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1.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-9, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about emotional quality-of-life in paediatric heart disease in low- and middle-income countries where the prevalence of uncorrected lesions is high. Research on emotional quality-of-life and its predictors in these settings is key to planning interventions. METHODS: Ten-year retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 6-17 years with uncorrected congenital or acquired heart disease in 12 low- and middle-income countries was conducted. Emotional functioning score of the PedsQL TM 4.0 generic core scale and data on patient-reported limitation in sports participation were collected via in-person interview and analysed using regression analyses. RESULTS: Ninety-four children reported mean emotional functioning scores of 71.94 (SD 25.32) [95% CI 66.75-77.13] with lower scores independently associated with having a parent with a chronic illness or who had died (p = 0.005), having less than three siblings (p = 0.007), and reporting a subjective limitation in carrying an item equivalent to a 4 lb load (p = 0.021). Patient-reported limitation in sports participation at least "sometimes" was present in 69% and was independently associated with experiencing symptoms at least once a month (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Some of the factors which were associated with better emotional quality-of-life were similar to those identified in previous studies in patients with corrected defects. Patient-reported limitation in sports participation is common. In addition to corrective surgery and exercise, numerous other interventions which are practicable during surgical missions might improve emotional quality-of-life.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18415, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804580

RESUMO

Currently, exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is the only recommended secondary prevention strategy for cardiac patients that attempts to tackle stress and psychosocial wellbeing, but it is under-utilized and lacks a comprehensive curriculum for this purpose; hence there is a critical gap to address psychosocial needs of cardiac patients after an event. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has shown benefits in the general population but its role in cardiac patients is not clear. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of MBSR in CR-eligible cardiac patients during their initial year of recovery. Patients were allocated 2:1 (intervention:control) to an 8-week MBSR group intervention or usual care. Standard measures of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, health related quality of life (HRQOL), blood pressure, biomarkers (lipids, HbA1c, CRP) and 24-hour Holter monitoring were obtained at baseline, 3- and 9-months post-randomization. Sub-group analyses were performed for participants with at least mild depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). 47 patients [mean age 58.6 years; 38% female; 77% white] were enrolled in 2 cohorts. 87% of MBSR patients completed the intervention; study retention was >95% at each follow-up visit. At 3 months, compared to controls, MBSR patients showed improvements in depression [p = 0.01] and anxiety [p = 0.04] with a similar trend in HRQOL [p = 0.06]. The MBSR group showed greater improvement or less worsening of most CV risk factors, with an attenuation of treatment effects at 9 months. Participants with at PHQ-9 scores ≥5 at baseline showed greater improvement in psychosocial and CV outcomes, that persisted at 9 months. MBSR is a safe and well received secondary prevention strategy. This pilot RCT provides preliminary evidence of MBSR's potential to improve short term psychosocial well-being in cardiac patients during their first year of recovery.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(24): 2304-2314, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that beta-blockers may reduce the risk of exacerbations and death in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these findings have not been confirmed in randomized trials. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized trial, we assigned patients between the ages of 40 and 85 years who had COPD to receive either a beta-blocker (extended-release metoprolol) or placebo. All the patients had a clinical history of COPD, along with moderate airflow limitation and an increased risk of exacerbations, as evidenced by a history of exacerbations during the previous year or the prescribed use of supplemental oxygen. We excluded patients who were already taking a beta-blocker or who had an established indication for the use of such drugs. The primary end point was the time until the first exacerbation of COPD during the treatment period, which ranged from 336 to 350 days, depending on the adjusted dose of metoprolol. RESULTS: A total of 532 patients underwent randomization. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 65.0±7.8 years; the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 41.1±16.3% of the predicted value. The trial was stopped early because of futility with respect to the primary end point and safety concerns. There was no significant between-group difference in the median time until the first exacerbation, which was 202 days in the metoprolol group and 222 days in the placebo group (hazard ratio for metoprolol vs. placebo, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.32; P = 0.66). Metoprolol was associated with a higher risk of exacerbation leading to hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.83). The frequency of side effects that were possibly related to metoprolol was similar in the two groups, as was the overall rate of nonrespiratory serious adverse events. During the treatment period, there were 11 deaths in the metoprolol group and 5 in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with moderate or severe COPD who did not have an established indication for beta-blocker use, the time until the first COPD exacerbation was similar in the metoprolol group and the placebo group. Hospitalization for exacerbation was more common among the patients treated with metoprolol. (Funded by the Department of Defense; BLOCK COPD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02587351.).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metoprolol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114185

