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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the value of echocardiographic right ventricular (RV) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) assessment in predicting transcatheter tricuspid edge-to-edge valve repair (TTVR) outcome. BACKGROUND: RV dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension are associated with poor prognosis and are systematically sought during tricuspid regurgitation evaluation. The value of echocardiographic assessment in predicting TTVR outcome is unknown. METHODS: Data were taken from the TriValve (Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies) registry, which includes patients undergoing TTVR at 14 European and North American centers. The primary outcome was 1-year survival free from hospitalization for heart failure, and secondary outcomes were 1-year survival and absence of hospital admission for heart failure at 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 249 patients underwent TTVR between June 2015 and 2018 (mean tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE] 15.8 ± 15.3 mm, mean sPAP 43.6 ± 16.0 mm Hg). Tricuspid regurgitation grade ≥3+ was found in 96.8% of patients at baseline and 29.4% at final follow-up; 95.6% were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV initially, compared with 34.3% at follow-up (p < 0.05). Final New York Heart Association functional class did not differ among TAPSE and sPAP quartiles, even when both low TAPSE and high sPAP were present. Rates of 1-year survival and survival free from hospitalization for heart failure were 83.9% and 78.7%, respectively, without significant differences according to baseline echocardiographic RV characteristics (TAPSE, fractional area change, and end-diastolic area) and sPAP (p > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: TTVR provides clinical improvement, with 1-year survival free from hospital readmission >75% in patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Conventional echocardiographic parameters used to assess RV function and sPAP did not predict clinical outcome after TTVR.

3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(4): 265-276, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcatheter edge-to-edge tricuspid valve repair (TTVR) for severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) on hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and HF-related endpoints. BACKGROUND: Patients with severe TR need effective therapies beyond conservative treatment. The impact of TTVR on HHF and HF-related endpoints is unknown. METHODS: Isolated TTVR was performed in 119 patients. Assessments were conducted of New York Heart Association functional class, 6-min walk distance, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and medication. HHFs were analyzed in the preceding 12 months before and until the longest available follow-up after TTVR. Results were compared with those of 114 patients who underwent combined mitral and tricuspid valve repair. RESULTS: Procedural success with a reduction to moderate or less TR and no in-hospital death was achieved in 82% of patients. With a median follow-up of 360 days (interquartile range: 187 to 408 days), a durable TR reduction to moderate or less was achieved in 72% of patients (p < 0.001). TTVR reduced the annual rate of HHF by 22% (1.21 to 0.95 HHF/patient-year; p = 0.02), with concomitant clinical improvement in New York Heart Association functional class (patients in class II or lower: 9% to 67%; p < 0.001), 6-min walk distance (+39 m; p = 0.001), and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score (-6 points; p = 0.02). N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level decreased numerically by 783 pg/ml. Diuretic dose before TTVR was increased, but HF medication did not change after TTVR. Procedural success was associated with improved 1-year survival (79% vs. 60%; p = 0.04) and event-free-survival (death + first HHF: 67% vs. 40%; p = 0.001). Transcatheter mitral and tricuspid valve repair-treated patients had comparable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: TTVR for severe TR is associated with a reduction of HHF and improved clinical outcomes.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(5): 418-435, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials for glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in people with or at risk of type 2 diabetes, we reported a modest reduction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular events and an increased risk of heart failure, but with heterogeneous effects by drug or intervention type. In view of the completion of many large cardiovascular outcome trials since our previous analysis, including trials of novel drugs that have shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes, we aimed to update our analysis to incorporate these findings. METHODS: We did an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in people with or at risk of type 2 diabetes. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for reports of trials published from Nov 15, 2013 to Nov 20, 2019. We included randomised controlled trials with a minimum of 1000 adults (aged ≥19 years) with or at risk of type 2 diabetes, with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) as an outcome, and with follow-up of at least 12 months. We excluded trials with patients enrolled with an acute cardiovascular event. The main outcomes of interest were MACE (generally defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and heart failure. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs with inverse-variance random-effects models, did meta-regression to analyse treatment effects per difference in bodyweight achieved, and explored results stratified by baseline subgroups. FINDINGS: Our updated search yielded 30 eligible trials (n=225 305). The mean age of participants was 63·0 years (SD 8·4) and mean duration of diabetes was 9·4 years (6·6). After a mean follow-up of 3·8 years (1·8), 23 016 (10·2%) participants had MACE and 8169 (3·6%) had a heart failure event. Glucose-lowering drugs or strategies lowered the risk of MACE compared with standard care or placebo (RR 0·92, 95% CI 0·89-0·95, p<0·0001), with no overall effect on the risk of heart failure (0·98, 0·90-1·08, p=0·71). However, across drug classes or strategies, the magnitude and directionality of RR for heart failure varied (pinteraction<0·0001), with meta-regression showing that a decrease in bodyweight of 1 kg was associated with a 5·9% (3·9-8·0) relative decrease in the risk of heart failure (p<0·0001). Among trials that assessed drug classes or strategies associated with weight loss (intensive lifestyle changes, GLP-1 receptor agonists, or SGLT2 inhibitors), the risk reduction for MACE was consistent among participants with (0·87, 0·83-0·92) and without (0·92, 0·83-1·02) established cardiovascular disease at baseline (pinteraction=0·33). For heart failure, the RR for drug classes or strategies associated with weight loss was consistent among participants with (0·80, 0·73-0·89) and without (0·84, 0·74-0·95) cardiovascular disease at baseline (pinteraction=0·63). INTERPRETATION: Glucose-lowering drugs or strategies overall reduced the risk of fatal and non-fatal atherosclerotic events. The effect on heart failure was neutral overall but varied substantially by intervention type, with interventions associated with weight loss showing a beneficial effect. The cardiovascular and heart failure benefits of interventions associated with weight loss might extend to patients without established cardiovascular disease. FUNDING: None.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4466, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161282

