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1.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is emerging as an important consideration for elite sporting performance, yet it is rarely monitored. The present study assessed changes in mental fatigue in professional team-sport athletes across 2 seasons and examined the relationship between mental fatigue and other athlete self-report measures of well-being. METHODS: Elite netballers contracted to all teams competing in Australia's premier professional netball competition during the 2018 and 2019 seasons (N = 154) participated. Using 5-point Likert scales, mental fatigue, fatigue (physical), tiredness, sleep quality, stress, mood, and motivation were assessed daily across 2 seasons composed of 14 round and finals series. RESULTS: The ratings of mental fatigue significantly changed during both seasons. In 2018, lower ratings of mental fatigue were reported in round 1 versus 3, 4, 6, 8, and 14; round 7 versus 6; and round 6 versus 10 (P < .05). In 2019, lower ratings of mental fatigue were identified for round 1 versus 3, 9, 10 to 14, and semifinal; round 2 versus 10 to 13; and 5 versus 10 to 12 (P < .05). Ordinal regression revealed significant differences between mental fatigue and physical fatigue (P < .001), tiredness (P < .001), stress (P < .001), mood (P < .001), and motivation (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found mental fatigue to significantly fluctuate across a season in elite netballers. Moreover, perceived mental fatigue differed from physical fatigue, tiredness, stress, mood, and motivation. The data impress the need for mental fatigue to be included as an independent measure of athlete well-being. Monitoring of mental fatigue can allow practitioners to implement strategies to manage its influence on performance.

2.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 73-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092197

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00-0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14-0.65) and variable SEMs (5-60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61-0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87-0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87-0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Paratletas/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(7): 1784-1793, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027913

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Davids, CJ, Raastad, T, James, L, Gajanand, T, Smith, E, Connick, M, McGorm, H, Keating, S, Coombes, JS, Peake, JM, and Roberts, LA. Similar morphological and functional training adaptations occur between continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 35(7): 1784-1793, 2021-The aim of the study was to compare skeletal muscle morphological and functional outcomes after low-load resistance training using 2 differing blood flow restriction (BFR) protocols. Recreationally active men and women (n = 42 [f = 21], 24.4 ± 4.4 years) completed 21 sessions over 7 weeks of load-matched and volume-matched low-load resistance training (30% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) with either (a) no BFR (CON), (b) continuous BFR (BFR-C, 60% arterial occlusion pressure [AOP]), or (c) intermittent BFR (BFR-I, 60% AOP). Muscle mass was assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography before and after training. Muscular strength, endurance, and power were determined before and after training by assessing isokinetic dynamometry, 1RM, and jump performance. Ratings of pain and effort were taken in the first and final training session. An alpha level of p < 0.05 was used to determine significance. There were no between-group differences for any of the morphological or functional variables. The muscle cross sectional area (CSA) increased pre-post training (p = 0.009; CON: 1.6%, BFR-C: 1.1%, BFR-I: 2.2%). Maximal isometric strength increased pre-post training (p < 0.001; CON: 9.6%, BFR-C: 14.3%, BFR-I: 19.3%). Total work performed during an isokinetic endurance task increased pre-post training (p < 0.001, CON: 3.6%, BFR-C: 9.6%, BFR-I: 11.3%). Perceptions of pain (p = 0.026) and effort (p = 0.033) during exercise were higher with BFR-C; however, these reduced with training (p = 0.005-0.034). Overall, these data suggest that when 30% 1RM loads are used with a frequency of 3 times per week, the addition of BFR does not confer superior morphological or functional adaptations in recreationally active individuals. Furthermore, the additional metabolic stress that is proposed to occur with a continuous BFR protocol does not seem to translate into proportionally greater training adaptations. The current findings promote the use of both intermittent BFR and low-load resistance training without BFR as suitable alternative training methods to continuous BFR. These approaches may be practically applicable for those less tolerable to pain and discomfort associated with ischemia during exercise.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(6): 1604-1610, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009879

