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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107106, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Negative affect and alcohol craving are common features of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Both independently contribute to AUD severity and poorer treatment outcomes, but their relationship is poorly understood. Multidimensional alcohol craving measures now allow for examination of key dimensions of craving. This study explored the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress, and the alcohol craving dimensions of intensity, imagery and intrusiveness. METHOD: Five-hundred and twenty-five treatment seeking AUD patients (mean age of 39.79 years, SD = 11.57 years, 67% male) completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption items (AUDIT-C), and Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE-F) questionnaire, which measured the frequency of craving intensity, imagery and intrusiveness. Regression models predicted main effects of predictors and moderation by alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Higher levels of stress were independently associated with increased craving intensity, imagery and intrusiveness. Significant positive associations were also found between anxiety and craving imagery. The association between depression and craving was not significant after controlling for other predictors. CONCLUSIONS: AUD patients experienced higher cravings when stressed and greater imagery when anxious. These results support the need to consider the relationships between stress and craving when managing alcohol dependence.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1234-1242, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is considered a global crisis due to its high prevalence and associated disabilities. The burden posed by depression could be reduced by increasing access to timely treatment. Limited information is available on treatment rates of depression, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the treatment rates for depression in the general adult population by World Bank income classification. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists to identify community-based studies. The overall treatment rate for depression was estimated from studies that reported any treatment (behavioral or pharmacological treatments) in healthcare or informal non-healthcare settings. Data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Subgroup analyses by income classification were completed. Meta-regression was conducted by study characteristics. The protocol was pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020161683). RESULTS: We included 65 studies comprising 1.1 million participants from 79 countries and territories. The global 12-month/lifetime pooled treatment rate was 34.8% (95% confidence interval: 29.9, 39.9%). The treatment rates were 48.3% (43.0, 53.6%) in high-income countries, 21.4% (15.1, 27.7%) in middle-income countries, and 16.8% (11.3, 23.0%) in low-income countries. Among the treated samples, 12-month minimally adequate treatment was estimated to be 40%. LIMITATION: We reported a substantial level of between-study heterogeneity, which was partially explained by study characteristics in the meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Globally, approximately one-third of people with depression receive treatment. Three in five treated people with depression did not receive minimally adequate treatment. Depression treatment rates are considerably lower in low-and middle-income countries.

3.
J Pain ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662709

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms by which pain catastrophizing may be associated with opioid use outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the potential mediating role of beliefs about the appropriateness of pain medicines for pain treatment on the association between pain catastrophizing and prescription opioid use in a community chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) sample. Individuals (N = 420) diagnosed with CNCP participated in a cross-sectional online self-report study with validated measures of pain medication beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and current prescription opioid use. Two parallel multiple mediator analyses with percentile-based bootstrapping examined pathways to both prescription opioid use and high-dose use (≥ 100mg oral morphine equivalents/day), while controlling for pain intensity and other relevant covariates. Pain medication beliefs significantly mediated the association between pain catastrophizing and prescription opioid use (CI = 0.011, 0.033). A similar pattern of findings was found for high-dose opioid use, with pain medication beliefs significantly mediating the pain catastrophizing-high-dose use association (CI = 0.006, 0.050). Pain medication beliefs are a potentially modifiable psychological mechanism by which pain catastrophizing is associated with opioid use, including high-dose use. These findings have important implications for personalizing prevention and treatment programs.

