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1.
Auton Neurosci ; 239: 102953, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168077

RESUMO

Ultra-short-term (UST; <5 min) heart rate variability (HRV) is increasingly used to indirectly assess autonomic nervous system modulation and physical health. However, UST HRV estimates may vary with measurement technique, physiological state, and data preprocessing. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the information content of UST HRV and its sensitivity to different physiological states and preprocessing techniques. 26 time, frequency, and non-linear HRV measures were determined in 80 healthy men (age: 22.1 ± 3.7 yr) and 25 women (age: 19.4 ± 2.8 yr) from 2-min ECG recordings during seated and standing rest, low-intensity exercise, and seated recovery after maximal exercise. For men, HRV measures obtained during each condition were further analyzed with principal component analysis, k-means clustering, and one-way ANCOVAs. Backward stepwise regression was used to determine the ability of UST HRV to predict aerobic fitness. The sensitivity of UST HRV estimates to different artifact correction procedures was determined with intraclass correlation coefficients. Compared with men, women displayed HRV characteristics suggestive of greater vagal modulation. Nearly 80% of HRV information content was distilled into three principal components comprised of similar measures across conditions. K-means clusters varied in composition and HRV characteristics but not aerobic fitness, which was best predicted by HRV during standing rest. HRV estimates differed depending on artifact correction procedures but were generally similar after individualized correction. Our results indicate that UST HRV measures display redundancy but convey state-specific information and do not strongly predict aerobic fitness in healthy men. Most UST HRV measures are robust to slight differences in artifact correction procedures.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Descanso , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Descanso/fisiologia , Nervo Vago , Adulto Jovem
2.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 22(1): 43-57, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006204

RESUMO

Physically demanding essential military tasks include load carriage, manual material handling and casualty evacuation. This narrative review characterizes the main physical attributes related to performance of these occupational tasks and reviews physical training intervention studies in military settings to improve performance in these military tasks. Load carriage performance requires both aerobic and neuromuscular fitness with greater emphasis on maximal strength and absolute maximal oxygen uptake, especially when carrying heavier loads. In manual material handling, maximal strength and power are strongly associated with discrete lifting, while muscular strength, muscular endurance and aerobic fitness are also associated with repetitive lifting performance. Maximal strength including grip strength, muscular endurance, absolute maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic capacity are associated with casualty evacuation performance. The results of the present review particularly emphasize the role of muscular fitness in successful performance of the reviewed military occupational tasks. Training intervention studies indicate that load carriage performance can be effectively improved by combining strength, aerobic and specific load carriage training. Improvement in maximal lifting capacity can be achieved by strength training or combined strength and aerobic training, while strength and aerobic training alone, or their combination are effective in improving repetitive lifting, and carry tasks. Only a few studies are available for casualty evacuation and the results are inconclusive but may indicate benefits of strength or combined training. Moreover, emphasis on lower volume but higher intensity in combined training may be a feasible and effective mode to improve military occupational performance in recruits and active-duty soldiers.


Assuntos
Militares , Treinamento de Força , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física
3.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781850

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: After SRC, adolescents had deficits in action boundary perception accuracy, while reporting higher depression symptoms and impulsivity, including attention and cognitive instability components.Certain domains of impulsivity were predictive of action boundary perception accuracy and each perception actualization measure in the concussed group.ADD/ADHD history, anxiety scores, and physical development ratings were also significant predictors of perceptual-motor accuracy and actualization time.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Windmill softball pitching is a highly skilled movement, combining whole body coordination with explosive force. Successful pitching requires sequential movement to transfer energy produced by the lower extremity to the pitching arm. Therefore, drive leg ground reaction force (GRF) and the time over which a pitcher can develop force during push off, defined as rate of force development (RFD), is essential for optimal performance. The purpose of this study was to examine GRF and RFD in the drive leg during the windmill softball pitch, as well as pitch velocity, throughout a simulated game. METHODS: Fourteen softball pitchers (17.9±2.3 years, 166.4±8.7cm, 72.2±12.6kg) pitched a simulated game. Pitch velocity and anterior-posterior and vertical GRF and RFD, each normalized to body weight, were collected for each inning. Average pitch speed remained consistent across all seven innings, 49.57±0.42mph. Changes in GRF and RFD were assessed, with level of significance set as p<0.05. RESULTS: A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences in apGRF%BW (p=0.297), vGRF%BW (p=0.574), apRFD (BW/s) (p=0.085) and vRFD (BW/s) (p=0.059). CONCLUSIONS: Training programs can be improved with the knowledge of the magnitude and rate in which forces are developed by the drive leg during push-off of the windmill softball pitch.