RESUMO

Introduction: Poor oral health has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of COPD, but few studies have evaluated the association between oral health and COPD exacerbations. We aimed to determine if poor oral health is associated with COPD exacerbations and/or worse respiratory health. Methods: We performed a case-control study of oral health among COPD exacerbators and non-exacerbators. Cases (exacerbators) had experienced ≥1 exacerbation in the previous 12 months, while controls (non-exacerbators) had no exacerbations in the previous 24 months. We excluded those with <4 teeth. We evaluated the global oral health assessment, Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5), dental symptoms/habits, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). In a subset, we performed blinded dental exams to measure bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, periodontitis severity, plaque index, gingival index, and carries risk. We evaluated associations between oral health and COPD exacerbations using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to assess relationships between oral health and SGRQ scores. Results: Screened non-exacerbators (n=118) were significantly more likely to have <4 teeth, compared to screened exacerbators (n=100) (44% vs 30%, respectively; p=0.046). After excluding those with <4 teeth, there were 70 cases and 66 controls. Self-reported oral health and objective dental exam measures did not vary significantly between cases vs controls. However, the odds of severe COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalizations and/or emergency department visits trended higher in those with worse dental exam compared to those with better dental exam. Worse OHIP-5 was strongly associated with worse SGRQ scores. Conclusions: Oral health status was not related to COPD exacerbations, but was associated with self-reported respiratory health. Non-exacerbators were more likely to be edentate or have ≤4 teeth compared to exacerbators. Larger studies are needed to address oral health as a potential method to improve respiratory health in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Saúde dos Veteranos
8.
Chest ; 154(2): 266-273, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is an age-related disease. The role of cellular senescence in COPD has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the relationship between telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes and clinical outcomes, including health status, rate of exacerbations, and risk of mortality in individuals with COPD. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured the absolute telomere length (aTL) of DNA extracted from blood samples of 576 participants with moderate-to-severe COPD treated with either azithromycin or placebo for 12 months in the Macrolide Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD (MACRO) study. All participants were followed for approximately 13 months, during which time health status and exacerbations were carefully ascertained, and an additional 29 months for mortality. The rates of exacerbation and mortality were determined by dividing the aTL into two groups using the median value as the cutoff. RESULTS: Participants with shorter telomere length had worse health status defined by higher St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores (ß = -0.09, P = .034). In the placebo arm of the study, the rate of exacerbation (rate ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.16-1.95; P = .002) and the risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 9.45; 95% CI, 2.85-31.36; P = .015) were significantly higher in the shorter telomere group than in the longer telomere group; these differences were not observed in the azithromycin arm (interaction P = .008 for exacerbation and interaction P = .017 for mortality) CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that replicative senescence may help to predict poor outcomes in COPD. Shorter leukocyte telomere lengths may represent a clinically translatable biomarker for identifying individuals at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes in COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Respiratória , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
9.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 55(4): 254-259, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) during the second decade of life and the effects of albinism type and extraocular muscle surgery on BCVA in children with albinism. METHODS: In this retrospective longitudinal study, 41 patients with albinism with clinic visits recording binocular BCVA at least once between the ages of 10 and 13 years (visit A) and again between the ages of 17 and 20 years (visit B) were included. Type of albinism, age at each visit, and interval eye muscle surgeries were recorded for each patient. RESULTS: Forty (98%) patients showed BCVA improvement or stability between visits A and B. There was no significant effect of interval extraocular muscle surgery on BCVA. Those carrying either a clinically presumed or moleculary confirmed diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism types 1B and 2 had the best visual outcomes, consistent with previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of patients with albinism, significant improvement in BCVA occurs during the second decade of life. Extraocular muscle surgery was not a significant factor in BCVA improvement in albinism. Overall, the assessments support the finding of improvement of visual acuity in children with albinism at earlier ages and provide new information beneficial in predicting visual outcomes in the second decade of life. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55(4):254-259.].


