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1.
Percept Mot Skills ; : 315125211060953, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913749

RESUMO

The underlying mechanism(s) of the Bilateral Deficit (BLD) phenomenon is without consensus. Methodological inconsistencies across prior works may be an important source of equivocal results and interpretations. Based on repeatability problems with the BLD measure and maximal force definition, the presence or absence of the BLD phenomenon is altered, shifting conclusions of its mechanistic cause. Our purpose in this study was to examine methodological inconsistencies in applying the BLD measure to establish optimal methods for evaluating the underlying mechanism. Eleven healthy participants engaged in one familiarity and five test sessions, completing bilateral and unilateral elbow maximal voluntary isometric contractions. We defined maximal force by averaged and absolute peak and plateau values. BLD was evident if the bilateral index (BI), the ratio of the bilateral over summed unilateral forces, was statistically different from zero. We addressed interclass correlations (ICC), Chronbach's α, standard error of the mean, and minimal detectable change between and within sessions for all force measures and BI. We evaluated all combinations of sessions (i.e., 1-2, 3-5, 5-6) and maximal forces to establish the optimal number of sessions to achieve reliability. BLD was present for test sessions, but not for familiarization. All measures of maximal force were highly reliable between and within sessions (ICC(2,1) ≥ .895). BI was only considered significantly reliable in sessions 3-5 (p < .027), defined by absolute and average plateau forces, but reliability was still quantifiably poor (absolute: ICC(2,1) = .392; average: ICC(2,1) = .375). These results demonstrate that high force reliability within and between sessions does not translate to stable and reliable BI, potentially exposing the lack of any defined BLD mechanism.

3.
Sleep ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432067

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Within-subject stability of certain sleep features across multiple nights is thought to reflect the trait-like behavior of sleep. However, to be considered a trait, a parameter must be both stable and robust. Here, we examined the stability (i.e., across the same sleep opportunity periods) and robustness (i.e., across sleep opportunity periods that varied in duration and timing) of different sleep parameters. METHODS: Sixty-eight military personnel (14 W) spent 5 nights in the sleep laboratory during a simulated military operational stress protocol. After an adaptation night, participants had an 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00) followed by 2 consecutive nights of sleep restriction and disruption which included two 2-hour sleep opportunities (01:00-03:00; 05:00-07:00) and, lastly, another 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00). Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to examine differences in stability and robustness across different sleep parameters. RESULTS: Sleep architecture parameters were less stable and robust than absolute and relative spectral activity parameters. Further, relative spectral activity parameters were less robust than absolute spectral activity. Absolute alpha and sigma activity demonstrated the highest levels of stability that were also robust across sleep opportunities of varying duration and timing. CONCLUSIONS: Stability and robustness varied across different sleep parameters, but absolute NREM alpha and sigma activity demonstrated robust trait-like behavior across variable sleep opportunities. Reduced stability of other sleep architecture and spectral parameters during shorter sleep episodes as well as across different sleep opportunities has important implications for study design and interpretation.

4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 141: 301-308, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304033