5.
Sports Biomech ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134606

RESUMO

Softball pitchers often pitch several games within a day and over consecutive days during a competitive season. High volumes of pitches thrown can decrease muscular strength, resulting in less proximal force generation and upper extremity compensation to maintain performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess upper and lower extremity muscular strength after pitching in a simulated game. Fourteen softball pitchers (17.9 ± 2.3 years, 166.4 ± 8.7 cm, 72.2 ± 12.6 kg) completed baseline isokinetic strength assessment for knee, hip, trunk and pitching elbow flexion and extension as well as trunk rotation. Seven days later, participants pitched a simulated game consisting of 105 fastballs prior to repeating all strength assessments. Changes in muscular strength were assessed using paired samples t-tests, with significance set a priori as p ≤ 0.05. Normalised (%BW) stride leg knee extension peak torque was significantly higher (p = 0.020) post-simulated game (75.1 ± 24.6%BW) as compared to baseline (64.0 ± 19.5%BW) and trunk flexion peak torque was significantly higher (p = 0.009) post-simulated game (84.8 ± 47.0%BW) as compared to baseline (63.5 ± 47.1%BW). This study showed an increase in knee extension and trunk flexion strength after an acute bout of pitching. The findings give insight into muscular changes following pitching which can assist in appropriate softball training and recovery.

6.
J Appl Biomech ; 37(4): 343-350, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051696

RESUMO

The objective was to examine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on lower-extremity joint angles and intralimb coordination in recruit-aged women. Twelve women walked, ran, and forced marched at body weight and with loads of +25%, and +45% of body weight on an instrumented treadmill with infrared cameras. Joint angles were assessed in the sagittal plane. Intralimb coordination of the thigh-shank and shank-foot couple was assessed with continuous relative phase. Mean absolute relative phase (entire stride) and deviation phase (stance phase) were calculated from continuous relative phase. At heel strike, forced marching exhibited greater (P < .001) hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion compared with running. At mid-stance, knee flexion (P = .007) and ankle dorsiflexion (P = .04) increased with increased load magnitude for all locomotion patterns. Forced marching (P = .009) demonstrated a "stiff-legged" locomotion pattern compared with running, evidenced by the more in-phase mean absolute relative phase values. Running (P = .03) and walking (P = .003) had greater deviation phase than forced marching. Deviation phase increased for running (P = .03) and walking (P < .001) with increased load magnitude but not for forced marching. With loads of >25% of body weight, forced marching may increase risk of injury due to inhibited energy attenuation up the kinetic chain and lack of variability to disperse force across different supportive structures.