4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109069, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is a core component of Social Cognitive Theory. Refusal self-efficacy is an individual's belief in their ability to refuse a substance in specific high-risk situations. Change in refusal self-efficacy is predictive of positive treatment outcomes. Measurement of refusal self-efficacy is critical as it directs coping skills development techniques though existing behavioural treatments. There is no validated measure of stimulant refusal self-efficacy. This study developed and validated the Stimulant Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SRSEQ) to measure confidence in the ability to refuse stimulants in specific high-risk situations. METHOD: Two hundred and seven stimulant-using patients referred for assessment completed the SRSEQ and measures including stimulant dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale-Stimulant, SDS-S). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted to test the theoretically-driven three-factor structure of the SRSEQ. Criterion validity was tested with severity of stimulant dependence. RESULTS: The CFA supported the three-factor structure. Emotional Relief (ß = -0.27, p = .008), Opportunistic (ß = -0.24, p = .013) and Social Facilitation (ß = -0.32, p < .001) refusal self-efficacy were uniquely associated with stimulant dependence severity, explaining 55.1% variance. CONCLUSIONS: The SRSEQ is psychometrically sound and may be clinically useful to assist with assessment and treatment planning for stimulant use disorder.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 17-25, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the prevalent mental illnesses and leading cause of global disease burden. However, most people with depression do not access treatment. Remission without treatment may occur in some cases of depression. This study aimed to estimate the short-term remission (natural recovery) from untreated depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO and conducted following PRISMA guidelines. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched, supplemented with an additional hand search to identify studies reporting natural recovery from untreated depression. Study selection and screening were carried out by three independent reviewers. Methodological quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Remission was defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria or scoring below the cut off points of the validated tools as reported by the included studies. The data were synthesized using narrative summary and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen waitlist-controlled trial studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The duration of follow-up ranged from 4 to 12 weeks with a median duration of 8 weeks. The overall pooled remission from untreated depression was 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (7.8, 18.0%). Due to lack of published data, we were unable to determine if the severity of depression symptoms was associated with remission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term remission from depression without treatment is uncommon. Across studies, 8 - 18% of people remitted without treatment within 12 weeks. Waitlist control groups may not represent all persons with depression.

7.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107073, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use among US youth has raised concerns that their use may increase conventional cigarette smoking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data from two large nationally representative samples of US youth were drawn from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and Monitoring the Future (MTF). Students from grade 6-12 of the NYTS (N = 98,454-132,003) and students from grade 12 of the MTF (N = 17,870-30,981) were included in the analyses. Trends in smoking behavior, intention to smoke in the future and perceived smoking harms among youth who do and do not use ECs were estimated from 2014 to 2020 using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. RESULTS: The prevalence for regular smoking decreased among youth who regularly use ECs. For example, among regular EC users, smoking prevalence decreased from 27.8% to 6.7% (-21%; 99.67% CI:[-32.3%, -9.9%]) in the NYTS between 2014 and 2020 and from 31.8% to 10.6% (-21.2%, 99.67% CI:[-35.0%, -7.3%]) in the MTF between 2014 and 2018. Intent to smoke in the future and perceiving smoking as harmless decreased or remained unchanged during the same period. For example, among regular EC users, there was no significant change in intention to smoke next year in the NYTS between 2014 and 2018; intention to smoke in the next 5 years decreased significantly from 30.7% to 11.2% (-19.5%, 99.67% CI:[-37.7%, -1.3%]) in the MTF. CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of US youth, smoking prevalence declined by a sizeable relative percentage. Intent to smoke in the future and harm perceptions of smoking declined or remained unchanged while EC use increased. Results provide little evidence that EC use has increased conventional cigarette smoking among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107059, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365087

RESUMO

AIM: We examine age-related trends in past-year cannabis use in a series of nationally representative surveys in Australia. METHODS: We analysed data from the largest nationally representative survey in Australia collected between 2001 and 2019 (National Drug Strategy Household Survey [NDSHS]; N = 157,151). Prevalence of past-year daily/occasional (non-daily)/non-use of cannabis use were estimated using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. Difference-in-difference analysis was used to examine if trends of cannabis use across age groups were different. RESULTS: The youngest age group (14-17 s) witnessed the largest increase in past-year abstinence rate from 79% to 92% from 2001 to 2019 (p < .003); the increase in abstinent rate among the 18-24 and 25-39 were relatively moderate (from 68 to 76% and from 81% to 84% respectively; p < .003). The abstinent rate among the 40-54 s and 55-74 s decreased significantly from 93% to 90% and from 99% to 95% respectively (p < .003). There were similar diverging trends in occasional and daily cannabis use, with decreases in both patterns of use observed among the younger age group (14-17 s and 18-25 s) but increases among the older age group (40-54 s and 55-74 s). CONCLUSION: There is a diverging trend in cannabis use among younger and older age groups in Australia between 2001 and 2019. Cannabis use substantially decreased among the youngest age group (14-17 s) but modestly increased among older people (55-74 s).