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Redman, KJ, Connick, MJ, Beckman, EM, and Kelly, VG. Monitoring prescribed and actual resistance training loads in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1604-1610, 2021-Coaches devote a considerable amount of time and effort prescribing and selecting exercises to elicit training adaptations. Adherence to the prescribed resistance training load may vary for a number of reasons. The aim of this study was to quantify the difference between prescribed and actual resistance training loads in a team of professional rugby league players. Training loads were quantified using volume load and training intensity throughout a season. The competition was categorized into preseason, early competition, mid-competition, and late competition. Twenty-seven players participated in this study. Four exercises were monitored: back squat, bench press, bench pull, and clean pull. A Friedman's test was used to assess differences between prescribed and actual training loads throughout different phases of the season, for different exercises, and during different weeks in a training block. There were significantly greater differences in prescribed and actual volume loads during the mid-competition in comparison to all other phases of the season (p < 0.01). Although players adherence to prescribed training intensity was significantly greater during the preseason compared with the remainder of the season (p < 0.05), they completed significantly less prescribed training load during week 1 in comparison to week 4 within a training block (p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that regular monitoring of completed resistance training loads may be of greater importance to strength and conditioning coaches to assist in examining potential progress and fatigue or allow for more accurate prescription of load to enhance adaptation throughout a season.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Exercício Físico , Fadiga , Humanos , Força Muscular
5.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 81-90, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704022

RESUMO

Conceptually, sports-specific training should not influence measures of impairment used to classify Para athletes. This study evaluated the extent to which measures of strength, range of movement and coordination developed for Para swimming classification changed in response to a performance-focused swimming programme. A five-phase multiple-baseline, single-case experimental research design was utilized. Three participants with cerebral palsy and high support needs completed the 64-week study, which included two 16-week performance-focused swimming training blocks. Swimming speed, isometric shoulder extension strength, shoulder flexion range of movement and upper limb coordination were monitored throughout.Interrupted Time-Series Simulation Method analysis demonstrated large, significant changes in swimming speed (m/s) during the first (d = 2.17; 95% CI 0.45-3.88; p = 0.01) and second (d = 2.59; 95% CI 1.66-3.52; p = 0.00) training blocks. In contrast, changes in strength, range of movement and coordination were predominantly trivial and non-significant. This was the first study to investigate training responsiveness of measures developed for Para sport classification. Results indicate that despite significantly improved swimming performance, impairment measures remained relatively stable, and therefore these measures of impairment may be valid for the purposes of Para swimming classification. Further research is required in elite athletes, different sports and different impairment types.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Fatores de Tempo , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470597

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Redman, KJ, Wade, L, Whitley, R, Connick, MJ, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The relationship between match tackle outcomes and muscular strength and power in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Tackling is a fundamental skill in collision sports, such as rugby league. Match success is largely dependent on a player's ability to complete tackles and tolerate physical collisions. High levels of strength and power are key physical qualities necessary for effective tackling because players are required to generate large forces while pushing and pulling their opponents. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tackle outcomes and strength and power qualities in professional rugby league. Fourteen rugby league players participated in this study. Maximal strength was assessed through 1 repetition maximum on the back squat, bench press, and bench pull. Lower-body vertical and horizontal powers were evaluated using a countermovement jump and standing broad jump (SBJ), respectively. Upper-body power was assessed on a plyometric push-up (PPU). Postmatch analysis of 5 National Rugby League matches was conducted to examine tackling outcomes. A series of Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to assess the relationship among match tackle outcomes and strength and power variables. Significant associations were observed between play-the-ball speed and SBJ peak power (rs = -0.74, p = 0.003), postcontact metres and PPU peak power (rs = 0.77, p = 0.002), losing the play-the-ball contest in defence with SBJ distance (rs = 0.70, p = 0.006), and ineffective tackles with PPU concentric impulse (rs = 0.70, p = 0.007). These results suggest the development and maintenance of full-body power to enhance the likelihood of positive tackle outcomes during professional rugby league match-play.