Assuntos
Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
7.
Gait Posture ; 88: 22-27, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel in combat roles often perform gait tasks with additional load, which can affect the contributions of joint mechanical work (positive and negative). Furthermore, different locomotion patterns can also affect joint specific work contributions. While mean behavior of joint work is important to understanding gait, changes in joint kinetic modulation, or the regulation/control of stride-to-stride joint work variability is necessary to elucidate locomotor system function. Suboptimal modulation exhibited as a stochastic time-series (large fluctuation followed by an opposite smaller fluctuation) could potentially affect locomotion efficiency and portend injury risk. It remains unclear how the locomotor system responds to a combination of load perturbations and varying locomotion patterns. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on joint positive/negative work and joint work modulation in healthy, active, recruit-aged women? METHODS: Eleven healthy, active, recruit-aged (18-33 years) women ran and forced-marched (walking at a velocity an individual would typically jog) in bodyweight (BW), an additional 25 % of BW (+25 %BW) and an additional 45 % of BW (+45 %BW) conditions at a velocity above their gait transition velocity. Joint work was calculated as the time integral of joint power. Joint work modulation was assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on consecutive joint work time-series. RESULTS: Joint work contributions shifted proximally for forced-marching demonstrated by lesser (p < .001) positive/negative ankle work but greater (p = .001) positive hip work contributions compared to running. Running exhibited optimal positive ankle work modulation compared to forced-marching (p = .040). Knee and ankle negative joint work modulation was adversely impacted compared to the hip during forced-marching (p < .001). SIGNIFICANCE: Employing forced-marching gait while under loads of 25 and 45 % of BW reduces the ability of the plantar-flexors and knee extensors to optimally contribute to energy absorption and propulsion in recruit-aged women, potentially reducing metabolic efficiency and increasing injury risk.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
8.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 36(5): E345-E354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the extant literature on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in military service members and veterans using network analysis based on a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Specifically, we employed network analysis to evaluate associations in the following areas: (1) peer-reviewed journals, (2) authors, (3) organizations/institutions, and (4) relevant key words. PARTICIPANTS: Included studies were published in peer-reviewed journals available on Web of Science database, using US military service members or veterans. DESIGN: Bibliometric network analytical review. MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes for each analysis included number of articles, citations, total link strength, and clusters. RESULTS: The top publishing journals were (1) Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, (2) Military Medicine, (3) Brain Injury, (4) Journal of Neurotrauma, and (5) Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. The top publishing authors were (1) French, (2) Lange, (3) Cooper, (4) Vanderploeg, and (5) Brickell. The top research institutions were (1) Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, (2) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, (3) University of California San Diego, (4) Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and (5) Boston University. The top co-occurring key words in this analysis were (1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (2) persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS), (3) blast injury, (4) postconcussion syndrome (PCS), and (5) Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this network analysis indicate a clear focus on veteran health, as well as investigations on chronic effects of mTBI. Research in civilian mTBI indicates that delaying treatment for symptoms and impairments related to mTBI may not be the most precise treatment strategy. Increasing the number of early, active, and targeted treatment trials in military personnel could translate to meaningful improvements in clinical practices for managing mTBI in this population.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Militares , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Humanos
9.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543307

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Research into sport-related concussion (SRC) has grown substantially over the past decade, yet no authors to date have synthesized developments over this critical time period. OBJECTIVE: To apply a network-analysis approach in evaluating trends in the SRC literature using a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010, and December 15, 2019. DESIGN: Narrative review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Bibliometric maps were derived from a comprehensive search of all published, peer-reviewed SRC articles in the Web of Science database. A clustering algorithm was used to evaluate associations among journals, organizations or institutions, authors, and key words. The online search yielded 6130 articles, 528 journals, 7598 authors, 1966 organizations, and 3293 key words. RESULTS: The analysis supported 5 thematic clusters of journals: (1) biomechanics/sports medicine (n = 15), (2) pediatrics/rehabilitation (n = 15), (3) neurotrauma/neurology/neurosurgery (n = 11), (4) general sports medicine (n = 11), and (5) neuropsychology (n = 7). The analysis identified 4 organizational clusters of hub institutions: (1) University of North Carolina (n = 19), (2) University of Toronto (n = 19), (3) University of Michigan (n = 11), and (4) University of Pittsburgh (n = 10). Network analysis revealed 8 clusters for SRC key words, each with a central topic area: (1) epidemiology (n = 14), (2) rehabilitation (n = 12), (3) biomechanics (n = 11), (4) imaging (n = 10), (5) assessment (n = 9), (6) mental health/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (n = 9), (7) neurocognition (n = 8), and (8) symptoms/impairments (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that during the past decade SRC research has (1) been published primarily in sports medicine, pediatric, and neuro-focused journals, (2) involved a select group of researchers from several key institutions, and (3) concentrated on new topical areas, including treatment or rehabilitation and mental health.