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/classificação , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
10.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 30, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature is scarce regarding the prevalence and clinical impact of IgG subclass deficiency in COPD. We investigated the prevalence of IgG subclass deficiencies and their association with exacerbations and hospitalizations using subjects from two COPD cohorts. METHODS: We measured IgG subclass levels using immunonephelometry in serum samples from participants enrolled in two previous COPD trials: Macrolide Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD (MACRO; n = 976) and Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD (STATCOPE; n = 653). All samples were collected from clinically stable participants upon entry into both studies. IgG subclass deficiency was diagnosed when IgG subclass levels were below their respective lower limit of normal: IgG1 < 2.8 g/L; IgG2 < 1.15 g/L; IgG3 < 0.24 g/L; and IgG4 < 0.052 g/L. To investigate the impact of IgG subclass levels on time to first exacerbation or hospitalization, we log-transformed IgG levels and performed Cox regression models, with adjustments for confounders. RESULTS: One or more IgG subclass deficiencies were found in 173 (17.7%) and 133 (20.4%) participants in MACRO and STATCOPE, respectively. Lower IgG1 or IgG2 levels resulted in increased risk of exacerbations with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.10-1.54, p < 0.01) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35, p < 0.01), respectively in the MACRO study, with STATCOPE yielding similar results. Reduced IgG1 or IgG2 levels were also associated with increased risk of hospitalizations: the adjusted HR for IgG1 and IgG2 was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15-2.02, p < 0.01) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.64, p < 0.01), respectively for the MACRO study; in STATCOPE, only IgG2 was an independent predictor of hospitalization. In our multivariate Cox models, IgG3 and IgG4 levels did not result in significant associations for both outcomes in either MACRO or STATCOPE cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 COPD patients had one or more IgG subclass deficiencies. Reduced IgG subclass levels were independent risk factors for both COPD exacerbations (IgG1 and IgG2) and hospitalizations (IgG2) in two COPD cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study used serum samples from participants of the MACRO ( NCT00325897 ) and STATCOPE ( NCT01061671 ) trials.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Deficiência de IgG/sangue , Deficiência de IgG/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência de IgG/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
JAMA ; 319(3): 266-278, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340678

RESUMO

Importance: The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is effective in achieving established diabetes treatment targets, but durability is unknown. Objective: To compare durability of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass added to intensive lifestyle and medical management in achieving diabetes control targets. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational follow-up of a randomized clinical trial at 4 sites in the United States and Taiwan, involving 120 participants who had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 8.0% or higher and a body mass index between 30.0 and 39.9 (enrolled between April 2008 and December 2011) were followed up for 5 years, ending in November 2016. Interventions: Lifestyle-intensive medical management intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program and LookAHEAD trials for 2 years, with and without (60 participants each) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery followed by observation to year 5. Main Outcomes and Measures: The American Diabetes Association composite triple end point of hemoglobin A1c less than 7.0%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 100 mg/dL, and systolic blood pressure less than 130 mm Hg at 5 years. Results: Of 120 participants who were initially randomized (mean age, 49 years [SD, 8 years], 72 women [60%]), 98 (82%) completed 5 years of follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups: mean (SD) body mass index 34.4 (3.2) for the lifestyle-medical management group and 34.9 (3.0) for the gastric bypass group and had hemoglobin A1c levels of 9.6% (1.2) and 9.6% (1.0), respectively. At 5 years, 13 participants (23%) in the gastric bypass group and 2 (4%) in the lifestyle-intensive medical management group had achieved the composite triple end point (difference, 19%; 95% CI, 4%-34%; P = .01). In the fifth year, 31 patients (55%) in the gastric bypass group vs 8 (14%) in the lifestyle-medical management group achieved an HbA1c level of less than 7.0% (difference, 41%; 95% CI, 19%-63%; P = .002). Gastric bypass had more serious adverse events than did the lifestyle-medical management intervention, 66 events vs 38 events, most frequently gastrointestinal events and surgical complications such as strictures, small bowel obstructions, and leaks. Gastric bypass had more parathyroid hormone elevation but no difference in B12 deficiency. Conclusions and Relevance: In extended follow-up of obese adults with type 2 diabetes randomized to adding gastric bypass compared with lifestyle and intensive medical management alone, there remained a significantly better composite triple end point in the surgical group at 5 years. However, because the effect size diminished over 5 years, further follow-up is needed to understand the durability of the improvement. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00641251.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Prev Sci ; 19(6): 813-821, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032496