7.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-33, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028160

RESUMO

Measurement of maximum voluntary muscle contractions are effort-dependent - valid measurement requires maximal voluntary effort (MVE) from participants. Submaximal efforts (SMEs) yield invalid and potentially misleading results. This is particularly problematic in medico-legal and Para sport assessments where low strength scores may confer a personal advantage. Therefore, objective methods for accurately differentiating MVE and SME are required. This systematic review aimed to identify, appraise and synthesise evidence from scientific studies evaluating the validity of objective methods for differentiating MVE from SME during maximal voluntary contractions. Four electronic databases were searched for original research articles published in English and secondary references appraised for relevance yielding 25 studies for review. Methods were categorised based on eight distinct underlying theories. For isokinetic strength assessment, methods based on two theories - Strength-measure Ratios and Inter-Trial Strength Consistency - correctly classified 100% MVE and > 92% SME. Consequently, research evaluating the relative suitability of these methods for translation into practice is warranted. During isometric strength assessments, methods based on Deceptive Visual Feedback and Force-length properties warrant further investigation. Both methods yielded statistically significant differences between MVE and SME, with minimal overlap in values, but their sensitivity and specificity have not been evaluated.Highlights The most promising methods for translation into practice were Strength-measure Ratios, and Inter-trial Force Consistency for isokinetic strength measures, and ratios between force outputs produced in multiple joint positions, and Deceptive Visual Feedback for isometric strength measures.All methods or measures must be analysed using sensitivity and specificity analyses to determine detection power, this must also be conducted in males and females separately to allow assessment for potential strength bias.All methods or measures must be validated in a representative sample of the population they are intended for use in prior to translation into practice.

9.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(12): 1118-1127, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Para athletes with brain impairment are affected by hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis, which adversely affect starting, sprinting and submaximal running. The aim was to identify and synthesise evidence from studies that have compared the biomechanics of runners with brain impairments (RBI) and non-disabled runners (NDR). DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Five journal databases were systematically searched from inception to March 2020. Included studies compared the biomechanics of RBI (aged>14 years) and NDR performing either block-starts, sprinting, or submaximal running. RESULTS: Eight studies were included, analysing a total of 100 RBI (78M:22F; 18-38 years) diagnosed with either cerebral palsy (n=44) or traumatic brain injury (n=56). Studies analysed block-starts (n=3), overground sprinting (n=3) and submaximal running (n=2), and submaximal treadmill running (n=1). Horizontal velocity during starts, sprinting and self-selected submaximal speeds were lower in RBI. During sprinting and submaximal running, compared with NDR, RBI had shorter stride length, step length, and flight time, increased ground-contact time, increased cadence, and reduced ankle and hip range of motion. In submaximal running, RBI had decreased ankle-power generation at toe-off. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited research and small sample sizes in this area. However, preliminary evidence suggests that RBI had lower sprint speeds and biomechanical characteristics typical of submaximal running speeds in NDR, including increased ground-contact times and reduced stride length, step length, and flight times. Meaningful interpretation of biomechanical findings in RBI is impeded by impairment variability (type, severity and distribution), and methods which permit valid, reliable impairment stratification in larger samples are required.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(4): 982-987, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972823

RESUMO

James, LP, Connick, M, Haff, GG, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The countermovement jump mechanics of mixed martial arts competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 982-987, 2020-Gross countermovement jump (CMJ) performance measures are greater in higher-level mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors than lower-level (LL) competitors. Differences in CMJ kinetics and kinematics throughout the action may explain those CMJ performance differences, but this remains to be investigated. After warm-up and familiarization, 27 MMA competitors (divided into 2 groups based on competitive standard; higher level [HL]: n = 14 and LL: n = 13) completed 3 maximal effort CMJs. Power, force, velocity, displacement-time waveforms and eccentric phase displacement, eccentric time, eccentric impulse, and the modified reactive strength index (RSImod) were compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping procedures and independent t-tests. Power (between 65 and 71% of the power-time curve) was greater in the HL than that of the LL group (p = 0.01) despite no differences in eccentric displacement (p = 0.50) or movement time (p = 0.17) between groups. The HL group demonstrated a greater RSImod (p = 0.05) alongside a reduced eccentric time (p = 0.02) and eccentric impulse (p = 0.02). These findings suggest that timing and control of lower-body force production contributed to between-group differences in CMJ performance among MMA competitors.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(4)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467314