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder-related sleep disturbances may increase daytime sleepiness and compromise performance in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. We investigated nighttime sleep predictors of sleepiness in Veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-seven post-9/11 Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and 47 without posttraumatic stress disorder (Control) completed a 48-h lab stay. Nighttime quantitative EEG and sleep architecture parameters were collected with polysomnography. Data from daytime sleepiness batteries assessing subjective sleepiness (global vigor questionnaire), objective sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Tests) and alertness (psychomotor vigilance task) were included in analyses. Independent samples t-tests and linear regressions were performed to identify group differences in sleepiness and nighttime sleep predictors of sleepiness in the overall sample and within each group. Participants with posttraumatic stress disorder had higher subjective sleepiness (t = 4.20; p < .001) and lower alertness (psychomotor vigilance task reaction time (t = -3.70; p < .001) and lapses: t = -2.13; p = .04) than the control group. Objective daytime sleepiness did not differ between groups (t = -0.79, p = .43). In the whole sample, higher rapid eye movement delta power predicted lower alertness quantified by psychomotor vigilance task reaction time (ß = 0.372, p = .013) and lapses (ß = 0.388, p = .013). More fragmented sleep predicted higher objective sleepiness in the posttraumatic stress disorder group (ß = -.467, p = .005) but no other nighttime sleep measures influenced the relationship between group and sleepiness. Objective measures of sleep and sleepiness were not associated with the increased subjective sleepiness and reduced alertness of the posttraumatic stress disorder group.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Atenção , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Sono , Sonolência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Vigília
5.
Physiol Behav ; 236: 113413, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the impact of 48 h of simulated military operational stress (SMOS) on executive function, in addition to the role of trait resilience (RES) and aerobic fitness (FIT) on executive function performance. Associations between executive function and neuropeptide-Y (NPY), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), oxytocin, and α-klotho (klotho) were assessed to elucidate potential biomarkers that may contribute to cognitive performance during a multi-factorial stress scenario. METHODS: Fifty-four service members (SM) (26.4 ± 5.4 years, 178.0 ± 6.5 cm, 85.2 ± 14.0 kg) completed the 5-day protocol, including daily physical exertion and 48 h of restricted sleep and caloric intake. Each morning subjects completed a fasted blood draw followed by Cognition, a 10-part cognitive test battery assessing executive function. SMs were grouped into tertiles [low (L-), moderate (M-), high (H-)] based on Connor Davidson Resilience Score (RES) and V˙O2peak (FIT). Repeated measures ANOVA were run to analyze the effect of day on cognitive performance and biomarker concentration. Separate two-way mixed ANOVAs were run to determine the interaction of group by day on cognitive function. Friedman test with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used if assumptions for ANOVA were not met. Associations between changes in biomarkers and cognitive performance were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric correlation coefficients. RESULTS: SMOS reduced SM vigilance -11.3% (p < 0.001) and working memory -5.6% (p = 0.015), and increased risk propensity +9.5% (p = 0.005). H-RES and H-FIT SMs demonstrated stable vigilance across SMOS (p > 0.05). Vigilance was compromised during SMOS in L- and M-RES (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively) as well as L- and M-FIT (p = 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). SMOS reduced circulating concentrations of α-klotho -7.2% (p = 0.004), NPY -6.4% (p = 0.001), and IGF-I -8.1% (p < 0.001) from baseline through the end of the protocol. BDNF declined -19.2% after the onset of sleep and caloric restriction (p = 0.005) with subsequent recovery within 48 h. Oxytocin remained stable (p > 0.05). Several modest associations between neuroendocrine biomarkers and cognitive performance were identified. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates H-FIT and H-RES may buffer the impact of SMOS on vigilance. SMOS negatively impacted circulating neuroendocrine biomarkers. While BDNF returned to baseline concentrations by the end of the 5 d protocol, NPY, IGF-I, and α-klotho may require a longer recovery period. These data suggest that the military may benefit by training and/or selection processes targeting at augmenting trait resilience and aerobic fitness for increased readiness.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Militares , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aptidão Física
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence indicates that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is implicated in enhancing working memory (WM) performance across days in healthy individuals. While REM sleep has been implicated in other forms of memory, its role in WM remains unclear. Further, the relationship between sleep changes and WM improvement is largely unknown in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Examining the relationship between changes in sleep and WM improvement in healthy participants and participants with PTSD may inform cognitive enhancement strategies and intervention targets. METHODS: Repeated assessments of WM and overnight measurement of NREM and REM sleep parameters were performed in 79 participants (participants with PTSD: n = 33) during a 48-hour laboratory stay. Relationships between sleep parameter changes, WM performance changes, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in PTSD and healthy groups. RESULTS: A between-night enhancement in both NREM and REM sleep parameters in frontoparietal areas predicted across-day better WM performance in healthy participants, particularly in those with improved performance. In contrast, in participants with PTSD, an enhancement of these sleep parameters predicted a worse WM performance and was also associated with more PTSD-related sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that higher sleep activity in frontoparietal areas leads to enhanced WM performance in healthy individuals, whereas in individuals with PTSD, it likely reflects the presence of sleep disturbances that interfere with WM improvement. Interventions focused on addressing sleep disturbances could therefore ameliorate cognitive impairments in individuals with PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Polissonografia , Sono
8.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(1): 36-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013782