10.
J Neurophysiol ; 125(4): 1006-1021, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596734

RESUMO

Traumatic musculoskeletal injury (MSI) may involve changes in corticomotor structure and function, but direct evidence is needed. To determine the corticomotor basis of MSI, we examined interactions among skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, corticomotor structure (cortical thickness and white matter microstructure), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS)-induced plasticity. Nine women with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL) 3.2 ± 1.1 yr prior to the study and 11 matched controls (CON) completed an MRI session followed by an offline plasticity-probing protocol using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study design. iTBS was applied to the injured (ACL) or nondominant (CON) motor cortex leg representation (M1LEG) with plasticity assessed based on changes in skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability compared with sham iTBS. The results showed persistent loss of function in the injured quadriceps, compensatory adaptations in the uninjured quadriceps and both hamstrings, and injury-specific increases in corticospinal excitability. Injury was associated with lateralized reductions in paracentral lobule thickness, greater centrality of nonleg corticomotor regions, and increased primary somatosensory cortex leg area inefficiency and eccentricity. Individual responses to iTBS were consistent with the principles of homeostatic metaplasticity; corresponded to injury-related differences in skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, and corticomotor structure; and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres. Moreover, iTBS normalized skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability in ACL. The results of this investigation directly confirm corticomotor involvement in chronic loss of function after traumatic MSI, emphasize the sensitivity of the corticomotor system to skeletomotor events and behaviors, and raise the possibility that brain-targeted therapies could improve recovery.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Traumatic musculoskeletal injuries may involve adaptive changes in the brain that contribute to loss of function. Our combination of neuroimaging and theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) revealed distinct patterns of iTBS-induced plasticity that normalized differences in muscle and brain function evident years after unilateral knee ligament rupture. Individual responses to iTBS corresponded to injury-specific differences in brain structure and physiological activity, depended on skeletomotor deficit severity, and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/lesões , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ruptura/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(1): 100-106, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089095

RESUMO

There is scarcity of research examining the physiological and psychological effects of ultra-endurance racing on athletes in extreme conditions. The purpose of the current study was to identify common injury patterns and illness, profile mood states and sleep patterns and finally examine the relationships between mental toughness, sleep, mood and injury rates during a 120 mile, three-day Arctic ultra-marathon. Twelve participants (3 females, 9 males) with a mean age of 42 ± 5.35 yrs participated in the study. Mental toughness was measured using the MT18 questionnaire. Injuries were clinically assessed and recorded each day. Temperatures ranged from -20 to -6 degrees Celsius throughout the race. Sleep quantity and mood state were recorded using the BRUMS questionnaire. 10 out of the 12 participants experienced injuries; almost half of the participants had injuries that carried over a number of days. Mean sleep duration over the three days was 4.07 h, with an average of 0.78 injuries per day. Significant changes in mood were recorded across the three days, specifically a reduction in vigour (p = .029) and increase in fatigue (p = .014). Neither sleep quantity nor mental toughness was correlated with injury rate. Interestingly, sleep quantity was not related to changes in mood, as previously shown in ultra-marathons. Mental toughness had a moderate negative correlation (p < 0.01) with depression (-.623), reduced anger (-.616), confusion (-.558), increased vigour (.497) and tension (-.420) during the race. Success in this type of event involves significant psychological and physiological preparation to minimize the effects of sleep deprivation and avoidance of injuries.


Assuntos
Afeto , Temperatura Baixa , Corrida de Maratona/lesões , Corrida de Maratona/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira , Regiões Árticas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Confusão/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida de Maratona/fisiologia , Territórios do Noroeste , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Yukon
12.
Clin J Sport Med ; 31(3): 273-280, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a concussion, athletes may be at increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Altered perception of action boundaries (ABP), or the limits of one's action capabilities, is one possible mechanism for this increase in injury risk after concussion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in symptoms, neurocognitive, vestibular/oculomotor, and action boundary function between subjects with no concussion history (NoHx) and concussion history (ConcHX). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. PARTICIPANTS: ConcHx (n = 22; age: 21.8 ± 3.0 years, height: 174.0 ± 8.3 cm, and mass: 77.8 ± 14.8 kg) and NoHx athletes (n = 24; age: 21.6 ± 2.0 years, height: 176.0 ± 10.0 cm, and mass: 72.0 ± 15.3 kg). INTERVENTION: Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Vestibular-Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) tool, and the Perception-Action Coupling Task (PACT). The PACT measures the accuracy of ABP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurocognitive domain scores, PCSS, VOMS subdomain symptom gain, ABP accuracy, and actualization. RESULTS: ConcHx reported 2.7 ± 1.5 previous concussions occurring on average 263.8 ± 228.9 days prior. ConcHx was higher on several VOMS items including vertical/horizontal saccades (P = 0.001; P = 0.05), vertical/horizontal vestibular-ocular reflex (P < 0.001; P = 0.04), and visual motion sensitivity (P < 0.001). Average PACT movement time (P = 0.01) and reaction time (P = 0.01) were longer in ConcHx. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary support for impaired vestibular/oculomotor function and ABP in ConcHx compared with NoHx. The current results may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms for increased musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Percepção , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 584275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345154