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a focused versus mixed-methods strength-power training plan on athletes undertaking high volumes of concurrent training. Fourteen junior elite male Australian football players were randomly assigned into either the focused or mixed group. Both training groups undertook a sequenced training intervention consisting of a four-week mesocycle emphasising heavy strength followed by a four-week mesocycle of high velocity emphasis. Training differed between groups by way of the degree of emphasis placed on the targeted attribute in each cycle and occurred during the preseason. Testing occurred pre- and post-training and consisted of the unloaded and loaded (+20 kg) countermovement jump (CMJ). Focused training elicited practical (non-trivial) improvements in flight time to contraction ratio (FT:CT) (g = 0.45, ±90% confidence interval 0.49) underpinned by a small reduction in contraction time (g = -0.46, ±0.45) and a small increase in braking (g = 0.36, ±0.42) and concentric phase mean force (g = 0.22, ±0.39). Conversely, the mixed group demonstrated an unchanged FT:CT (g = -0.13, ±0.56). Similar respective changes occurred in the loaded condition. Preferential improvements in FT:CT occur when a greater focus is placed on a targeted physical quality in a sequenced training plan of junior elite Australian football players during preseason training.

12.
PM R ; 11(5): 533-547, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the fitness, function, and exercise training responses of patients following reconstruction of the lower limb with a total femoral (TF), proximal femoral (PF), distal femoral (DF), or proximal tibial (PT) megaprosthesis. TYPE: Systematic review. LITERATURE SURVEY: Five research databases were searched systematically for original studies published in English from 2006 to 2017 that reported fitness, functioning, or exercise training responses for one or more of the four types of lower limb megaprosthesis listed above. METHODOLOGY: Methodologic quality was assessed using a 22-item modified STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) checklist. SYNTHESIS: Of the 5342 articles retrieved, 28 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies reported fitness outcomes, primarily in PT, with none in TF. Impaired knee extensor strength of the affected limb was reported following limb salvage with PF, DF, and PT megaprosthetics. Impaired flexibility was reported following limb salvage with DF and PT megaprosthetics. Functional outcomes were described in all studies and were most commonly reported using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) system score. Results indicated no clear difference in functional outcomes between megaprosthesis locations. No studies evaluated exercise training responses. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified impairments of lower limb strength and flexibility following limb salvage with a lower limb megaprosthesis. Similarity in functional outcomes for all four reported megaprosthetic locations may indicate a lack of sensitivity in outcome measures, including the absence of items assessing higher-level functioning. Exercise interventions that aim to improve fitness and function in this population have not been evaluated but are required given increasing 5-year survival rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Exercício Físico , Salvamento de Membro , Extremidade Inferior , Humanos
13.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(5): 526-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination. Para swimmers also completed a maximal freestyle swim to obtain a performance measure. The predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks was examined by establishing differences in test measures between participants with and without brain injury and defining the strength of association between test measures and maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers, respectively. RESULTS: Random forest successfully classified 96% of participants with and without brain injury using test measures derived from instrumented tapping tasks. Most test measures had moderate to high correlations (r=0.54 to 0.72; p<0.01) with maximal freestyle swim speed and collectively explained up to 72% of the variance in maximal freestyle swim performance in Para swimmers with brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study evidence the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimmers with brain injury. These tests can be included in revised Para swimming classification to improve the objectivity and transparency in determining athlete eligibility and sport class for these Para athletes.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(4): 404-413, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058953