RESUMO

Perceptual-motor coordination relies on the accurate coupling of the perceptual and movement systems. However, individuals must also be able to recalibrate to perturbations to perceptual and movement capabilities. We examined the effects of fatigue and load carriage on perceptual-motor coordination for a maximal leaping task. 23 participants completed an incremental fatigue protocol (light to fatiguing intensity stages) on two separate occasions (loaded/unloaded). At baseline and the end of every stage of the protocol, participants made perceptual judgments for the affordance of leaping. The accuracy of responses and reaction times were calculated and mean differences were assessed across exercise intensity and load carriage conditions. No interaction of exercise intensity and load carriage was detected, or main effect of load carriage. A main, quadratic effect of exercise intensity was detected on reaction times, with times decreasing through the moderate stage and increasing through post-fatigue. No effect of exercise/fatigue was detected on perceptual accuracy. The results indicate that exercise at high intensities through fatigue has a significant effect on perceptual-motor calibration. Contrastingly, in response to an action-scaled task, individuals can adequately recalibrate to increased load carriage.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Tempo de Reação , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sleep Med Clin ; 15(1): 31-39, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005348

RESUMO

Sleep has a widespread impact across different domains of performance, including sensorimotor function. From an ecological dynamics perspective, sensorimotor function involves the continuous and dynamic coupling between perception and action. Sport performance relies on sensorimotor function as successful movement behaviors require accurate and efficient coupling between perceptions and actions. Compromised sleep impairs different aspects of sensorimotor performance, including perceptual attunement and motor execution. Changes in sensorimotor performance can be related to specific features of sleep, notably sleep spindles and slow waves. One unaddressed area of study is the extent to which specific sleep features contribute to overall sport-specific performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos
10.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(12): 1000-1008, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Designed as a more ecological measure of reaction times, the Perception-Action Coupling Task (PACT) has shown good reliability and within-subject stability. However, a lengthy testing period was required. Perceptual-motor judgments are known to be affected by proximity of the stimulus to the action boundary. The current study sought to determine the effects of action boundary proximity on PACT performance, and whether redundant levels of stimuli, eliciting similar responses, can be eliminated to shorten the PACT.METHODS: There were 9 men and 7 women who completed 4 testing sessions, consisting of 3 familiarization cycles and 6 testing cycles of the PACT. For the PACT, subjects made judgments on whether a series of balls presented on a tablet afford "posting" (can fit) through a series of apertures. There were 8 ratios of ball to aperture size (B-AR) presented, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8, with each ratio appearing 12 times (12 trials) per cycle. Reaction times and judgment accuracy were calculated, and averaged across all B-ARs. Ratios and individual trials within each B-AR were systematically eliminated. Variables were re-averaged, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CVTE) were calculated in an iterative manner.RESULTS: With elimination of the 0.2 and 1.8 B-ARs, the PACT showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.99) and consistent within-subject stability (CVTE = 2.2-14.7%). Reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.97) and stability (CVTE = 2.6-15.6%) were unaffected with elimination of up to 8 trials from each B-AR.DISCUSSION: The shortened PACT resulted in an almost 50% reduction in total familiarization/testing time required, significantly increasing usability.Johnson CD, LaGoy AD, Pepping G-J, Eagle SR, Beethe AZ, Bower JL, Alfano CA, Simpson RJ, Connaboy C. Action boundary proximity effects on perceptual-motor judgments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(12):1000-1008.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(5): 1208-1215, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034459