RESUMO

Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) is required for ciliogenesis and shear stress-induced dissolution of cilia in embryonic endothelial cells coincides with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in the developing heart. EndMT is also suggested to underlie heart and lung fibrosis, however, the mechanism linking endothelial Ift88, its effect on EndMT and organ fibrosis remains mainly unexplored. We silenced Ift88 in endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and generated endothelial cell-specific Ift88-knockout mice (Ift88endo) in vivo to evaluate EndMT and its contribution towards organ fibrosis, respectively. Ift88-silencing in ECs led to mesenchymal cells-like changes in endothelial cells. The expression level of the endothelial markers (CD31, Tie-2 and VE-cadherin) were significantly reduced with a concomitant increase in the expression level of mesenchymal markers (αSMA, N-Cadherin and FSP-1) in Ift88-silenced ECs. Increased EndMT was associated with increased expression of profibrotic Collagen I expression and increased proliferation in Ift88-silenced ECs. Loss of Ift88 in ECs was further associated with increased expression of Sonic Hedgehog signaling effectors. In vivo, endothelial cells isolated from the heart and lung of Ift88endo mice demonstrated loss of Ift88 expression in the endothelium. The Ift88endo mice were born in expected Mendelian ratios without any adverse cardiac phenotypes at baseline. Cardiac and pulmonary endothelial cells isolated from the Ift88endo mice demonstrated signs of EndMT and bleomycin treatment exacerbated pulmonary fibrosis in Ift88endo mice. Pressure overload stress in the form of aortic banding did not reveal a significant difference in cardiac fibrosis between Ift88endo mice and control mice. Our findings demonstrate a novel association between endothelial cilia with EndMT and cell proliferation and also show that loss of endothelial cilia-associated increase in EndMT contributes specifically towards pulmonary fibrosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130021

