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2.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 19(4): 178-186, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186279

RESUMO

Patients on oral anticoagulation commonly undergo surgery or other invasive procedures. Periprocedural management of oral anticoagulants involves a careful balance of the thromboembolic risk and bleeding risk. To standardize clinical practice at our institution, we developed a guideline for periprocedural management for patients taking oral anticoagulants that incorporates published data and expert opinion. In this article, we present our clinical practice guideline as a decision support tool to aid clinicians in developing a consistent strategy for managing periprocedural anticoagulation and for safely bridging anticoagulation in patients who require it.

3.
Leuk Res ; 98: 106459, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022566

RESUMO

Pregnancy in essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with increased risk of obstetric complications. We retrospectively evaluated risk factors in 121 pregnancies in 52 ET women seen at 3 affiliate hospitals. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed at the α = 0.10 level. Cell counts were characterized throughout pregnancy and correlated with outcomes using logistic modeling. The overall live birth rate was 69 %. 48.7 % of all women experienced a pregnancy complication, the most common being spontaneous abortion, which occurred in 26 % of all pregnancies. Maternal thrombosis and hemorrhage rates were 2.5 % and 5.8 %. On multivariable analysis, aspirin use (OR 0.29, p = 0.014, 90 % CI 0.118-0.658) and history of prior pregnancy loss (OR 3.86, p = 0.011, CI 1.49-9.15) were associated with decreased and increased pregnancy complications, respectively. A Markov model was used to analyze the probability of a future pregnancy complication based on initial pregnancy outcome. An ET woman who suffers a pregnancy complication has a 0.594 probability of a subsequent pregnancy complication, compared to a 0.367 probability if she didn't suffer a complication. However, despite this elevated risk, overall prognosis is good, with a >50 % probability of a successful pregnancy by the third attempt. Platelet counts decreased by 43 % in ET during pregnancy, with nadir at delivery and prompt recovery in the postpartum period. Women with larger declines in gestational platelet counts were less likely to suffer complications (p = 0.083). Our study provides important guidance to physicians treating ET women during pregnancy, including counseling information regarding risk assessment and expected trajectory of platelet levels.

6.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which patients with metastatic germ cell tumours (mGCTs) need prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk and onset of VTEs stratified by risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multi-institutional retrospective dataset included mGCT patients treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. INTERVENTION: Patients with prophylactic anticoagulation were excluded. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A regression analysis was performed to select risk factors for VTEs. The simulated number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) with prophylactic anticoagulation were calculated based on the cumulative incidences retrieved from this study and hazard rates of recently published trials describing the efficacy of prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent VTEs and the risk of bleeding events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: From 1120 patients, 121 (11%) had a VTE, which occurred prior to chemotherapy in 49 (4%) and on or after chemotherapy in 72 (6%). Six patients (<1%) had a bleeding event without anticoagulation. After backward regression, the one risk factor for a VTE during or after chemotherapy was the use of a venous access device. The simulated cumulative VTE incidence from prophylactic anticoagulation for patients on or after chemotherapy would translate into an NNT of 45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 36-56) and an NNH of 186 (95% CI 87-506). Limitations are mainly related to the retrospective nature of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The mGCTs associated VTEs are most common before and during, but not after, chemotherapy. Avoiding venous access device and/or prophylactic anticoagulation with an acceptable risk-benefit profile may decrease VTE occurring on chemotherapy. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) occur rarely after chemotherapy. Based on experience of prophylactic anticoagulation in other cancers, we conclude that the risk of VTE in men undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic germ cell tumours can be decreased by thromboprophylaxis with a reasonable risk-benefit profile and by avoidance of venous access devices.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081109

RESUMO

The management of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is an evolving area. With the use of direct oral anticoagulants as a new option in the management of CAT, clinicians now face several choices for the individual cancer patient with venous thromboembolism. A personalized approach, matching the right drug to the right patient, based on drug properties, efficacy and safety, side effect profile of each drug, and patient values and preference, will probably supplant the one size fits all approach of use of only low-molecular-weight heparin in the near future. We herein present eight translational, clinical research, and review articles on recent advances in the management of CAT published in the Special Issue "Treatment for Cancer-Associated Thrombosis" of Cancers. For now, a multidisciplinary patient-centered approach involving a close cooperation between oncologists and other specialists is warranted to guide clinical decision making and optimize the treatment of VTE in cancer patient.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2138-2144, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881336

RESUMO

Hypercoagulability is an increasingly recognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As such, anticoagulation has become part and parcel of comprehensive COVID-19 management. However, several uncertainties exist in this area, including the appropriate type and dose of heparin. In addition, special patient populations, including those with high body mass index and renal impairment, require special consideration. Although the current evidence is still insufficient, we provide a pragmatic approach to anticoagulation in COVID-19, but stress the need for further trials in this area.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Oncologist ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881209

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Alongside its potential to cause severe respiratory illness, studies have reported a distinct COVID-19-associated coagulopathy that is characterized by elevated D-dimer levels, hyperfibrinogenemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and slight prolongation of the prothrombin time. Studies have also reported increased rates of thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients, but variations in study methodologies, patient populations, and anticoagulation strategies make it challenging to distill implications for clinical practice. Here, we present a practical review of current literature and use a case-based format to discuss the diagnostic approach and management of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is characterized by elevated D-dimer levels, hyperfibrinogenemia, and increased rates of thromboembolism. Current management guidelines are based on limited evidence from retrospective studies that should be interpreted carefully. At this time, all hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should receive coagulation test surveillance and standard doses of prophylactic anticoagulation until prospective randomized controlled trials yield definitive information in support of higher prophylactic doses.