RESUMO

Nagle, EF, Nagai, T, Beethe, AZ, Lovalekar, MT, Zera, JN, Connaboy, C, Abt, JP, Beals, K, Nindl, BC, Robertson, RJ, and Lephart, SM. Reliability and validity of a pool-based maximal oxygen uptake test to examine high-intensity short-duration freestyle swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1208-1215, 2019-A modality-specific swimming protocol to assess maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw) is essential to accurately prescribe and monitor swimming conditioning programs. Consequently, there is a need for a reliable and valid graded intensity swimming pool test to accurately assess V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw using indirect calorimetry. The purpose of this study was to assess (a) reliability of an intensity self-regulated swimming pool test of V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw and (b) validity of a V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw test using performance swim (PS) time as the criterion. Twenty-nine men (n = 15) and women (n = 14) (age, 23 ± 6.4 years; body mass index, 23.5 ± 3.0 kg·m) performed 2 swimming pool V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw trials (V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw A and V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw B), and 2 PS tests (45.7 m [31.20 ± 4.5 seconds] and 182 m [159.2 ± 25.5 seconds]). For test-retest reliability (trials A vs. B), strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw (ml·kg·min) (r = 0.899), O2 pulse (ml O2·beat) (r = 0.833), and maximum expired ventilatory volume (L·min) (r = 0.785). For performance validity, moderately strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found between V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw A and 45.7-m (r = -0.543) and 182-m (r = -0.486) swim times. The self-regulated graded intensity swimming pool protocol examined presently is a reliable and valid test of V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw. Studies should consider the suitability of a V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxsw test for military personnel, clinical populations, and injured athletes.


Assuntos
Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilação Voluntária Máxima , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 7(3): 2325967119831272, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891463

RESUMO

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries at the shoulder are highly prevalent and place a large burden on United States Special Forces personnel. Literature is lacking regarding the risk factors for these types of injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of shoulder strength and kinematic characteristics, which have shown retrospective associations with shoulder conditions/injuries, with prospectively collected shoulder injuries. We hypothesized that lower strength and abnormal kinematics would be predictive of future shoulder injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 140 male Special Forces operators underwent a musculoskeletal evaluation of the shoulder that included a scapular kinematic assessment during a humeral elevation task and isokinetic strength testing of the scapular protractors/retractors, external/internal rotators, and elevators of the shoulder. From strength assessments, ipsilateral strength ratios and bilateral strength asymmetries were also calculated. Musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulder were collected prospectively by use of medical chart reviews at 365 days following the evaluation. Separate generalized estimating equations (GEEs) and simple logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between baseline predictors and development of shoulder injury. Results: Results of the GEEs showed no significant prediction of shoulder injury by shoulder strength (odds ratio [OR], 1.00-1.03), ipsilateral strength ratios (OR, 0.43-2.12), or scapular kinematics (OR, 0.99-1.01). Logistic regression indicated that none of the bilateral asymmetries were significantly predictive of shoulder injury (OR, 1.00-1.04). Conclusion: The results indicate that shoulder strength and kinematic characteristics are not risk factors for shoulder injury in the Special Forces population. These findings are in opposition to the general findings of previous research using a retrospective analysis.

13.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(2): 77-83, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perception-action coupling task (PACT) was designed as a more ecologically valid measure of alertness/reaction times compared to currently used measures by aerospace researchers. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, within-subject variability, and systematic bias associated with the PACT.METHODS: There were 16 subjects (men/women = 9 / 7; age = 27.8 ± 3.6 yr) who completed 4 identical testing sessions. The PACT requires subjects to make judgements on whether a virtual ball could fit into an aperture. For each session, subjects completed nine cycles of the PACT, with each cycle lasting 5 min. Judgement accuracy and reaction time parameters were calculated for each cycle. Systematic bias was assessed with repeated-measures ANOVA, reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and within-subject variability with coefficients of variation (CVTE).RESULTS: Initiation time (Mean = 0.1065 s) showed the largest systematic bias, requiring the elimination of three cycles to reduce bias, with all other variables requiring, at the most, one. All variables showed acceptable reliability (ICC > 0.70) and within-subject variability (CVTE < 20%) with only one cycle after elimination of the first three cycles.CONCLUSIONS: With a three-cycle familiarization period, the PACT was found to be reliable and stable.Connaboy C, Johnson CD, LaGoy AD, Pepping G-J, Simpson RJ, Deng Z, Ma L, Bower JL, Eagle SR, Flanagan SD, Alfano CA. Intersession reliability and within-session stability of a novel perception-action coupling task. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(2):77-83.