Assuntos
Cannabis , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In June 2020, the Australian Government announced that personal importation of nicotine vaping products (NVP) would be prohibited, pending a 12-month classification and regulation review by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. This brief report examines the themes of responses on Twitter to this announcement. METHODS: Simple random sampling was used to retrieve tweets containing keywords from 19 to 26 June 2020. Tweets were manually coded and descriptive statistics calculated for themes and policy position. RESULTS: The vast majority of the 1,168 tweets were anti-policy. Themes included: criticism towards government (59.8%), activism against NVP restriction (38%), potential adverse consequences (30.8%) and support for NVP restriction (1.4%). Tweets that identified potential adverse consequences of NVP restriction cited: smoking relapse for individuals currently using NVPs (75.6%); the impact of policy enforcement (8.6%); illicit market (8.3%); panic buying (3.6%); difficulty obtaining prescriptions (2.8%); and impacts on NVP businesses (2.8%). CONCLUSION: Tweets predominately objected to the policy announcement. Approximately three-quarters of tweets that cited potential adverse consequences of the policy mentioned smoking relapse as their primary concern. Implications for public health: User-generated content on Twitter was primarily used to lobby against the proposed policy, which was subsequently amended.

10.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use combined are the largest modifiable health risk factors. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a complementary approach for monitoring substance use in the population. In this study we applied WBE technique to a community in the Moscow region to estimate population-level consumption of alcohol, tobacco and morphine. METHODS: Wastewater sampling was carried out over 47 days, in 2018 and 2019, including the New Year period. Analysis of the samples for consumption biomarkers (ethyl sulphate, cotinine and morphine) were undertaken using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Daily consumption estimates were then compared with sales/production/prescription data and between different days of the week using Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was significantly higher on Sundays and during the New Year and Russian Christmas period compared to weekdays and Saturdays. Tobacco consumption estimates were largely consistent throughout the week. Morphine was detected by WBE during the monitoring period but was inconsistent with prescription record data. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the feasibility of conducting WBE in Russia. Estimates of alcohol consumption derived from WBE were higher than average alcohol sales data for the country. The estimated consumption of nicotine is generally consistent with the production data, with estimates higher than in most other countries. Our results also suggest potential illegal use of opioids (morphine-based) in the population. Given the considerable health and economic costs of substance use in Russia, more extensive WBE testing is recommended to inform and evaluate public health policies.

11.
Addict Behav ; 119: 106912, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798919

RESUMO

AIM: E-cigarettes, or nicotine vaping products, are potential smoking cessation aids that provide both nicotine and behavioural substitution for combustible cigarette smoking. This review aims to compare the effectiveness of nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation with licensed nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) and nicotine-free based control conditions by using network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that allocated individuals to use nicotine e-cigarettes, compared to those that used licensed NRT (e.g., nicotine patches, nicotine gums, etc), or a nicotine-free control condition such as receiving placebo (nicotine-free) e-cigarettes or usual care. We only included studies of healthy individuals who smoked. Furthermore, we identified the latest Cochrane review on NRT and searched NRT trials that were published in similar periods as the e-cigarette trials we identified. NMA was conducted to compare the effect of e-cigarettes on cessation relative to NRT and control condition. Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials Version 2 was used to access study bias. RESULTS: For the e-cigarette trials, our initial search identified 4,717 studies and we included 7 trials for NMA after removal of duplicates, record screening and assessment of eligibility (Total N = 5,674). For NRT trials, our initial search identified 1,014 studies and we included 9 trials that satisfied our inclusion criteria (Total N = 6,080). Results from NMA indicated that participants assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those in the control condition (pooled Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.08, 97.5% CI = [1.39, 3.15]) and those who were assigned to use NRT (pooled RR = 1.49, 97.5% CI = [1.04, 2.14]. There was a moderate heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 42%). Most of the e-cigarette trials has moderate or high risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Smokers assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those assigned to use licensed NRT, and both were more effective than usual care or placebo conditions. More high quality studies are required to ascertain the effect of e-cigarette on smoking cessation due to risk of bias in the included studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 16, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627670

RESUMO

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is an underappreciated risk of using cannabis that affects ~10% of the 193 million cannabis users worldwide. The individual and public health burdens are less than those of other forms of drug use, but CUD accounts for a substantial proportion of persons seeking treatment for drug use disorders owing to the high global prevalence of cannabis use. Cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management can substantially reduce cannabis use and cannabis-related problems, but enduring abstinence is not a common outcome. No pharmacotherapies have been approved for cannabis use or CUD, although a number of drug classes (such as cannabinoid agonists) have shown promise and require more rigorous evaluation. Treatment of cannabis use and CUD is often complicated by comorbid mental health and other substance use disorders. The legalization of non-medical cannabis use in some high-income countries may increase the prevalence of CUD by making more potent cannabis products more readily available at a lower price. States that legalize medical and non-medical cannabis use should inform users about the risks of CUD and provide information on how to obtain assistance if they develop cannabis-related mental and/or physical health problems.

