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1.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(12): 1051-1058, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine level of agreement among clinical signs of shock type, identify which signs clinicians prioritize to determine shock type and select vasoactive medications, and test the association of shock type-vasoactive mismatch with prolonged organ dysfunction or death (complicated course). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single large academic PICU. PATIENTS: Patients less than 18 years treated on a critical care sepsis pathway between 2012 and 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Agreement among clinical signs (extremity temperature, capillary refill, pulse strength, pulse pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) was measured using Fleiss and Cohen's κ. Association of clinical signs with shock type and shock type-vasoactive mismatch (e.g., cold shock treated with vasopressor rather than inotrope) with complicated course was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 469 patients, clinicians determined 307 (65%) had warm and 162 (35%) had cold shock. Agreement across all clinical signs was low (κ, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.20-0.30), although agreement between extremity temperature, capillary refill, and pulse strength was better than with pulse pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Only extremity temperature (adjusted odds ratio, 26.6; 95% CI, 15.5-45.8), capillary refill (adjusted odds ratio, 15.7; 95% CI, 7.9-31.3), and pulse strength (adjusted odds ratio, 21.3; 95% CI, 8.6-52.7) were associated with clinician-documented shock type. Of the 86 patients initiated on vasoactive medications during the pathway, shock type was discordant from vasoactive medication (κ, 0.14; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.31) and shock type-vasoactive mismatch was not associated with complicated course (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement was low among common clinical signs used to characterize shock type, with clinicians prioritizing extremity temperature, capillary refill, and pulse strength. Although clinician-assigned shock type was often discordant with vasoactive choice, shock type-vasoactive mismatch was not associated with complicated course. Categorizing shock based on clinical signs should be done cautiously.

3.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(9): e672-e678, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diaphragm atrophy is evident during invasive ventilation for pediatric acute respiratory failure, but with unknown significance. We hypothesized that diaphragm atrophy in pediatric acute respiratory failure is associated with prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation following extubation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single-center academic PICU. PATIENTS: Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. INTERVENTIONS: Diaphragm ultrasound was performed within 36 hours after intubation and repeated within 48 hours preceding extubation. Rapid shallow breathing index at 15 and 30 minutes of a spontaneous breathing trial and negative inspiratory force were collected in a subset of patients concurrently with the ultrasound measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration was measured to assess for diaphragm atrophy during mechanical ventilation. Percentage change in diaphragm thickness at end-expiration was defined as baseline diaphragm thickness at end-expiration minus final, preextubation diaphragm thickness at end-expiration divided by baseline diaphragm thickness at end-expiration. The primary outcome measure was duration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation following extubation with prolonged use defined as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use for greater than 24 hours postextubation. Among 56 children, 47 (median age, 15.5 mo; interquartile range, 6-53 mo) had diaphragm thickness at end-expiration measured within 48 hours prior to extubation. Fourteen (30%) had prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use with median duration 110 hours (interquartile range, 52-130 hr). The median percentage change of diaphragm thickness at end-expiration from baseline among those with and without prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use was -20% (interquartile range, -32% to -10%) versus -7% (interquartile range, -21% to 0%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm atrophy is associated with prolonged postextubation noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children with acute respiratory failure. Serial bedside diaphragm ultrasound may identify children at risk for prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use after extubation.

4.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 65, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is nowadays an essential tool in critical care. Its role seems more important in neonates and children where other monitoring techniques may be unavailable. POCUS Working Group of the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care (ESPNIC) aimed to provide evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. METHODS: Creation of an international Euro-American panel of paediatric and neonatal intensivists expert in POCUS and systematic review of relevant literature. A literature search was performed, and the level of evidence was assessed according to a GRADE method. Recommendations were developed through discussions managed following a Quaker-based consensus technique and evaluating appropriateness using a modified blind RAND/UCLA voting method. AGREE statement was followed to prepare this document. RESULTS: Panellists agreed on 39 out of 41 recommendations for the use of cardiac, lung, vascular, cerebral and abdominal POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. Recommendations were mostly (28 out of 39) based on moderate quality of evidence (B and C). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children are now available. They will be useful to optimise the use of POCUS, training programs and further research, which are urgently needed given the weak quality of evidence available.


