterized by natural gas and light oil production, measured methane fluxes were more than 17 times greater than that derived from directly reported data but consistent with our region-specific bottom-up inventory-based estimate. For the 60 × 60 km measurement region near Lloydminster, characterized by significant cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS), airborne measured methane fluxes were five times greater than directly reported emissions from venting and flaring and four times greater than our region-specific bottom up inventory-based estimate. Extended across Alberta, our results suggest that reported venting emissions in Alberta should be 2.5 ± 0.5 times higher, and total methane emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector (excluding mined oil sands) are likely at least 25-50% greater than current government estimates. Successful mitigation efforts in the Red Deer region will need to focus on the >90% of methane emissions currently unmeasured or unreported.


Assuntos
Metano , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Alberta , Gás Natural
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(21): 12981-12987, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019666

RESUMO

We report 65 individual measurements of methane emissions from 24 oil and gas facilities across California. Methane emission rates were estimated using in situ methane and wind velocity measurements from a small aircraft by a novel Gauss' Theorem flux integral approach. The estimates are compared with annual mean emissions reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) through their respective greenhouse gas reporting programs. The average emissions from 36 measurements of 10 gas storage facilities were within a factor of 2 of emissions reported to USEPA or CARB, though large variance was observed and the reporting database did not contain all of the facilities. In contrast, average emissions from 15 measurements of the three refineries were roughly an order of magnitude more than reported to the USEPA or CARB. The remaining measurements suggest compressor emissions are variable and perhaps slightly larger than reported, and emissions from one oil production facility were roughly concordant with a separate (not GHG reporting) bottom-up estimate from other work. Together, these results provide an initial facility-specific survey of methane emissions from California oil and natural gas infrastructure with observed variability suggesting the need for expanded measurements in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Gás Natural , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(14): 8001-8009, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678487

RESUMO

Methane emissions from oil and gas facilities can exhibit operation-dependent temporal variability; however, this variability has yet to be fully characterized. A field campaign was conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas, to examine spatiotemporal variability of methane emissions using four methods. Clusters of methane-emitting sources were estimated from 14 aerial surveys of two ("East" or "West") 35 × 35 km grids, two aircraft-based mass balance methods measured emissions repeatedly at five gathering facilities and three flares, and emitting equipment source-types were identified via helicopter-based infrared camera at 13 production and gathering facilities. Significant daily variability was observed in the location, number (East: 44 ± 20% relative standard deviation (RSD), N = 7; West: 37 ± 30% RSD, N = 7), and emission rates (36% of repeat measurements deviate from mean emissions by at least ±50%) of clusters of emitting sources. Emission rates of high emitters varied from 150-250 to 880-1470 kg/h and regional aggregate emissions of large sources (>15 kg/h) varied up to a factor of ∼3 between surveys. The aircraft-based mass balance results revealed comparable variability. Equipment source-type changed between surveys and alterations in operational-mode significantly influenced emissions. Results indicate that understanding temporal emission variability will promote improved mitigation strategies and additional analysis is needed to fully characterize its causes.


Assuntos
Metano , Gás Natural , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Texas
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(12): 7286-7294, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548824

RESUMO

Divergence in recent oil and gas related methane emission estimates between aircraft studies (basin total for a midday window) and emissions inventories (annualized regional and national statistics) indicate the need for better understanding the experimental design, including temporal and spatial alignment and interpretation of results. Our aircraft-based methane emission estimates in a major U.S. shale gas basin resolved from west to east show (i) similar spatial distributions for 2 days, (ii) strong spatial correlations with reported NG production (R2 = 0.75) and active gas well pad count (R2 = 0.81), and (iii) 2× higher emissions in the western half (normalized by gas production) despite relatively homogeneous dry gas and well characteristics. Operator reported hourly activity data show that midday episodic emissions from manual liquid unloadings (a routine operation in this basin and elsewhere) could explain ∼1/3 of the total emissions detected midday by the aircraft and ∼2/3 of the west-east difference in emissions. The 22% emission difference between both days further emphasizes that episodic sources can substantially impact midday methane emissions and that aircraft may detect daily peak emissions rather than daily averages that are generally employed in emissions inventories. While the aircraft approach is valid, quantitative, and independent, our study sheds new light on the interpretation of previous basin scale aircraft studies, and provides an improved mechanistic understanding of oil and gas related methane emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Aeronaves , Gás Natural , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(10): 5832-5837, 2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418663

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and the primary component of natural gas. The San Juan Basin (SJB) is one of the largest coal-bed methane producing regions in North America and, including gas production from conventional and shale sources, contributed ∼2% of U.S. natural gas production in 2015. In this work, we quantify the CH4 flux from the SJB using continuous atmospheric sampling from aircraft collected during the TOPDOWN2015 field campaign in April 2015. Using five independent days of measurements and the aircraft-based mass balance method, we calculate an average CH4 flux of 0.54 ± 0.20 Tg yr-1 (1σ), in close agreement with the previous space-based estimate made for 2003-2009. These results agree within error with the U.S. EPA gridded inventory for 2012. These flights combined with the previous satellite study suggest CH4 emissions have not changed. While there have been significant declines in natural gas production between measurements, recent increases in oil production in the SJB may explain why emission of CH4 has not declined. Airborne quantification of outcrops where seepage occurs are consistent with ground-based studies that indicate these geological sources are a small fraction of the basin total (0.02-0.12 Tg yr-1) and cannot explain basinwide consistent emissions from 2003 to 2015.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Aeronaves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gás Natural , América do Norte
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(35): 9734-9, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528660

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign.

18.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 154(5): 924-7, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence of complications and hospital readmission as a result of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections to manage sialorrhea. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case series with chart review was performed of all cases of ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin by pediatric otolaryngologists from March 5, 2010, to September 26, 2014,. Primary outcomes included complications such as dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, and motor paralysis. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, intubation, and nasogastric tube placement. RESULTS: There were 48 patients, 111 interventions, and 306 intraglandular injections identified. Botulinum toxin type A and type B were utilized in 4 and 107 operative interventions, respectively. Type A was injected into 4 parotid and 4 submandibular glands, utilizing doses of 20 U per parotid and 30 U per submandibular gland. Type B was injected into 98 parotid and 200 submandibular glands, with average dosing of 923 U per parotid and 1170 U per submandibular gland, respectively. There were 2 instances of subjectively worsening of baseline dysphagia that self-resolved. No cases were complicated by aspiration pneumonia or motor paralysis. No patients required hospital readmission, intubation, or nasogastric tube placement. CONCLUSION: Prior published data indicated 16% complication incidence with ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin. Our study found a low complication rate (0.6%) with ultrasound-guided injections of botulinum toxin to manage sialorrhea, without cases of aspiration pneumonia or motor paralysis. Of 306 intraglandular injections, there were 2 cases of worsening baseline subjective dysphagia that self-resolved.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Sialorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adolescente , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/efeitos adversos , Injeções/métodos , Masculino , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Wisconsin
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(13): 8124-31, 2015 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26148550

RESUMO

We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aeronaves , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metano/análise , Geografia , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Texas
20.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 51(4): 378-80, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24983490

RESUMO

This review continues the series of articles by the Editorial Board reflecting upon the first volume of the journal published in 1964 and celebrating the 50th anniversary of The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. This editorial examines the contributions of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery to interdisciplinary cleft care. The aerodigestive tract has many functions that are impacted by the cleft anomaly. Progress in the development of selected therapies will be reviewed.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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