13.
Addiction ; 116(4): 743-756, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have consistently found a longitudinal association between e-cigarette use (vaping) and cigarette smoking. Many have interpreted such association as causal. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the plausibility of a causal interpretation by (1) estimating the effect of adolescent vaping on smoking initiation, adjusted for study quality characteristics, (2) evaluating the sufficiency of adjustment for confounding based on the social development model (SDM) and the social ecological model (SEM) and E-value analyses and (3) investigating sample attrition and publication bias. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that examined the association between e-cigarette use at baseline and smoking at follow-up. Participants were non-smokers aged < 18 at baseline. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 11 studies showed a significant longitudinal association between vaping and smoking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.22, 3.87]. Studies with sample sizes < 1000 had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR = 6.68, 95% CI = 3.63, 12.31) than studies with sample sizes > 1000 (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.97, 3.15). Overall, the attrition rate was very high (median = 30%). All but one study reported results from complete sample analysis, despite those dropping out having higher risk profiles. Only two studies comprehensively adjusted for confounding. The median E-value was 2.90, indicating that the estimates were not robust against unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: There is a longitudinal association between adolescent vaping and smoking initiation; however, the evidence is limited by publication bias, high sample attrition and inadequate adjustment for potential confounders.

14.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(2): 328-339, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964404

RESUMO

Background Prescription opioids are a central aspect of pain management and as the prevalence of pain is increasing so is the rate of use of prescription opioids. Increased opioid prescriptions increases the risk of deaths and morbidity. Objective To (a) describe the 22-year trend of prescription opioid dispensing in Queensland, (b) examine the effect of opioid dose, formulation and socioeconomic status on the number of prescriptions dispensed. Design/setting Retrospective analysis of data from the Monitoring of Drugs of Dependence system of the Monitored Medicines Unit of Queensland Health, Australia. Participants Queensland residents (3.3 million) from 18 years old dispensed 18.8 million opioid prescriptions from January 1997 to December 2018. Results Opioid prescriptions dispensed annually increased to over two million in 2018 from about 150,000 prescriptions in 1997. The number of prescriptions for modified-release formulations dispensed annually was three times higher compared to the immediate-release formulations. Oxycodone accounted for over 60% of prescriptions for pharmaceutical opioids since 2013. There was an increase in the number of prescriptions dispensed as socioeconomic status decreased and modified-release opioid formulations positively affects the pattern of dispensing. The highest increase in number of prescriptions dispensed (for all opioids) was observed among the high socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.25, 1.26). The disparities in the annual number of prescriptions across dose categories are wider in the modified-release than the immediate-release formulations. Conclusion The dispensing of opioids increased significantly in Queensland. There was a positive relationship between the increased dispensing of opioids and locations of lower socioeconomic status.

15.
Pain ; 162(4): 1095-1103, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086287

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Codeine is one of the most commonly used opioid analgesics. Significant codeine-related morbidity and mortality prompted regulatory responses, with the up-scheduling of codeine combination analgesics to prescription-only medicines implemented in Australia in February 2018. This study investigated the impact of codeine up-scheduling on the number of codeine and other (noncodeine) prescription opioid-related emergency department (ED) presentations in a large metropolitan tertiary hospital. Clinical features of these presentations were also examined. Interrupted time series analyses assessed monthly changes in ED presentations from June 2016 to November 2019. In the month immediately after up-scheduling, there was a significant reduction of 3.97 codeine-related presentations (B = -3.97, P = 0.022), indicating a 29.66% level change, followed by a significant change in trend to fewer monthly codeine-related presentations (B = -0.38, P = 0.005). Noncodeine prescription opioid-related (B = -1.90, P = 0.446) and ED presentations overall (B = -118.04, P = 0.140) remained unchanged immediately post-up-scheduling, with a significant change in trend from upward to downward for noncodeine (B = -0.76; P = 0.002) and ED presentations overall (B = -19.34, P = 0.022). A significant reduction of 4.58 (B = -4.58, P = 0.009) in codeine presentations involving subsequent hospital admission immediately post-up-scheduling was found; but no immediate reduction in codeine-related suicide-related overdoses, length of inpatient stay, or re-presentations (P > 0.0125; adjusted for multiple comparisons). Restricting supply of codeine to prescription-only may have resulted in less harmful codeine-related use in the community, without a corresponding immediate decrease in other opioid-related harms.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Codeína , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Codeína/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Políticas , Prescrições
16.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(2): 340-350, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556897