Assuntos
Percepção , Tempo de Reação , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Realidade Virtual
14.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 44(6): 632-636, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398915

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used as nutritional support for patients with a range of conditions including liver cirrhosis and in-born errors of amino acid metabolism, and they are commonly used "sports" or exercise supplements. The effects of the BCAA on the in-vitro activity of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (EC. 3.1.3.1) were studied. All three BCAA were found to be uncompetitive inhibitors of the enzyme with L-leucine being the most potent ( = 24.9 mmol/L) and L-valine, the least potent ( = 37 mmol/L). Mixed BCAA are able to act in combination to inhibit the enzyme. Given the important role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in gut homeostasis, these findings have potential implications for those taking high levels of BCAA as supplements.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucina/farmacologia , Valina/farmacologia
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(9): 2562-2568, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137030

RESUMO

Huang, H-C, Nagai, T, Lovalekar, M, Connaboy, C, and Nindl, BC. Physical fitness predictors of a warrior task simulation test. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2562-2568, 2018-The warrior task simulation test (WTST) has been developed in an attempt to better assess physical fitness required for soldiers to perform battlefield tasks and drills to determine whether laboratory-based measurements of physical fitness components could be used to predict the WTST. Forty-three healthy and physically active men participated in 2 sessions: the WTST and laboratory testing. The WTST comprised 282-m run, low hurdles, high crawl, casualty drag, balance beam, point-aim-move, 100-yard sprint, and agility sprint with participants wearing combat boots, uniform, helmet, and dummy rifle. The laboratory testing included assessments of participants' muscular strength and endurance, postural stability, aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, flexibility, body fat, fat-free mass, and agility. Correlation and simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the WTST and laboratory testing and predict the WTST, respectively (p < 0.05). The correlation and the simple linear regression analyses revealed that anaerobic capability, aerobic capacity, body fat, agility, and muscular endurance correlated with (r = 0.35-0.59) and accounted for 12-34% of the variance in (R = 0.12-0.34) the WTST performance (p < 0.05). The final model included aerobic capacity, agility, fat-free mass, muscular endurance, and body fat (R = 0.52, p < 0.001). The current results highlighted the importance of several components of physical fitness in simulated battlefield tasks and drills (assessed by the WTST). In particular, anaerobic capacity, aerobic capacity, and body fat had the highest correlational and predictive values of the WTST. Additionally, skill-related components of physical fitness, such as agility and muscular endurance, should not be ignored, and they should be assessed and tracked with the above-mentioned components.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Militares , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-8, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine strength, range of motion, anthropometric, and physiological contributions to novice surface-combat-swimming (sCS) performance and establish differences from freestyle-swimming (FS) performance to further understand the transition of FS to sCS performance. METHODS: A total of 13 competitive swimmers (7 male and 6 female; 27.7 [2.3] y; 176.2 [2.6] cm; 75.4 [3.9] kg) completed 8 testing sessions consisting of the following: physiological land-based measurements for maximal anaerobic and aerobic capacity and upper- and lower-extremity strength and range of motion, an sCS anaerobic capacity swim test measuring peak and mean force and fatigue index, 2 aerobic capacity tests measuring maximal aerobic capacity for both FS and sCS, and four 500-m performance swims for time, 1 FS, and 3 sCS. Separate multiple linear-regression analysis was used to analyze predictors of both sCS and FS performance models. RESULTS: FS performance was predicted by the final FS maximal oxygen uptake with an R2 of 42.03% (F1,10 = 7.25; P = .0226), whereas sCS performance was predicted by isometric hip-extension peak strength with an R2 of 41.46% (F1,11 = 7.79; P = .0176). CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that different physiological characteristics predict performance, suggesting that an altered strategy is used for novice sCS than FS. It is suggested that this may be due to the added constraints as mandated by mission requirements including boots, weighted gear, and clandestine requirements with hips lowered beneath the surface. Further research should examine the kinematics of the sCS flutter kick to improve performance by developing training strategies specific for the task.