RESUMO

The mechanism by which the kidney senses changes in hemoglobin concentration (Hb) may inform decisions regarding the optimal fluid for intravascular volume resuscitation in critical care settings where starch solution may be nephrotoxic. We hypothesized that hemodilution with starch solutions would reduce renal PktO2 to a more severe degree than other diluents. Anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats (n=61) were block-randomized to undergo hemodilution with either colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch or 5% albumin), crystalloid (saline), or a sham procedure (control) (n=6-12 rats/group). We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial blood gases, Hb (cooximetry), cardiac output (CO, echocardiography), renal PktO2 and hypoxic gene expression (mRNA qRT-PCR). Following hemodilution, MAP decreased in the saline group while Hb and blood oxygen content (CaO2) decreased in all groups. Cardiac output increased (~50%) after colloid, but not after saline hemodilution. Renal PktO2 decreased in proportion to the reduction in Hb in all treatment groups. At comparably reduced Hb and PaO2 values, hemodilution with starch resulted in a larger decrease in kidney PktO2 relative to animals hemodiluted with albumin or saline (p<0.008). Renal erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA levels increased after hemodilution in all groups, but other HIF-dependent molecules did not increase (Glut-1, GAPDH, VEGF). This suggests that EPO expression is highly responsive to changes in CaO2 and demonstrates the capacity for the kidney as a biosensor of CaO2. Our data demonstrates that PktO2 reflects proportional changes in CaO2 and supports the hypothesis that hemodilution with starch colloid solution impairs renal PktO2, relative to hemodilution with albumin and saline.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 13, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the likelihood of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals with reduced ejection fraction heart failure. Because SGLT2 inhibitors lead to volume contraction with reductions in both preload and afterload, these load-dependent factors are thought to be major contributors to the cardioprotective effects of the drug class. Beyond these effects, we hypothesized that SGLT2 inhibitors may also improve intrinsic cardiac function, independent of loading conditions. METHODS: Pressure-volume (P-V) relationship analysis was used to elucidate changes in intrinsic cardiac function, independent of alterations in loading conditions in animals with experimental myocardial infarction, a well-established model of HFrEF. Ten-week old, non-diabetic Fischer F344 rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce myocardial infarction (MI) of the left ventricle (LV). Following confirmation of infarct size with echocardiography 1-week post MI, animals were randomized to receive vehicle, or the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin. Cardiac function was assessed by conductance catheterization just prior to termination 6 weeks later. RESULTS: The circumferential extent of MI in animals that were subsequently randomized to vehicle or empagliflozin groups was similar. Empagliflozin did not affect fractional shortening (FS) as assessed by echocardiography. In contrast, load-insensitive measures of cardiac function were substantially improved with empagliflozin. Load-independent measures of cardiac contractility, preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and end-systolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) were higher in rats that had received empagliflozin. Consistent with enhanced cardiac performance in the heart failure setting, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in rats that had received empagliflozin despite its diuretic effects. A trend to improved diastolic function, as evidenced by reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was also seen with empagliflozin. MI animals treated with vehicle demonstrated myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and evidence for changes in key calcium handling proteins (all p < 0.05) that were not affected by empagliflozin therapy. CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin therapy improves cardiac function independent of loading conditions. These findings suggest that its salutary effects are, at least in part, due to actions beyond a direct effect of reduced preload and afterload.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(1): 50-56, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980166