RESUMO

Background There is an association between the duration of prescription opioids use and an increased risk of serious harm, often unintentional. Objective (1) Describe the trends in duration of prescription opioids dispensing and, (2) determine the risk of long-term use (≥4 months) based on patients' socioeconomic status, daily dose in oral daily morphine milligram equivalent, and opioid formulation. Setting Residents of Queensland (2,827,727), Australia from the age 18 years and who were dispensed pharmaceutical opioids from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2018. Method Retrospective, longitudinal population-based analysis using data obtained from the Monitoring of Drugs of Dependence system of the Monitored Medicines Unit of Queensland Health. Main outcome measure Contribution of socioeconomic status, and daily dose and opioid formulation (modified-release or immediate-release) to the risk of long-term opioid use. Results There was little difference between the number of patients dispensed opioids for ≥4 months and ≤3 months between 1997 and 2011. Thereafter, the number for those using opioids long-term increased. The highest risk of having opioids dispensed for ≥4 months were for patients in the lowest level of socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio 1.36; 95% CI, 1.34, 1.38), compared to people in the highest socioeconomic status areas, followed by the low-socioeconomic status areas, mid-socioeconomic status areas, and high-socioeconomic status areas respectively. The risk of being dispensed prescription opioids for ≥4 months significantly increased as the dose increased: adjusted odds ratio 1.73; 95% CI, 1.71, 1.75, adjusted odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.87, 1.92, and adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% CI, 3.58, 3.69 for the ≥20 to <50 oral daily morphine milligram equivalent, ≥50 to <100 oral daily morphine milligram equivalent and ≥100 oral daily morphine milligram equivalent dose categories, respectively. Conclusion Higher doses and living in a low socioeconomic status areas were associated with increased risk of long-term dispensing of opioid prescriptions.

17.
Addiction ; 116(3): 474-484, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent meta-analyses of motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing risky alcohol use in young people have reported modest effects. Few studies have targeted individual patient factors to increase MI effectiveness. This study determined if MI enhanced with individualised personality-specific coping skills training (QuikFix) was more efficacious than standard MI or an assessment feedback/information (AF/I) control among young people with alcohol-related injuries or illnesses. DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-centre, single-blind, three-group superiority randomized controlled trial with 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months follow-ups. Telephone intervention, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 398 young people (16-25 years; M age = 20.30 years, SD = 2.12; 54% female) with alcohol-related injuries and/or illnesses were recruited from an emergency department (ED) or rest/recovery service (RRS). MEASURES: The primary outcome was total standard (10 g ethanol) drinks in the past month (Timeline Follow back [TLFB]) at 12 months (primary time point). Secondary outcomes were total drinking days and standard drinks per drinking day (TLFB) in the past month and the frequency of alcohol-related problems in the past 3 months (Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index). INTERVENTIONS: Young people were randomized to two sessions of QuikFix enhanced with individualised personality-specific coping skills training (n = 132), two sessions of MI (n = 136) or one session of AF/I (n = 130), all delivered by telehealth. FINDINGS: QuikFix resulted in greater reductions (all P < 0.0017) in the primary outcome of total standard drinks (M = 19.50, CI 99.75% = [11.31, 27.68]) than both MI (M = 32.61, CI 99.75% = [24.82, 40.40]; Cohen's D = 0.40) and AF/I (M = 34.12, CI 99.75% = [26.59, 41.65]; D = 0.45) at 12 months (retention n = 324/398, 81%). QuikFix had greater reductions on drinking days (M = 3.16, CI 99.75% = [2.37, 3.96]) than both MI (M = 4.53, CI 99.75% = [3.57, 5.48];D = 0.38) and AF/I (M = 4.69, CI 99.75% = [3.73, 5.65];D = 0.42) and fewer drinks per drinking day (M = 5.02, CI 99.75% = [3.71, 6.33]) than AF/I (M = 7.15, CI 99.75% = [5.93, 8.38;D = 0.47) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Young people with alcohol-related injuries and/or illnesses who attended ED and rest/recovery services and received an individualised personality-specific coping skills training intervention (QuikFix) had greater reductions in the amount of alcohol consumed at 12 months compared with those who received motivational interviewing or an assessment feedback/information intervention.