RESUMO

This study examined the validity of isometric strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Thirty non-disabled participants and forty-two Para swimmers with physical impairment completed an isometric strength test battery designed to explain activity limitation in the freestyle discipline. Measures pertaining to dominant and non-dominant limb strength and symmetry were derived from four strength tests that were found to be reliable in a cohort of non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.97; CV = 6.4-9.1%). Para swimmers had lower scores in strength tests compared with non-disabled participants (d = 0.14-1.00) and the strength test battery successfully classified 95% of Para swimmers with physical impairment using random forest algorithm. Most of the strength measures had low to moderate correlations (r = 0.32 to 0.53; p ≤ 0.05) with maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers. Although, fewer correlations were found when Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power were analysed independently, highlighting the impairment-specific nature of activity limitation in Para swimming. Collectively, the strength test battery has utility in Para swimming classification to infer loss of strength in Para swimmers, guide minimum eligibility criteria, and to define the impact that strength impairment has on Para swimming performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Phys Ther Sport ; 32: 34-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28.5 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of a battery of novel active range of motion tests. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-examiner reliability was found for the majority (32/34) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values ranged from 1.18° to 6.11°. Similarly, good to excellent inter-examiner reliability was found for the majority (35/42) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values range from 0.73° to 6.52°. Para swimmers exhibited significantly reduced range of motion compared to non-disabled participants. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of ROM tests included in this novel battery were reliable both within and between examiners in non-disabled participants. The tests were found to differentiate between non-disabled participants and Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular , Pessoas com Deficiência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 29(2): 313-332, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627091

RESUMO

Para-sport classification systems define eligibility for Para sport and provide a competition structure that controls for the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. This article focuses on the classification of para athletes with physical impairments. Development of classification systems based on scientific evidence has only recently been made possible by adoption of a statement of the purpose of classification by the International Paralympic Committee and its member organizations. Rigorous descriptive science can improve extant systems of classification and a recently published study described a data-driven classification structure with validity superior to that of the extant system.


Assuntos
Atletas/classificação , Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Reabilitação , Pesquisadores , Especialização
18.
Br J Sports Med ; 52(17): 1123-1129, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required. AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure. METHODS: Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed. RESULTS: All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54. CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports.


Assuntos
Atletas/classificação , Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adulto , Braço , Análise por Conglomerados , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Tronco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 12(7): 977-983, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27967276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the influence of the assistive pole, seat configuration, and upper-body and trunk strength on seated-throwing performance in athletes with a spinal-cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten Paralympic athletes competing in wheelchair rugby, basketball, or athletics (seated throws) participated in 2 randomized sessions: seated throwing and strength tests. Participants threw a club from a custom-built throwing chair, with and without a pole. 3D kinematic data were collected (150 Hz) for both conditions using standardized and self-selected seat configurations. Dominant and nondominant grip strength were measured using a dynamometer, and upper-body and trunk strength were measured using isometric contractions against a load cell. RESULTS: Seated throwing with an assistive pole resulted in significantly higher hand speed at release than throwing without a pole (pole = 6.0 ± 1.5 m/s, no pole = 5.3 ± 1.5 m/s; P = .02). There was no significant difference in hand speed at release between standardized and self-selected seating configurations during seated throwing with or without an assistive pole. Grip strength (r = .59-.77), push/pull synergy (r = .81-.84), and trunk-flexion (r = .50-.58) strength measures showed large and significant correlations with hand speed at release during seated throwing with and without an assistive pole. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the importance of the pole for SCI athletes in seated throwing and defined the relationship between strength and seated-throwing performance, allowing us to better understand the activity of seated throws and provide measures for assessing strength that may be valid for evidence-based classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Pessoas com Deficiência , Força Muscular , Postura , Equipamentos Esportivos , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Esportes , Tronco , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adulto Jovem
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