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, but progressive and devastating vascular disease with few treatment options to prevent the advancement to right ventricular dysfunction hypertrophy and failure. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, enhances urinary glucose excretion as well as reduces cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. While empagliflozin has been reported to lower systemic hypertension due to increased diuresis, the effect of empagliflozin on PAH is unknown. We used monocrotaline (MCT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats to determine if empagliflozin alters PAH-associated outcomes. Compared to vehicle control, daily empagliflozin administration significantly improved survival in rats with severe MCT-induced PAH. Hemodynamic assessments showed that empagliflozin treatment significantly reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular systolic pressure, and increased pulmonary acceleration time. Empagliflozin treatment resulted in reduced right ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Histological and molecular assessments of lung vasculature revealed significantly reduced medial wall thickening and decreased muscularization of pulmonary arterioles after empagliflozin treatment compared to vehicle-treated rats. In summary, SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin lowered mortality, reduced right ventricle systolic pressure, and attenuated maladaptive pulmonary remodeling in MCT-induced PAH. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibition should be considered for patients with PAH.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(5): 554-564, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The interference of a transtricuspid cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) lead with tricuspid valve function may contribute to the mechanism of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and poses specific therapeutic challenges during transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI). Feasibility and efficacy of TTVI in presence of a CIED is unclear. BACKGROUND: Feasibility of TTVI in presence of a CIED lead has never been proven on a large basis. METHODS: The study population consisted of 470 patients with severe symptomatic TR from the TriValve (Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies) registry who underwent TTVI at 21 centers between 2015 and 2018. The association of CIED and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Pre-procedural CIED was present in 121 of 470 (25.7%) patients. The most frequent location of the CIED lead was the posteroseptal commissure (44.0%). As compared with patients without a transvalvular lead (no-CIED group), patients having a tricuspid lead (CIED group) were more symptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class III to IV in 95.9% vs. 92.3%; p = 0.02) and more frequently had previous episodes of right heart failure (87.8% vs. 69.0%; p = 0.002). No-CIED patients had more severe TR (effective regurgitant orifice area 0.7 ± 0.6 cm2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 cm2; p = 0.02), but significantly better right ventricular function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion = 16.7 ± 5.0 mm vs. 15.9 ± 4.0 mm; p = 0.04). Overall, 373 patients (79%) were treated with the MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) (106 [87.0%] in the CIED group). Among them, 154 (33%) patients had concomitant transcatheter mitral repair (55 [46.0%] in the CIED group, all MitraClip). Procedural success was achieved in 80.0% of no-CIED patients and in 78.6% of CIED patients (p = 0.74), with an in-hospital mortality of 2.9% and 3.7%, respectively (p = 0.70). At 30 days, residual TR ≤2+ was observed in 70.8% of no-CIED and in 73.7% of CIED patients (p = 0.6). Symptomatic improvement was observed in both groups (NYHA functional class I to II at 30 days: 66.0% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.30). Survival at 12 months was 80.7 ± 3.0% in the no-CIED patients and 73.6 ± 5.0% in the CIED patients (p = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: TTVI is feasible in selected patients with CIED leads and acute procedural success and short-term clinical outcomes are comparable to those observed in patients without a transtricuspid lead.

12.
Circulation ; 141(10): 818-827, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a recommended imaging test for patients with heart failure (HF); however, there is a lack of evidence showing incremental benefit over transthoracic echocardiography. Our primary hypothesis was that routine use of CMR will yield more specific diagnoses in nonischemic HF. Our secondary hypothesis was that routine use of CMR will improve patient outcomes. METHODS: Patients with nonischemic HF were randomized to routine versus selective CMR. Patients in the routine strategy underwent echocardiography and CMR, whereas those assigned to selective use underwent echocardiography with or without CMR according to the clinical presentation. HF causes was classified from the imaging data as well as by the treating physician at 3 months (primary outcome). Clinical events were collected for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients (344 male) with mean age 59±13 years were randomized. The routine and selective CMR strategies had similar rates of specific HF causes at 3 months clinical follow-up (44% versus 50%, respectively; P=0.22). At image interpretation, rates of specific HF causes were also not different between routine and selective CMR (34% versus 30%, respectively; P=0.34). However, 24% of patients in the selective group underwent a nonprotocol CMR. Patients with specific HF causes had more clinical events than those with nonspecific caused on the basis of imaging classification (19% versus 12%, respectively; P=0.02), but not on clinical assessment (15% versus 14%, respectively; P=0.49). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonischemic HF, routine CMR does not yield more specific HF causes on clinical assessment. Patients with specific HF causes from imaging had worse outcomes, whereas HF causes defined clinically did not. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01281384.

14.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 35(2): 178-186, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804229

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to provide practical recommendations on safe initiation of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to in-patients as well as management of those who are already on SGLT2 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Robust data from stable outpatient cohorts indicate that the SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with clinically meaningful reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, lower rates of hospitalization for heart failure, and a reduction in major kidney outcomes There is however a lack of information on how to initiate and manage SGLT2 inhibitors in an acute in-patient setting. SUMMARY: SGLT2 inhibitors may be cautiously appropriate for in-patients if all the criteria for safe use are met but good clinical judgment must prevail. Temporary withholding of SGLT2 inhibitors is appropriate in hospitalized patients during a period of stress and/or insulinopenia.