18.
Clin J Pain ; 37(4): 270-280, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brief psychological interventions (BPIs) have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance use and related harm. No systematic review has examined their potential to reduce or prevent prescription opioid use or related harm, and/or pain intensity in opioid-using patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Recognizing the importance of patient preferences in evidence-based practice, we also sought to assess patient interest in BPIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of studies published between 1980 and 2020 was conducted using 5 databases. Eligible treatment studies included patients ≥18 years old, with CNCP, and who were using prescription opioids. An adjunctive study independent of our review was also undertaken in 188 prescription opioid-using patients (77% female; Mage=49 y) diagnosed with CNCP. Patients completed pain-related questionnaires online and indicated if they would consider BPI treatment options. RESULTS: The review identified 6 studies. Given the heterogeneity across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. A narrative review found that all of the 6 studies demonstrated some evidence for BPI effectiveness for reducing opioid use or related harms; these were assessed as having mostly low methodological quality. Mixed support for the effect on pain intensity was found in 1 study. Despite the inconclusive findings and heterogenous studies identified in the review, 92% of patients in our survey reported interest in receiving a BPI. DISCUSSION: In combination, these findings highlight the inconsistency between patient demand and the availability of evidence for BPIs targeting opioid use, related harm, and pain intensity. Future work should examine the effectiveness of BPIs in higher quality studies.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Prescrições , Intervenção Psicossocial
19.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106690, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075644

RESUMO

Assessment and personalised feedback are important components of brief interventions (BIs) for cannabis use. A key outcome is to increase motivation to change during this short interaction. The diversity of available assessments and time burden scoring them pose a challenge for routine use in clinical practice. An instant assessment and feedback (iAx) system was developed to administer assessments informed by bioSocial Cognitive Theory, that were instantly scored and benchmarked against clinical norms, to provide patient feedback and guide treatment planning. This study evaluated the feasibility and additive effectiveness of the iAx on motivation to change cannabis use, when compared to treatment as usual (TAU), in a single-session BI. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in a public hospital alcohol and drug outpatient clinic. Eighty-seven cannabis users (Mage = 26.41; 66% male) were assigned to the BI utilising the iAx (iAx; n = 44) or to the standard BI (TAU; n = 43). Patients completed pre- and post-BI assessments of motivation to change and a post-BI measure of treatment satisfaction. Practitioners completed a feedback survey. Patients receiving iAx reported a significantly greater increase in motivation to change from pre- to post-BI compared to patients receiving TAU (d = 0.49, p = .03). Treatment satisfaction was high across both conditions, with no significant difference between groups (p = .57). Practitioners also reported a high level of satisfaction with the iAx system. In summary, findings support the feasibility and additive effectiveness of the iAx to enhance patient motivation during cannabis BI.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adulto , Intervenção na Crise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 217: 108254, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal vaporisers are gaining popularity as an alternative route of administration for a range of substances. Online cryptomarkets are becoming increasingly popular among people who use substances due to their perceived anonymity, ease of use, and reduced risk of violence compared to traditional face-to-face dealers. We examined the diversity of substances marketed for use in a personal vaporiser on these marketplaces. METHODS: Vaping related listings were extracted from three online cryptomarkets ('Agartha', 'Cryptonia', and 'Tochka') using The Onion Router browser. Data collection occurred between October and November 2019. RESULTS: We identified 1929 listings from 201 unique sellers. The top product on Agartha, Cryptonia, and Tochka were vape cartridges prefilled with the e-liquid (70.4 %, 39.4 %, 52.3 % respectively). The most common substance in these products was cannabis oil (96.1 %, 82.1 %, 87.8 %), followed by synthetic cannabinoids (3.7 %, 9.7 %, 9.8 %) and psychedelic substances (0.2 %, 6.4 %, 1.2 %). Vendors were primarily from the USA. Many products offered worldwide shipping (96.3 %, 42.4 %, 51.2 %). CONCLUSION: Vaping products listed on online cryptomarkets in 2019 primarily contained cannabis oils. Future studies should continue to examine cryptomarkets to identify emerging trends of substances that can be used in personal vaporisers.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Fumar Maconha/economia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/economia , Vaping/economia , Navegador/economia , Comércio/tendências , Coleta de Dados/tendências , Tráfico de Drogas/economia , Tráfico de Drogas/tendências , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Alucinógenos/economia , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/economia , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Marketing/economia , Marketing/tendências , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/tendências , Navegador/tendências
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