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 31,183) reported on frequency of physical and relational bullying victimization and perpetration and sexual orientation-based harassment. School administrators reported on six practices related to creating supportive LGBT school climate (N = 103 schools): having a point person for LGBT student issues, displaying sexual orientation-specific content, having a gay-straight alliance, discussing bullying based on sexual orientation, and providing professional development around LGBT inclusion and LGBT student issues. An index was created to indicate how many practices each school used (M = 2.45; SD = 1.76). Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that students attending schools with more supportive LGBT climates reported lower odds of relational bullying victimization, physical bullying perpetration, and sexual orientation-based harassment compared to students in schools with less supportive LGBT climates. Sexual orientation did not moderate these relations, indicating that LGBT-supportive practices may be protective for all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. Findings support school-wide efforts to create supportive climates for LGBQ youth as part of a larger bullying prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Meio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 179, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin is a potent anti-oxidant and higher serum concentrations of bilirubin have been associated with better lung function, slower lung function decline, and lower incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether elevated bilirubin blood concentrations are associated with lower risk for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). METHODS: We performed a secondary analyses of data in the Simvastatin for Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD (STATCOPE) and the Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD (MACRO) studies. We used time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses, using bilirubin concentrations prior to first AECOPD as the exposure variable and time to first AECOPD as the outcome variable. STATCOPE was used for model development, with validation in MACRO. RESULTS: In STATCOPE (n = 853), higher bilirubin was associated with a lower but statistically insignificant hazard for AECOPD, (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.89 per log10 increase [95%CI: 0.74 to 1.09; p = 0.26]). In the validation MACRO study (n = 1018), higher bilirubin was associated with a significantly lower hazard for AECOPD (aHR 0.80 per log10 increase [95%CI: 0.67 to 0.94; p = 0.008]). CONCLUSIONS: Bilirubin may be a biomarker of AECOPD risk and may be a novel therapeutic target to reduce AECOPD risk. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01061671 (registered 02 February 2010) and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00325897 (registered 12 May 2006).