Assuntos
Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/normas
5.
Crit. care ; 24(65): [1-16], Feb. 24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1117218

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is nowadays an essential tool in critical care. Its role seems more important in neonates and children where other monitoring techniques may be unavailable. POCUS Working Group of the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care (ESPNIC) aimed to provide evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. Creation of an international Euro-American panel of paediatric and neonatal intensivists expert in POCUS and systematic review of relevant literature. A literature search was performed, and the level of evidence was assessed according to a GRADE method. Recommendations were developed through discussions managed following a Quaker-based consensus technique and evaluating appropriateness using a modified blind RAND/UCLAvoting method. AGREE statement was followed to prepare this document. Panellists agreed on 39 out of 41 recommendations for the use of cardiac, lung, vascular, cerebral and abdominal POCUS in critically ill neonates and children. Recommendations were mostly (28 out of 39) based on moderate quality of evidence (B and C). Evidence-based guidelines for the use of POCUS in critically ill neonates and children are now available. They will be useful to optimise the use of POCUS, training programs and further research, which are urgently needed given the weak quality of evidence available.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Testes Imediatos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos
6.
Pediatrics ; 144(5)2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615954

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound is currently widely used across the landscape of pediatric care. Ultrasound machines are now smaller, are easier to use, and have much improved image quality. They have become common in emergency departments, ICUs, inpatient wards, and outpatient clinics. Recent growth of supportive evidence makes a strong case for using point-of-care ultrasound for pediatric interventions such as vascular access (in particular, central-line placement), lumbar puncture, fluid drainage (paracentesis, thoracentesis, pericardiocentesis), suprapubic aspiration, and soft tissue incision and drainage. Our review of this evidence reveals that point-of-care ultrasound has become a powerful tool for improving procedural success and patient safety. Pediatric patients and clinicians performing procedures stand to benefit greatly from point-of-care ultrasound, because seeing is believing.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Testes Imediatos
7.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481415

RESUMO

Diagnostic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a growing field across all disciplines of pediatric practice. Machine accessibility and portability will only continue to grow, thus increasing exposure to this technology for both providers and patients. Individuals seeking training in POCUS should first identify their scope of practice to determine appropriate applications within their clinical setting, a few of which are discussed within this article. Efforts to build standardized POCUS infrastructure within specialties and institutions are ongoing with the goal of improving patient care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Pediatria , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Artefatos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ergonomia , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vômito/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 91(3): 206.e1-206.e13, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186735

RESUMO

La ecografía a pie de cama (EPC) se ha convertido en los últimos años en una herramienta imprescindible para la práctica clínica. La EPC debe entenderse como una extensión de la exploración física habitual que, sin sustituirla, la complementa y la enriquece. La EPC permite al clínico responder preguntas concretas sobre el diagnóstico, entender mejor la fisiopatología, orientar el tratamiento o realizar procedimientos invasivos con mayor seguridad. A pesar de su integración en muchos centros y en las diferentes subespecialidades pediátricas, no disponemos de recomendaciones específicas que establezcan los objetivos formativos en las distintas áreas de capacitación, la metodología de entrenamiento o la certificación de competencias en pediatría. Estos elementos son imprescindibles para que la EPC pueda implementarse en la práctica diaria con garantías de eficiencia y seguridad. Este artículo aborda las principales aplicaciones de la EPC en pediatría mediante una revisión no sistemática por parte de expertos en diferentes áreas de la práctica clínica en España. Además, se discute acerca de la falta de planes formativos a nivel estatal, contando con la aportación de la experiencia de Estados Unidos. En vista de la situación actual de la EPC, en nuestra opinión es urgente que se establezcan recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el entrenamiento en EPC que sirvan como base para el desarrollo de planes formativos y la integración de la EPC en el programa formativo de la especialidad


Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become an essential tool for clinical practice in recent years. It should be considered as an extension of the standard physical examination, which complements and enriches it without substituting it. POCUS enables the physician to answer specific clinical questions about the diagnosis, to understand better the pathophysiological context, to orientate the treatment, and to perform invasive procedures more safely. Despite its current use in many centres, and in most paediatric sub-specialties, there are currently no specific recommendations addressing educational aims in the different training areas, as well as methodology practice and the certification process in paediatrics. These ingredients are essential for POCUS implementation in daily practice, with a quality guarantee in terms of efficiency and safety. Several POCUS experts in different paediatric medicine environments performed a non-systematic review addressing the main paediatric POCUS applications in paediatrics. The lack of educational programs in POCUS in Spain is also discussed, and the experience in the United States of America in this topic is provided. Considering the current situation of POCUS in paediatrics, we strongly believe that it is urgent to establish evidence-based recommendations for POCUS training that should be the base to develop educational programs and to include POCUS in the paediatric residency training