11.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 27(5): 327-332, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740039

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hormonal therapy is administered for multiple indications including contraception, alleviation of menopausal symptoms, hypogonadism, and more recently, gender-affirming care. Data suggest varying degrees of increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). RECENT FINDINGS: While oral progestin only methods do not appear to increase the risk of VTE, an association was seen with injection progestin contraception. Combined oral contraception with low-dose ethinyl estradiol and most types of progestin increased the risk of VTE compared with levonorgestrel-containing oral therapies. While transdermal hormonal contraception has been previously associated with increased VTE, a recently approved levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol transdermal patch reported low rates (<0.2%) in a large single-arm open-label study. Women receiving postmenopausal HRT experienced an increased risk of VTE in a dose-dependent manner when using oral hormonal therapy while nonoral methods, such as topical estrogen, did not appear to increase the risk of VTE. Some studies suggest no increased risk of VTE with testosterone therapy, however, a recent case-crossover study suggested higher VTE risk in men on testosterone, particularly men less than age 65 without hypogonadism. Route of administration had no effect on VTE rates. The estimated incidence rate of VTE risk in transgender women receiving estrogen therapy is 2.3 per 1000 person years, but may be imprecise due to heterogeneity in studies included in published meta-analyses. Surgical risk estimates are primarily indirect data drawn from cisgender patients receiving hormone therapy in the perioperative setting. SUMMARY: Hormonal therapy affects VTE risk to varying degrees dependent on specific type of hormone, formulation, and occasionally route of delivery.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707653

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with cancer and is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Early thromboprophylaxis initiated only in those cancer patients at highest risk for VTE would be optimal. Risk stratification scores incorporating tumor location, laboratory values and patient characteristics have attempted to identify those patients most likely to benefit from thromboprophylaxis but even well-validated scores are not able to reliably distinguish the highest-risk patients. Recognizing that tumor genetics affect the biology and behavior of malignancies, recent studies have explored the impact of specific molecular aberrations on the rate of VTE in cancer patients. The presence of certain molecular aberrations in a variety of different cancers, including lung, colon, brain and hematologic tumors, have been associated with an increased risk of VTE and arterial thrombotic events. This review examines the findings of these studies and discusses the implications of these findings on decisions relating to thromboprophylaxis use in the clinical setting. Ultimately, the integration of tumor molecular genomic information into clinical VTE risk stratification scores in cancer patients may prove to be a major advancement in the prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651889

RESUMO

Patients on long-term anticoagulation combined with antiplatelet therapy have an increased risk of bleeding compared to patients on anticoagulation alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of antiplatelet therapy in patients who are on long-term warfarin therapy and are managed by Brigham and Women's Hospital Anticoagulation Management Service (BWH AMS). This was a single-center, prospective chart review of patients managed by BWH AMS who were on long-term warfarin therapy plus full-dose aspirin (325 mg), an oral P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor) and/or acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole. Patients' cardiovascular (CV) benefit and risk of bleeding were assessed according to clinical guidelines. The major objective of the study was to determine the proportion of patients on dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) or triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) whose risk of bleeding outweighed CV benefit. Of the 2677 patients evaluated for inclusion,145 were on concomitant long-term warfarin therapy plus aspirin (325 mg), an oral P2Y12 inhibitor and/or acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole. A total of 85 patients (58.6%) had no clear indication for DAT or TAT per guideline recommendations and were categorized as bleeding risk outweighing CV benefit. The remaining 60 patients (41.4%) had an appropriate indication for DAT or TAT per guidelines and were categorized as CV benefit outweighing bleeding risk. BWH AMS pharmacists made 33 (22.9%) recommendations to providers to discontinue or de-escalate antiplatelet therapy. Interventions were accepted for 10 (30.3%) patients. Pharmacist involvement in the management of patients' antithrombotic regimens can optimize guideline-directed medical therapy and mitigate the potential risk of bleeding.