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 109, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is associated with reduced lung function and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Azithromycin (AZ) is active against HP and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. We determined whether HP infection status modifies the effects of AZ in COPD patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1018 subjects with COPD who participated in the Macrolide Azithromycin (MACRO) in COPD Study were used to determine the HP infection status at baseline and 12 months of follow-up using a serologic assay. Based on HP infection status and randomization to either AZ or placebo (PL), the subjects were divided into 4 groups: HP+/AZ, HP-/AZ, HP+/PL, and HP-/PL. Time to first exacerbation was compared across the 4 groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The rates of exacerbation were compared using both the Kruskal-Wallis test and negative binomial analysis. Blood biomarkers at enrolment and at follow-up visits 3, 12, and 13 (1 month after treatment was stopped) months were measured. RESULTS: One hundred eighty one (17.8%) patients were seropositive to HP. Non-Caucasian participants were nearly three times more likely to be HP seropositive than Caucasian participants (37.4% vs 13.6%; p < 0.001). The median time to first exacerbation was significantly different across the four groups (p = 0.001) with the longest time in the HP+/AZ group (11.2 months, 95% CI; 8.4-12.5+) followed by the HP-/AZ group (8.0 months, 95% CI; 6.7-9.7). Hazard ratio (HR) for exacerbations was lowest in the HP+/AZ group after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, ethnicity, history of peptic ulcer, dyspnea, previous hospital admission, GOLD grade of severity, and forced vital capacity (HR, 0.612; 95% CI, 0.442-0.846 vs HR, 0.789; 95% CI, 0.663-0.938 in the HP-/AZ group). Circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-75 were reduced only in the HP+/AZ group after 3 months of AZ treatment (-0.87 ± 0.31 µg/L; p = 0.002); levels returned to baseline after discontinuing AZ. CONCLUSIONS: AZ is effective in preventing COPD exacerbations in patients with HP seropositivity, possibly by modulating TNF pathways related to HP infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/sangue , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Neuromodulation ; 20(5): 456-463, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus for treatment of Parkinson's Disease, a commonly encountered stimulation side effect is involuntary muscle contractions from spread of electrical current to cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar fibers in the internal capsule. During surgery, a variety of techniques, including microelectrode recording (MER), are used to avoid positioning the DBS electrode too close to the internal capsule. At some centers, MER includes stimulating through the microelectrode (microstimulation). OBJECTIVE: To assess if intraoperative microstimulation can help avoid positioning the DBS electrode too close to the internal capsule. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From clinical records, we compiled microelectrode and DBS-electrode locations, microstimulation effect thresholds and DBS side effect thresholds. RESULTS: We found that capsular macrostimulation thresholds were significantly lower in cases where capsular microstimulation effects were observed. In addition, we found that lower-threshold for microstimulation-induced involuntary muscle contractions from a given DBS electrode contact predicts a lower threshold for involuntary muscle contractions as a side effect of stimulation with that contact. Specifically, our results suggest that capsular macrostimulation thresholds below 2V are avoided when the product of microstimulation threshold (in µA) and distance (in mm) is greater than 500. CONCLUSIONS: intraoperative microstimulation can help avoid positioning the DBS electrode too close to the internal capsule.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Eletrodos Implantados , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Núcleo Subtalâmico/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Eletrodos Implantados/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/tendências , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 13(1): 45-51, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27262236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial ileal bypass (PIB) in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) randomized controlled trial was found to reduce plasma cholesterol, in particular low density lipoprotein cholesterol, with concomitant retardation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and increased life expectancy. Glucagon-like peptide-1, related to amelioration of type 2 diabetes, is increased over 5-fold after PIB. We hypothesized that PIB, in addition to its action on cholesterol metabolism, may also prevent type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We surveyed by telephone inquiry of former POSCH patients the 30+year posttrial incidence of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, the presence of which was a trial exclusion criteria. We were able to contact 17.4% (n = 838) of the original POSCH population. RESULTS: Of 66 control responders, 17 contracted type 2 diabetes (25.8%); of 80 PIB responders, 8 contracted type 2 diabetes (10%). The difference between groups was significant (P = .015 by Fisher exact test) with an odds ratio of .320 for the PIB group and an over 2-fold (2.6) increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the controls. Including borderline type 2 diabetes (prediabetic) patients, these values were 22 of 66 controls (33.3%) and 10 of 80 PIB patients (12.5%), with an odds ratio of .286 and a P<.004, and again an over 2-fold (2.7) increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the control patients. CONCLUSION: PIB appears to afford partial protection from the onset of type 2 diabetes for over 30 years.