Assuntos
Humanos , Pediatras/educação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Espanha , Especialização
10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(3): 206.e1-206.e13, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395389

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become an essential tool for clinical practice in recent years. It should be considered as an extension of the standard physical examination, which complements and enriches it without substituting it. POCUS enables the physician to answer specific clinical questions about the diagnosis, to understand better the pathophysiological context, to orientate the treatment, and to perform invasive procedures more safely. Despite its current use in many centres, and in most paediatric sub-specialties, there are currently no specific recommendations addressing educational aims in the different training areas, as well as methodology practice and the certification process in paediatrics. These ingredients are essential for POCUS implementation in daily practice, with a quality guarantee in terms of efficiency and safety. Several POCUS experts in different paediatric medicine environments performed a non-systematic review addressing the main paediatric POCUS applications in paediatrics. The lack of educational programs in POCUS in Spain is also discussed, and the experience in the United States of America in this topic is provided. Considering the current situation of POCUS in paediatrics, we strongly believe that it is urgent to establish evidence-based recommendations for POCUS training that should be the base to develop educational programs and to include POCUS in the paediatric residency training.


Assuntos
Pediatria/educação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Espanha , Especialização
12.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(7): 672-681, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839154

RESUMO

Ultrasound technology is available in many pediatric perioperative settings. There is an increasing number of ultrasound applications for anesthesiologists which may enhance clinical performance, procedural safety, and patient outcomes. This review highlights the literature and experience supporting focused ultrasound applications in the pediatric perioperative setting across varied disciplines including anesthesiology. The review also suggests strategies for building educational and infrastructural systems to translate this technology into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia/tendências , Humanos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Ventilação
13.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(1): 71-78, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To create a bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service to increase placement of bedside peripherally inserted central catheter in PICU patients. DESIGN: Two-phase observational, pre-post design. SETTING: Single-center quaternary noncardiac PICU. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to the PICU. INTERVENTIONS: From June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, a bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service team was created (phase I) and expanded (phase II) as part of a quality improvement initiative. A multidisciplinary team developed a PICU peripherally inserted central catheter evaluation tool to identify amenable patients and to suggest location and provider for procedure performance. Outcome, process, and balancing metrics were evaluated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service placed 130 of 493 peripherally inserted central catheter (26%) resulting in 2,447 hospital central catheter days. A shift in bedside peripherally inserted central catheter centerline proportion occurred during both phases. Median time from order to catheter placement was reduced for peripherally inserted central catheters placed by bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service compared with placement in interventional radiology (6 hr [interquartile range, 2-23 hr] vs 34 hr [interquartile range, 19-61 hr]; p < 0.001). Successful access was achieved by bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service providers in 96% of patients with central tip position in 97%. Bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service central line-associated bloodstream infection and venous thromboembolism rates were similar to rates for peripherally inserted central catheters placed in interventional radiology (all central line-associated bloodstream infection, 1.23 vs 2.18; p = 0.37 and venous thromboembolism, 1.63 vs 1.57; p = 0.91). Peripherally inserted central catheters in PICU patients had reduced in-hospital venous thromboembolism rate compared with PICU temporary catheter in PICU rate (1.59 vs 5.36; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service implementation increased bedside peripherally inserted central catheter placement and employed a patient-centered and timely process. Balancing metrics including central line-associated bloodstream infection and venous thromboembolism rates were not significantly different between peripherally inserted central catheters placed by bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service and those placed in interventional radiology.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/organização & administração , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/organização & administração , Adolescente , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
14.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(11): e561-e568, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess current diagnostic bedside ultrasound program core element (training, credentialing, image storage, documentation, and quality assurance) implementation across pediatric critical care medicine divisions in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based needs assessment survey. SETTING: Pediatric critical care medicine divisions with an Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited fellowship. RESPONDENTS: Divisional leaders in education and/or bedside ultrasound training. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-five of 67 pediatric critical care medicine divisions (82%) with an Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited fellowship provided responses. Overall, 63% of responding divisions (34/54) were clinically performing diagnostic bedside ultrasound studies with no difference between divisions with large versus small units. Diagnostic bedside ultrasound training is available for pediatric critical care medicine fellows within 67% of divisions (35/52) with no difference in availability between divisions with large versus small units. Other core elements were present in less than 25% of all divisions performing clinical studies, with a statistically significant increase in credentialing and documentation among divisions with large units (p = 0.048 and 0.01, respectively). All core elements were perceived to have not only high impact in program development but also high effort in implementation. Assuming that all structural elements could be effectively implemented within their division, 83% of respondents (43/52) agreed that diagnostic bedside ultrasound should be a core curricular component of fellowship education. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic bedside ultrasound is increasingly prevalent in training and clinical use across the pediatric critical care medicine landscape despite frequently absent core programmatic infrastructural elements. These core elements are perceived as important to program development, regardless of division unit size. Shared standardized resources may assist in reducing the effort in core element implementation and allow us to measure important educational and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/educação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia , Criança , Credenciamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(10): 2425-2431, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528131