17.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 4(1): e000471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622731

RESUMO

Objectives: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) are an important concern in military populations. The purpose of this study was to describe the burden of MSI and associated financial cost, in a sample of US Air Force Special Operations Command Special Tactics Operators. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical records of the Operators were reviewed during the years 2014-2015. MSI that occurred during a 1-year period prior to the date of review were described. MSI attributes described included incidence, anatomic location, cause, activity when MSI occurred, type and lifetime cost of MSI estimated using the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results: A total of 130 Operators participated in the study (age: 29.1±5.2 years). The 1-year cumulative incidence of MSI was 49.2 injured Operators/100 Operators/year. The most frequent anatomic location and sublocation for MSI were the lower extremity (40.9% of MSI) and shoulder (20.9%), respectively. Lifting was a common cause of MSI (21.8%). A large per cent of MSI (55.5%) occurred while Operators were engaged in either physical or tactical training. Common MSI types were pain/spasm/ache (44.5%). Many MSI (41.8%) were classified as potentially preventable by an injury prevention training programme. The total lifetime cost of these MSI was estimated to be approximately US$1.2 million. Conclusion: MSI are an important cause of morbidity and financial cost in this sample of Air Force Special Tactics Operators. There is a need to develop a customised injury prevention programme to reduce the burden and cost of MSI in this population.

18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(4): 381-386, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144888

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw))-1) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw)-1) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw)-1) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Meio Ambiente , Temperatura Alta , Camada de Gelo , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Aptidão Física , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S34-S39, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has examined lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) patterns and risk factors in Special Operations Forces (SOF) trainees, conventional military personnel, and athletes; however, it is unclear if SOF have the same patterns/risk factors. This study aimed to determine the association of musculoskeletal, balance, and physiological characteristics with LE MSI in SOF. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A total of 726 Air Force (N=140), Navy Sea, Air, and Land (N=301), and Special Warfare Combatant Crewmen (N=285) SOF (age=25.72±4.77years, height=178.34±6.63cm, weight=84.28±9.03kg) participated in laboratory testing, including: LE muscular strength and flexibility; balance; body composition; anaerobic power/capacity; and aerobic capacity. Medical charts were reviewed for LE MSI 365days following laboratory testing. Participants were assigned by injury status and laboratory data stratified by tertile. Chi-square statistics were calculated to determine the frequency of LE MSI across tertiles for each characteristic. RESULTS: There was a significant association between LE MSI and: ankle inversion strength (weaker side: Χ(2)=17.703; stronger side: Χ(2)=18.911; p≤0.001); ankle eversion/inversion strength ratio (lower side: Χ(2)=13.456; higher side: Χ(2)=16.885; p≤0.001); hamstring flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=19.930; more flexible Χ(2)=15.185; p≤0.001); gastrocnemius-soleus flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=7.889, p=0.019); dynamic balance asymmetry (Χ(2)=7.444, p=0.024); Vestibular and Preference ratios (Χ(2)=9.124, p=0.010 and Χ(2)=6.572, p=0.037, respectively); and aerobic capacity (Χ(2)=13.935, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics associated with LE MSI are unique in SOF. Human performance program initiatives should include efforts to optimize ankle strength and flexibility, maintain moderate hamstring flexibility, expand dynamic balance strategies, and maximize aerobic capacity to reduce LE MSI risk.


Assuntos
Militares , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Maleabilidade/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appl Ergon ; 58: 566-572, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27154276

RESUMO

We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Militares , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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