RESUMO

Impaired proprioceptive acuity negatively affects both joint position sense and postural control and is a risk factor for lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury in athletes and military personnel. British Army foot-drill is an occupational military activity involving cyclical high impact loading forces greater than those observed in athletes during high level plyometrics. Foot-drill may contribute to the high rates of lower-extremity overuse injuries observed in recruits during basic training. There is limited research investigating foot-drill specific injury risk factors in women, despite greater incidences of musculoskeletal injury reported in women (522 vs. 417 per 1,000 personnel, OR: 1.53) when compared to men during basic training. This study aimed to quantify changes in ankle joint proprioception and dynamic postural stability following a period of British Army foot-drill. Fourteen women of similar age to British Army female recruits underwent pre-post foot-drill measures of frontal plane ankle joint position sense (JPS) and dynamic postural stability using the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Passive ankle JPS was assessed from relative test angles of inversion 30% (IN30%) and eversion 30% (EV30%) and IN60% of participants range of motion using an isokinetic dynamometer. The DPSI and the individual stability indices (medio-lateral [MLSI], anterior-posterior [APSI], and vertical [VSI]) were calculated from lateral and forward jump-landing conditions using force plates. Foot-drill was conducted by a serving British Army drill instructor. Significantly greater absolute mean JPS error for IN30% and EV30% was observed post foot-drill (p ≤ 0.016, d ≥ 0.70). For both the lateral and forward jump-landing conditions, significantly greater stability index scores were observed for MLSI, APSI, and DPSI (p ≤ 0.017, d ≥ 0.52). Significantly greater JPS error and stability index scores are associated with the demands of British Army foot-drill. These results provide evidence that foot-drill negatively affects lower-extremity proprioceptive acuity in recruit age-matched women, which has implications for increased injury risk during subsequent military physical activity, occurring in a normal training cycle.

14.
J Athl Train ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150356

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There has been substantial growth over the past decade in sport-related concussion (SRC) research, yet no research to date has synthesized developments over this critical time period. OBJECTIVE: to apply a network analysis approach to evaluate trends in the sport-related concussion (SRC) literature using a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2019. DESIGN: Narrative review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bibliometric maps were derived from a comprehensive search of all published, peer-reviewed SRC articles on the Web of Science database. A clustering algorithm was used to evaluate associations among journals, organizations/institutions, authors, and keywords. The online search yielded 6,130 articles, 528 journals, 7,598 authors, 1,966 organizations, and 3,293 keywords. RESULTS: The analysis supported five thematic clusters of journals: 1. Biomechanics/Sports medicine (n=15), 2. Pediatrics/Rehabilitation (n=15), 3. Neurotrauma/Neurology/Neurosurgery (n=11), 4. General Sports Medicine (n=11), 5. Neuropsychology (n=7). The analysis identified four organizational clusters with hub institutions: 1. University of North Carolina (n=19), 2. University of Toronto (n=19), 3. University of Michigan (n=11), 4. University of Pittsburgh (n=10). Network analysis revealed 8 clusters for SRC keywords, each with a central topic area: 1. Epidemiology (n=14), 2. Rehabilitation (n=12), 3. Biomechanics (n=11), 4. Imaging (n=10), 5. Assessment (n=9), 6. Mental health/Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (n=9), 7. Neurocognition (n=8), 8. Symptoms/impairments (n=5). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that during the past decade SRC research has: 1) been published primarily in sports medicine, pediatric, and neuro-focused journals, 2) involved a select group of researchers from several key institutions, and 3) focused on new topic areas including treatment/rehabilitation and mental health.