RESUMO

High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a mode of mechanical ventilation used in severe pediatric respiratory failure. Thoracic ultrasound (US) is a powerful tool for diagnosing acute pathophysiologic conditions during spontaneous respiration and conventional noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation differs from conventional modes of ventilation in that it does not primarily use bulk flow delivery for gas exchange but, rather, a number of alternative mechanisms as the result of pressure variations oscillating around a constant distending pressure. Thoracic US has not been well described in patients receiving HFOV, and it is unclear whether the US findings for assessing thoracic pathophysiologic conditions during conventional ventilation are applicable to patients receiving HFOV. We discuss the similarities and differences of thoracic US findings in patients who are spontaneously breathing or receiving conventional ventilation compared to those in patients receiving HFOV.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doenças Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Torácicas/fisiopatologia
16.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(5): 406-411, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diaphragm atrophy is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in critically ill adults. We sought to test for the presence of diaphragm atrophy in children with acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Single-center tertiary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. PATIENTS: Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration and end-inspiration were serially measured by ultrasound in 56 patients (median age, 17 mo; interquartile range, 5.5-52), first within 36 hours of intubation and last preceding extubation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 140 hours (interquartile range, 83-201). At initial measurement, thickness at end-expiration was 2.0 mm (interquartile range, 1.8-2.5) and thickness at end-inspiration was 2.5 mm (interquartile range, 2-2.8). The change in thickness at end-expiration during mechanical ventilation between first and last measurement was -13.8% (interquartile range, -27.4% to 0%), with a -3.4% daily atrophy rate (interquartile range, -5.6 to 0%). Thickening fraction = ([thickness at end-inspiration - thickness at end-expiration]/thickness at end-inspiration) throughout the course of mechanical ventilation was linearly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction (beta coefficient, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.2-14.7; p = 0.001). For children with a period of spontaneous breathing fraction less than 0.5 during mechanical ventilation, those with exposure to a continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 15) had a significantly larger decrease in thickness at end-expiration compared with children with low spontaneous breathing fraction who were not exposed to a neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 18) (-16.4%, [interquartile range, -28.4% to -7.0%] vs -7.3%; [interquartile range, -10.9% to -0%]; p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm atrophy is present in children on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm contractility, measured as thickening fraction, is strongly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction. The combination of exposure to neuromuscular blockade infusion with low overall spontaneous breathing fraction is associated with a greater degree of atrophy.