14.
Chest ; 158(5): 2130-2135, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710891
15.
Eur J Intern Med ; 78: 30-31, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561115
16.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499239

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) frequently complicates cancer treatment causing chemotherapy delays, dose reductions, and discontinuation. There is no FDA-approved agent available to manage CIT. This study retrospectively evaluated patients with CIT treated on institutional romiplostim treatment pathways at 4 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was achievement of a romiplostim response [median on-romiplostim platelet count (Plt) ≥75x109/L and ≥30x109/L above baseline]. Secondary outcomes included time to Plt≥100x109/L and rates of the following: Plt<100x109/L, Plt<75x109/L, Plt<50x109/L, thrombocytosis, chemotherapy dose reduction/treatment delay, platelet transfusion, bleeding, and thromboembolism. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of romiplostim non-response and compare weekly dosing with intracycle/intermittent dosing. 173 patients (153 solid tumor, 20 lymphoma or myeloma) were treated, with 170 (98%) receiving a median of 4 (range, 1-36) additional chemotherapy cycles on romiplostim. Romiplostim was effective in solid tumor patients: 71% of patients achieved a romiplostim response, 79% avoided chemotherapy dose reductions/treatment delays and 89% avoided platelet transfusions. Median per-patient Plt on romiplostim was significantly higher than baseline (116x109/L vs. 60x109/L, P<0.001). Bone marrow tumor invasion, prior pelvic irradiation, and prior temozolomide predicted romiplostim non-response. Bleeding rates were lower than historical CIT cohorts and thrombosis rates were not elevated. Weekly dosing was superior to intracycle dosing with higher response rates and less chemotherapy dose reductions/treatment delays (IRR 3.00, 95% CI 1.30-6.91, P=0.010) or bleeding (IRR 4.84, 95% CI 1.18-19.89, P=0.029). Blunted response (10% response rate) was seen in non-myeloid hematologic malignancy patients with bone marrow involvement. In conclusion, romiplostim was safe and effective for CIT in most solid tumor patients.

18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(9): 1497-1506, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk prediction scores, such as the Khorana Risk Score, perform poorly in NSCLC, possibly because the tumor molecular subtype is omitted. Previous studies suggest a possible increased VTE risk in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, but data are conflicting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with advanced-stage NSCLC diagnosed between 2009 and 2019. Multivariable, time-to-event analyses modeling the risk of first venous or arterial thrombosis in ALK and non-ALK NSCLC groups, controlling for covariates known to impact thrombosis risk (15 in VTE model and 17 in arterial thrombosis model), were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression and competing-risks regression. Multivariable negative binomial regression modeled the total VTE rate. RESULTS: A total of 422 patients with ALK-rearranged and 385 patients with non-ALK-rearranged NSCLC were included. Patients with an ALK rearrangement were younger, had better performance status, and had lower rates of most thrombotic risk factors but had significantly higher rates of initial VTE (42.7% versus 28.6%, p < 0.0001), recurrent VTE (13.5% versus 3.1%, p < 0.0001), and similar rates of arterial thrombosis (5.0% versus 4.4%, p = 0.71) compared with non-ALK NSCLC. VTE risk attributable to ALK was significant (Cox model: hazard ratio 3.70, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51-5.44, p < 0.001], competing risks: subhazard ratio 3.91 [95% CI: 2.55-5.99, p < 0.001]). Negative binomial modeling revealed higher VTE rates in patients with an ALK rearrangement (incidence rate ratio 2.47 [95% CI: 1.72-3.55, p < 0.001]). The OR for recurrent VTE was 4.85 (95% CI: 2.60-9.52, p < 0.001). Arterial thrombosis risk attributable to ALK was significant (Cox model: hazard ratio 3.15 [95% CI: 1.18-8.37, p = 0.021], competing risks: subhazard ratio 2.80 [95% CI: 1.06-7.43, p = 0.038]). CONCLUSIONS: In time-to-event analyses controlling for thrombosis risk factors, the ALK rearrangement conferred a fourfold increase in VTE risk and a threefold increase in arterial thrombosis risk in NSCLC. These patients may benefit from pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis.

20.
Am J Med ; 133 Suppl 1: 1-27, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362349

RESUMO

Hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during and after a hospital stay. Risk factors include physical immobilization and underlying pathophysiologic processes that activate the coagulation pathway and are still present after discharge. Strategies for optimal pharmacologic VTE thromboprophylaxis are evolving, and recommendations for VTE prophylaxis can be further refined to protect high-risk patients after hospital discharge. An early study of extended VTE prophylaxis with a parenteral agent in medically ill patients yielded inconclusive results with regard to efficacy and bleeding. In the Acute Medically Ill VTE Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) trial, extended use of betrixaban halved symptomatic VTE, decreased hospital readmission, and reduced stroke and major adverse cardiovascular events compared with standard enoxaparin prophylaxis. Based on findings from APEX, the Food and Drug Administration approved betrixaban in 2017 for extended VTE prophylaxis in acute medically ill patients. In the Reducing Post-Discharge Venous Thrombo-Embolism Risk (MARINER) study, extended use of rivaroxaban halved symptomatic VTE in high-risk medical patients compared with placebo. In 2019, rivaroxaban was approved for extended thromboprophylaxis in high-risk medical patients, thus making available a new strategy for in-hospital and post-discharge VTE prevention. To address the critical unmet need for VTE prophylaxis in medically ill patients at the time of hospital discharge, the North American Thrombosis Forum (NATF) is launching the Anticoagulation Action Initiative, a comprehensive consensus document that provides practical guidance and straightforward, patient-centered recommendations for VTE prevention during hospitalization and after discharge.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
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