16.
Neuroimage ; 204: 116202, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557546

RESUMO

Lactate is now recognized as an important intermediate in brain metabolism, but its role is still under investigation. In this work we mapped the distribution of lactate and bicarbonate produced from intravenously injected 13C-pyruvate over the whole brain using a new imaging method, hyperpolarized 13C MRI (N = 14, ages 23 to 77). Segmenting the 13C-lactate images into brain atlas regions revealed a pattern of lactate that was preserved across individuals. Higher lactate signal was observed in cortical grey matter compared to white matter and was highest in the precuneus, cuneus and lingual gyrus. Bicarbonate signal, indicating flux of [1-13C]pyruvate into the TCA cycle, also displayed consistent spatial distribution. One-way ANOVA to test for significant differences in lactate among atlas regions gave F = 87.6 and p < 10-6. This report of a "lactate topography" in the human brain and its consistent pattern is evidence of region-specific lactate biology that is preserved across individuals.

17.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(4): 951-962, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the temporal and observer variability of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-measured native T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) and serum biomarkers for the detection of cancer-therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD). BACKGROUND: Biomarkers and serial quantitative CMR tissue characterization may help identify early myocardial changes of CTRCD, but these parameters require both accuracy and reliability. METHODS: A total of 50 participants (age 48.9 ± 12.1 years) underwent 3 CMR studies (1.5-T) and biomarker measurements (high-sensitivity troponin-I and B-type natriuretic peptide) at 3-month intervals: 20 with HER2-positive breast cancer (10 with and 10 without CTRCD), and 30 prospectively recruited healthy participants. T1 and T2 maps were obtained at 3 left ventricular short-axis locations. Temporal and observer variability were calculated as the coefficient of variation and as the standard error of the measurement (SEM) using repeated measures and 2-way analysis of variance. Minimal detected difference was defined as 2 × SEM. RESULTS: Compared with the patients without CTRCD, those with CTRCD had larger temporal change in native T1 (27.2 ms [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.8 to 39.3 ms] vs. 12.4 ms [95% CI: 9.5 to 17.9 ms]), T2 (2.0 ms [95% CI: 1.5 to 2.9 ms] vs. 1.0 ms [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.4 ms]), and ECV (2.1% [95% CI: 1.5% to 3.1%] vs. 1.0% [95% CI: 0.8% to 1.5%]). However, the temporal changes in biomarkers overlapped. The minimal detected difference for T1 (29 ms), T2 (3.0 ms), and ECV (2.2%) in healthy participants approached the mean temporal changes in patients with CTRCD. For individual patients with CTRCD, there was overlap in the temporal changes of all 3 parameters, and the variability in healthy participants with the least overlap for native T1. The interobserver/intraobserver variabilities for the CMR parameters were low (coefficient of variation 0.5% to 4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The temporal changes in both biomarkers and tissue characterization measures in individual patients overlap with the temporal variability in healthy participants and approach the minimal detectable temporal differences. While the accuracy of the parameters awaits further study, the temporal variability of these methods may pose challenges to routine clinical application in individual patients receiving cancer therapy.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(24): 2488-2495, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this observational first-in-human experience was to investigate the feasibility and safety of the PASCAL transcatheter valve repair system and its impact on short-term clinical outcomes in patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR). BACKGROUND: Transcatheter repair of severe TR is a promising treatment option for patients at prohibitive surgical risk. Large leaflet coaptation gaps and tethering represent common features that challenge the application of transcatheter repair techniques. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with severe TR were treated with the PASCAL system in a compassionate use experience at 6 sites. All patients had heart failure due to severe TR and were deemed at high surgical risk by institutional heart teams. The primary outcome was procedural success, defined as the implantation of at least 1 device with post-procedural TR grade ≤2+, without mortality or conversion to surgery. RESULTS: All patients (mean age 78 ± 6 years, 54% women) were at high surgical risk (mean European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II score 6.2 ± 5.2%). TR etiology was functional in 92%, with mean tricuspid annular diameter of 49.5 ± 6 mm and mean coaptation gap of 6.9 ± 3 mm. Procedural success was 86%, with 1.4 ± 0.6 devices implanted per patient. There were no intraprocedural complications. At 30-day follow-up, mortality was 7.1%, 88% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II, with TR grade ≤2+ in 85%. There were 2 single-leaflet device attachments, which were managed conservatively. Six-min walk distance improved from 240 m (interquartile range: 172 to 337 m) to 335 m (interquartile range: 251 to 385 m) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This first-in-human experience evaluating transcatheter tricuspid repair with the PASCAL system demonstrated high procedural success, acceptable safety, and significant clinical improvement. Larger prospective studies with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm these initial promising results and further define the impact of PASCAL tricuspid repair on clinical outcomes.