Assuntos
Diafragma/patologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Atrofia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Ultrassonografia
17.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(10): 1016-1017, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27705995
18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(12): 1124-1130, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial catheterization is a common invasive procedure performed in critically ill children. However, the benefits of using ultrasound guidance for this procedure in critically ill children, especially when used by inexperienced trainees, are unclear. Our aims were to evaluate whether the use of ultrasound guidance for the placement of radial arterial catheters reduced time and improved success when compared with the palpation method and also to determine patient and trainee variables that influence procedure outcomes. Finally, we evaluated whether adoption of ultrasound guidance among trainees comes at the expense of learning landmark-based methods. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. SETTING: University affiliated PICU. PATIENTS: A total of 208 procedures performed by 45 trainees in 192 unique patients (1 mo to 20 yr old) were observed. INTERVENTION: Implementation of ultrasound curriculum. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcome measures were time and number of attempts required for the procedure. Compared with palpation method, ultrasound guidance was associated with reduced procedure time (8.1 ± 5.2 min compared with 16.5 ± 8.8 min; p < 0.001), reduced number of attempts (3.1 ± 2.6 attempts compared with 6.9 ± 4.2 attempts; p < 0.001), and improved first attempt success rate (28% compared with 11%; p = 0.001) even after adjusting for key confounders in multivariate random effects models. The factors most likely to interfere with peripheral arterial catheterization are patient age, patient systolic blood pressure, patient body mass index, degree of fluid overload, and trainee months in fellowship. The use of ultrasound guidance mitigates the influence of each of these factors. We found no evidence that the adoption of ultrasound guidance by trainees is associated with reduced proficiency in landmark-based methods. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ultrasound guidance by trainees for radial artery catheterization in critically ill children is associated with improved outcomes compared with the palpation method.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Pediatria/educação , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adolescente , Boston , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 17(7): 598-604, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bedside ultrasound for hemodynamic evaluation in critically ill children is increasingly recognized as an important skill for pediatric critical care medicine providers. Our institution implemented a training curriculum leading to institutional credentialing for pediatric critical care providers in nonprocedural bedside ultrasound core applications. We hypothesized that hemodynamic studies performed or supervised by credentialed providers (credentialed providers group) have better image quality and greater accuracy in interpretation than studies performed by non-credentialed providers without supervision (non-credentialed providers group). DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Single-center tertiary non-cardiac 55-bed PICU in a children's hospital. PATIENTS: Patients from October 2013 to January 2015, with hemodynamic bedside ultrasound performed and interpreted by pediatric critical care providers exposed to bedside ultrasound training. INTERVENTIONS: A cardiologist blinded to performer scored hemodynamic bedside ultrasound image quality for five core cardiac views (excellent = 3, good = 2, fair = 1, unacceptable = 0; median = quality score) and interpretation within 5 hemodynamic domains (agreement = 3, minor disagreement = 2, major disagreement = 1; median = interpretation score), as well as a global assessment of interpretation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighty-one studies (45 in the credentialed providers group and 36 in the non-credentialed providers group) were evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference in quality score between groups (median: 1.4 [interquartile range: 0.8-1.8] vs median: 1.2 [interquartile range: 0.75-1.6]; p = 0.14]. Studies in the credentialed providers group had higher interpretation score than those in the non-credentialed providers group (median: 3 [interquartile range: 2.5-3) vs median: 2.67 [interquartile range: 2.25-3]; p = 0.04). Major disagreement between critical care provider and cardiology review occurred in 25 of 283 hemodynamic domains assessed (8.8%), with no statistically significant difference between credentialed providers and non-credentialed providers groups (6.1% vs 11.9%; p = 0.12). CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic bedside ultrasound performed or supervised by credentialed pediatric critical care providers had more accurate interpretation than studies performed by unsupervised non-credentialed providers. A rigorous pediatric critical care medicine bedside ultrasound credentialing program can train intensivists to attain adequate images and interpret those images appropriately.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Pediatria/educação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Philadelphia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 16(3): 219-26, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and describe the process of implementing a pediatric critical care bedside ultrasound program in a large academic PICU and to evaluate the impact of bedside ultrasound on clinical management. DESIGN: Retrospective case series, description of program implementation. SETTING: Single-center quaternary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients from January 22, 2012, to July 22, 2012, with bedside ultrasounds performed and interpreted by pediatric critical care practitioners. INTERVENTIONS: A pediatric critical care bedside ultrasound program consisting of a 2-day immersive course followed by clinical performance with internal quality assurance review was implemented. Studies performed in the PICU following training were documented and reviewed against reference standards including subspecialist-performed ultrasound or clinical response. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen critical care faculties and eight fellows recorded 201 bedside ultrasound studies over 6 months in defined core applications: 57 procedural (28%), 76 hemodynamic (38%), 35 thoracic (17%), and 33 abdominal (16%). A quality assurance review identified 23 studies (16% of all nonprocedural studies) as critical (affected clinical management or gave valuable information). Forty-eight percent of those studies (11/23) were within the hemodynamic core. The proportion of critical studies were not significantly different across the applications (hemodynamic, 11/76 [15%] vs thoracic and abdominal, 12/68 [18%]; p = 0.65). Examples of critical studies include evidence of tamponade secondary to pleural effusions, identification of pulmonary hypertension, hemodynamic assessment before tracheal intubation, recognition of hypovolemia and systemic vascular resistance abnormalities, determination of pneumothorax, location of chest tube and urinary catheter, and differentiation of pleural fluid from pulmonary consolidation. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a critical care bedside ultrasound program for critical care providers in a large academic PICU is feasible. Bedside ultrasound evaluation and interpretation by intensivists affected the management of critically ill children.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lactente , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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