15.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 582219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During cyclical steady state ambulation, such as walking, variability in stride intervals can indicate the state of the system. In order to define locomotor system function, observed variability in motor patterns, stride regulation and gait complexity must be assessed in the presence of a perturbation. Common perturbations, especially for military populations, are load carriage and an imposed locomotion pattern known as forced marching (FM). We examined the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on motor variability, stride regulation and gait complexity during bipedal ambulation in recruit-aged females. METHODS: Eleven healthy physically active females (18-30 years) completed 1-min trials of running and FM at three load conditions: no additional weight/bodyweight (BW), an additional 25% of BW (BW + 25%), and an additional 45% of BW (BW + 45%). A goal equivalent manifold (GEM) approach was used to assess motor variability yielding relative variability (RV; ratio of "good" to "bad" variability) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine gait complexity on stride length (SL) and stride time (ST) parameters. DFA was also used on GEM outcomes to calculate stride regulation. RESULTS: There was a main effect of load (p = 0.01) on RV; as load increased, RV decreased. There was a main effect of locomotion (p = 0.01), with FM exhibiting greater RV than running. Strides were regulated more tightly and corrected quicker at BW + 45% compared (p < 0.05) to BW. Stride regulation was greater for FM compared to running. There was a main effect of load for gait complexity (p = 0.002); as load increased gait complexity decreased, likewise FM had less (p = 0.02) gait complexity than running. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to employ a GEM approach and a complexity analysis to gait tasks under load carriage. Reduction in "good" variability as load increases potentially exposes anatomical structures to repetitive site-specific loading. Furthermore, load carriage magnitudes of BW + 45% potentially destabilize the system making individuals less adaptable to additional perturbations. This is further evidenced by the decrease in gait complexity, which all participants demonstrated values similarly observed in neurologically impaired populations during the BW + 45% load condition.

16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956262

RESUMO

Krajewski, KT, Bansbach, HM, McLean, L, McKenzie, C, Rawcliffe, A, Graham, SM, Flanagan, SD, Pourmoghaddam, A, Dettmer, M, and Connaboy, C. Effects of short-term unilateral strength training on measures of postural control when wearing "operationally relevant" backpack loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020-To examine the effects of "operationally relevant" loads on postural stability and to determine the effects of unilateral and bilateral strength training programs on postural stability in healthy, recruit-aged men. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UL; n = 7) or bilateral (BL; n = 8) strength training group, which performed strength training 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects completed the following pretest and post-test assessments: 1 repetition maximum in bilateral (1RM-BL) and unilateral (1RM-UL) stance positions and bilateral and unilateral balance tasks with eyes open and eyes closed. Balance tasks were performed over 3 loading conditions: body mass (BM), 50% BM, and 70% BM. Sample entropy (SE) and root mean square (RMS) were calculated from the center of pressures collected during each balance assessment. The UL strength training group showed significant improvement after training in both 1RM-UL (p < 0.01) and 1RM-BL (p < 0.01). The BL strength training group only showed significant improvement in 1RM-BL (p = 0.01). There was a significant main effect of load on RMS (p < 0.05) across all balance tasks with RMS increasing with increasing load. Sample entropy was found to decrease with increasing load in the unilateral eyes open and bilateral stance tasks. Significant increases in strength (∼10 to -29%) were observed; however, increased strength alone is not enough to mitigate the effects of load carriage on the postural control, even when training is performed in stance positions that are posturally challenging. Therefore, "operationally relevant" loads negatively impact postural stability in novice load carriers when assessing nonlinear measures.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(15): 1799-1805, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412332

RESUMO

Clinically feasible metrics, that can inform the concussion recovery decision making process by evaluating a unique domain beyond current testing domains (e.g., balance, neurocognition, symptoms, vestibular/ocular function) are still in need. The purpose of this study was to compare perceptual-motor control in adolescent athletes ≤21 days of sport-related concussion and healthy controls and evaluate the association of perceptual-motor control to the outcomes of commonly-used sport-related concussion clinical assessments. Athletes (age: 12-18 years) with sport-related concussion (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 24) completed the Perception-Action Coupling Task (PACT), whose outcomes are mean reaction, movement, initiation, response time, and accuracy. ImPACT outcomes are verbal/visual memory scores, motor processing speed, and reaction time. Vestibular-Ocular Motor Screen (VOMS) outcomes are symptoms from: smooth pursuit, horizontal/vertical saccades, near-point of convergence, horizontal/vestibular ocular-reflex, and visual motion sensitivity. CONCUSSED demonstrated ~5% deficit in overall perceptual-motor accuracy during PACT compared to CONTROLS (p = 0.03). PACT accuracy negatively correlated with smooth pursuits(r = -0.29), and horizontal (r = -0.35)/vertical (r = -0.30) saccades. The C5.0 decision tree determined PACT accuracy was the most relevant predictor of sport-related concussion when no visual motion sensitivity symptoms were reported and Visual Memory was >66. Perceptual-motor control tests may complement current sport-related concussion assessments when neurocognition and vestibular/ocular motor system are not grossly impaired.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
18.
J Biomech ; 105: 109772, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279931