19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(12): 1551-1557.e1, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) remains the preferred test to rule out infective endocarditis (IE) but is resource intensive and carries risk. Multiple studies report low sensitivity of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for detection of IE; however, these studies did not account for TTE quality. We test the validity of a simple valve visualization grading tool to stratify TTEs by quality and determine whether a high-quality TTE may be used to exclude valvular vegetation and forgo the need for TEE. METHODS: The Valve Visualization on Echocardiography Grade (VEG) tool scores the TTE from 0 to 10 based on leaflet visualization and valve leaflet clarity. The tool was retrospectively applied to 309 sequential patients who underwent both TTE and TEE at an academic teaching hospital between 2011 and 2015. The TEE report was the gold standard for presence or absence of vegetation. Patients with prosthetic valves and pacemaker wires were excluded. Sensitivity of TTE for detecting vegetation was calculated at each VEG score, and the optimal cutoff was identified. RESULTS: A total of 309 patients were included in the analysis. Among the 216 negative TTEs, 19 (9%) had a positive TEE. The median VEG score was 4. A VEG score cutoff >6 provided optimal sensitivity and was used as the cutoff. Overall, 75 (25%) patients had a VEG score >6, and 234 (75%) had a score ≤6. Sensitivity and negative predictive value for IE were higher in the VEG >6 versus VEG ≤6 group (sensitivity 96% vs 66%, negative predictive value 97.5% vs 90%; P < .05). The false-negative rate was lower (2.5% vs 10%; P = .04) in VEG > 6 versus VEG ≤ 6 groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Leaflet visualization and valve leaflet clarity are important components in the TTE evaluation of patients with suspected IE. This study demonstrates that the better the valve leaflets are visualized on TTE (as represented in this population by a score >6), the higher the confidence one can have that the TTE will not be falsely negative for vegetation(s) when vegetation(s) are not noted on these TTEs. If validated in future prospective studies, this may reduce the need to perform an invasive TEE in selected patients undergoing evaluation for native valve IE.

20.
J Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conversion from conventional hemodialysis (CHD) to in-centre nocturnal hemodialysis (INHD) is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass regression, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Using cardiac MRI (CMR), we examined the effects of INHD on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT), and the relationships between EAT, PAT and LV remodeling, biomarkers of nutrition, myocardial injury, fibrosis and volume. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study of 37 patients transitioned from CHD to INHD and 30 patients on CHD (control). Biochemical markers and CMR were performed at baseline and 52 weeks. CMR images were analyzed by independent readers, blinded to order and treatment group. RESULTS: Among 64 participants with complete CMR studies at baseline (mean age 54; 43% women), there were no significant differences in EAT index (60.6 ± 4.3 mL/m2 vs 64.2 ± 5.1 mL/m2, p = 0.99) or PAT index (60.0 ± 5.4 mL/m2 vs 53.2 ± 5.9 mL/m2, p = 0.42) between INHD and CHD groups. Over 52 weeks, EAT index and PAT index did not change significantly in INHD and CHD groups (p = 0.21 and 0.14, respectively), and the changes in EAT index and PAT index did not differ significantly between INHD and CHD groups (p = 0.30 and 0.16, respectively). Overall, changes in EAT index inversely correlated with changes in LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) but not LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), LV mass index (LVMI), and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Changes in PAT index inversely correlated with changes in LVESVI, LVMI and positively correlated with changes in LVEF. There were no correlations between changes in EAT index or PAT index with changes in albumin, LDL, triglycerides, troponin-I, FGF-23, or NT-proBNP levels over 52 weeks (all p > 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: INHD was not associated with any changes in EAT index and PAT index over 12 months. Changes in EAT index were not significantly associated with changes in markers of LV remodeling, nutrition, myocardial injury, fibrosis, volume status. In contrast, changes in PAT index, which paradoxically is expected to exert less paracrine effect on the myocardium, were correlated with changes in LVESVI, LVMI and LVEF. Larger and longer-term studies may clarify the role of PAT in cardiac remodeling with intensified hemodialysis. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00718848.

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