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/cirurgia , Masculino , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Obes Surg ; 27(5): 1189-1195, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare effects of different nations on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs. intensive medical management (IMM) in achieving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2008 and December 2011, this randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at four teaching hospitals in the United States and Taiwan involving 71 participants with mild obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m2). Thirty-six of 71 participants were randomly assigned to the RYGB group, and the others were in IMM group. Partial or complete remission of T2DM was defined as blood HbA1c < 6.5 % (48 mmol/mol) or <6 % (42 mmol/mol) without any antihyperglycemic medication for at least 1-year duration, respectively. RESULTS: At baseline, Taiwanese participants had a lower BMI, younger age, and shorter duration of T2DM than American participants. At 24 months, weight loss was greater in the RYGB group in both populations than in the IMM group. No IMM participant of either population had partial or complete remission of T2DM. In the RYGB group, a substantial proportion of the subjects achieved complete or partial remission (57 % in Taiwanese and 27 % in American participants, P = 0.08). Logistic regression revealed stimulated C-peptide (Odds ratio 2.22, P = 0.02) but not nationality as a significant predictor of diabetes remission. CONCLUSION: Adding RYGB to lifestyle and medical management was associated with a greater likelihood of remission of T2DM in both Taiwanese and American subjects with mild obesity with type 2 diabetes. Residual beta-cell function at baseline appears to be the major factor predicting remission of T2DM. Trial registry number: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00641251.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peptídeo C , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Indução de Remissão , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 4(12): 980-989, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries. Participants were HIV-1 infected individuals aged at least 25 years, naive to ART, with CD4 T-cell counts of more than 500 per µL, not receiving treatment for asthma, and without recent respiratory infections (baseline COPD was not an exclusion criterion). Participants were randomly assigned to receive ART (an approved drug combination derived from US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines) either immediately, or deferred until CD4 T-cell counts decreased to 350 per µL or AIDS developed. The randomisation was determined by participation in the parent START study, and was not specific to the substudy. Because of the nature of our study, site investigators and participants were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV1 slope in mL/year; spirometry was done annually during follow-up for up to 5 years. We analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis, and planned separate analyses in smokers and non-smokers because of the known effects of smoking on FEV1 decline. The substudy was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01797367. FINDINGS: Between March 11, 2010, and Aug 23, 2013, we enrolled 1026 participants to our substudy, who were then randomly assigned to either immediate (n=518) or deferred (n=508) ART. Median baseline characteristics included age 36 years (IQR 30-44), CD4 T-cell count 648 per µL (583-767), and HIV plasma viral load 4·2 log10 copies per mL (3·5-4·7). 29% were female and 28% were current smokers. Median follow-up time was 2·0 years (IQR 1·9-3·0). We noted no differences in FEV1 slopes between the immediate and deferred ART groups either in smokers (difference of -3·3 mL/year, 95% CI -38·8 to 32·2; p=0·86) or in non-smokers (difference of -5·6 mL/year, -29·4 to 18·3; p=0·65) or in pooled analyses adjusted for smoking status at each study visit (difference of -5·2 mL/year, -25·1 to 14·6; p=0·61). INTERPRETATION: The timing of ART initiation has no major short-term effect on rate of lung function decline in HIV-positive individuals who are naive to ART, with CD4 T-cell counts of more than 500 per µL. In light of updated WHO recommendations that all HIV-positive individuals should be treated with ART, regardless of their CD4 T-cell count, our results suggest an absence of significant pulmonary harm with such an approach. FUNDING: US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hipatites Virales (France), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation, European AIDS Treatment Network, German Ministry of Education and Research, UK Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research, and US Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 184(9): 681-689, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737842

RESUMO

Exacerbations are a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence suggests the presence of substantial between-individual variability (heterogeneity) in exacerbation rates. The question of whether individuals vary in their tendency towards experiencing severe (versus mild) exacerbations, or whether there is an association between exacerbation rate and severity, has not yet been studied. We used data from the MACRO Study, a 1-year randomized trial of the use of azithromycin for prevention of COPD exacerbations (United States and Canada, 2006-2010; n = 1,107, mean age = 65.2 years, 59.1% male). A parametric frailty model was combined with a logistic regression model, with bivariate random effects capturing heterogeneity in rate and severity. The average rate of exacerbation was 1.53 episodes/year, with 95% of subjects having a model-estimated rate of 0.47-4.22 episodes/year. The overall ratio of severe exacerbations to total exacerbations was 0.22, with 95% of subjects having a model-estimated ratio of 0.04-0.60. We did not confirm an association between exacerbation rate and severity (P = 0.099). A unified model, implemented in standard software, could estimate joint heterogeneity in COPD exacerbation rate and severity and can have applications in similar contexts where inference on event time and intensity is considered. We provide SAS code (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) and a simulated data set to facilitate further uses of this method.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , América do Norte , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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