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent among female soldiers, resulting in limited duty and long term adverse ambulatory effects. A proposed mechanism to the development of knee OA is the assiduous execution of load carriage tasks. Soldiers are often required to maintain a walking gait with load at velocities beyond their gait transition velocity (GTV) known as forced marching. The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on relative knee total joint moment (KTJM) in healthy recruit-aged women. The secondary aims are to determine knee total joint moment limb differences and to determine the interactive effect of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on the percent contributions of each plane of motion moment. Individuals were tasked with running and forced marching at 10% above their GTV at body weight (BW) and with an additional 25% and 45% of their BW. KTJM was analyzed at two specific gait events of heel-strike and mid-stance. At heel-strike, forced marching exhibited greater KTJM compared to run for all load conditions but running had greater KTJM than forced marching at mid-stance. The forced marching pattern exhibited larger KTJM for the dominant limb at both gait events compared to running. Lastly, at mid-stance the knee adduction moment percent (KAM%) contribution was greater for forced marching compared to running. The forced marching pattern demonstrates joint kinetics that may be more deleterious with prolonged exposure. Likewise, forced marching induced KAM% similar to those already suffering from knee OA.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
19.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322188

RESUMO

Isolated ginsenoside metabolites such as Compound K (CK) are of increasing interest to consumer and clinical populations as safe and non-pharmacological means to enhance psychomotor performance constitutively and in response to physical or cognitive stress. Nevertheless, the influence of CK on behavioral performance and EEG measures of cortical activity in humans is undetermined. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study, dose-dependent responses to CK (placebo, 160 and 960 mg) were assessed after 2 weeks of supplementation in nineteen healthy men and women (age: 39.9 ± 7.9 year, height 170.2 ± 8.6 cm, weight 79.7 ± 11.9 kg). Performance on upper- and lower-body choice reaction tests (CRTs) was tested before and after intense lower-body anaerobic exercise. Treatment- and stress-related changes in brain activity were measured with high-density EEG based on event-related potentials, oscillations, and source activity. Upper- (-12.3 ± 3.5 ms, p = 0.002) and lower-body (-12.3 ± 4.9 ms, p = 0.021) response times improved after exercise, with no difference between treatments (upper: p = 0.354; lower: p = 0.926). Analysis of cortical activity in sensor and source space revealed global increases in cortical arousal after exercise. CK increased activity in cortical regions responsible for sustained attention and mitigated exercise-induced increases in arousal. Responses to exercise varied depending on task, but CK appeared to reduce sensory interference from lower-body exercise during an upper-body CRT and improve the general maintenance of task-relevant sensory processes.

20.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(19): 2102-2112, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340548

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in military populations and share numerous symptoms. Functional graph theory studies demonstrate altered small-world brain networks in mTBI and PTSD, but little is known about structural covariance networks or the potentially distinct topology of mTBI-PTSD comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain structural covariance networks in healthy active duty military service members (CON) to those with PTSD, mTBI, and mTBI-PTSD. Seventy-six service members (31 CON, 14 PTSD, 12 mTBI, 19 mTBI-PTSD) completed clinical questionnaires and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cortical thickness-derived adjacency matrices were used to determine structural covariance network topologies. Pairwise comparisons for characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modularity (global), closeness centrality (nodal), and local efficiency were made across a range of network densities (5-35%) using non-parametric permutation tests. All clinical groups showed greater levels of arousal, stress, anxiety, and depression compared with CON. Global network analysis revealed greater clustering and local efficiency in PTSD compared with CON, whereas nodal analysis indicated altered path lengths and closeness centrality in fronto-limbic areas with mTBI-PTSD. Global and nodal graph outcomes suggest distinct pathophysiological manifestations of mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI-PTSD in structural brain networks. Greater network segregation and nodal differences in fronto-limbic areas may be tied to emotional fluctuations.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conectoma , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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